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Full text of "Toronto, old and new : a memorial volume, historical, descriptive and pictorial, designed to mark the hundredth anniversary of the passing of the Constitutional act of 1791"

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- WITH AN - 


Toronto : 


THE MAIL lirn.i 

Entered according to tlie Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eiKht hundred and ninety-one, by THE MAIL Printing Company 

(Limited), in the office of the Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

OK THF. M.ut. JOB PKINTIM- i o. |I.i<l.i 


HE RECENT phenomenal growth and the marvellous development of the trade and industry of 
Toronto, together with the increasing attractions of the city both as a place of residence and as the 
metropolis of the Province, have led the Proprietors of THE MAIL to prepare a work of a somewhat 
ambitious character which shall deal with the chief features of its local history and civic life. The 
work which now appears, it is hoped, will prove in some measure worthy of the occasion which it is 
designed to commemorate, namely, the completion of the first century in the synchronous annals of 
the Province and its Capital. 

Though the scope of the volume, as its title indicates, is limited to Toronto, Old and New, the work 
properly lays claim to more than local support. It does so for two valid reasons: First, because the annals 
of the city, as we all know, begin, run parallel with, and, to a large extent, are really those of Ontario : and, 
secondly, because Toronto, from its metropolitan character, has now become the focus of the Province, and 
our people in all parts of it take a live interest in its affairs, look to it in the main for their intellectual 
sustenance, and feel a just pride in the status to which it has attained and the promise of greatness which 
lies still before it. How large a space Toronto fills in the records of our young Commonwealth, few even of 
its citizens stop to think. Take its history out of the chronicle of the national life of British Canada and 
much of political, industrial, and social interest would be gone. What is true of the national is true also of the civic annals 
of the Provincial Capital. Let any old resident recall the successive aspect of things in the local environment of his life, and 
how much will he have to tell in the city s praise. But Toronto is not only endeared to us by the history of the past, and by 
the associations which cluster round its social and civic life. It has a real and practical present-day interest, which grows with 
every year of its corporate growth as well as with every stride in its industrial and commercial development. Nor is the story, 
important as it is in its material aspects, without its human interest ; for behind the money are the toilers who have made it, and 
within the institutions, factories, and warehouses are the forces of brain and muscle that make for its activities. Nor have 
these forces alone found development in the fields of industry and trade. Other and higher fields have enlisted their service, 
and to their beneficent operation the city owes much of its intellectual and moral advancement. 

Of these various matters, Toronto, Old and New, endeavours succinctly but graphically to treat. Aiming at being a 
thoroughly representative volume, it deals with most of the various forces and activities that have made Toronto a vast com 
mercial emporium, a great railway centre, the literary "hub" of the Dominion, the Mecca of tourists, an Episcopal and Archie- 
piscopal See, and the ecclesiastical headquarters of many denominations, the seat of the law courts, the Provincial Legislature, 
the universities, colleges, and great schools of learning. While it has given prominence to trade and commerce, and dealt 
with the banks and other monetary institutions, the loan and insurance companies, and the manufactories and larger importing 
and trading houses, it has devoted no little of its space to the various professions, setting forth their rise and growth in the 
community and given some account of the men who have risen to eminence in them. Interest in this, as in the other 
biographical departments of the work, it is hoped, has been enhanced by the gallery of portraits; while the historical and 
descriptive sections have, it is believed, been enriched by the many views of the streets, churches, villas, residences and public 
buildings which the volume contains. 

The design has been to make the book an important and pleasing exposition of the principal phases of Toronto s com 
mercial and industrial as well as social and intellectual life, and, if possible, a worthy tribute to the genius and nation-building 
qualities of her toiling sons. In carrying out this purpose the present writer gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to the 
Proprietors of THE MAIL, to whose enterprise and public spirit any success the volume may meet with will be entirely due. To 
the Rev. Henry Scadding, D.U., the venerable chronicler of Early Toronto, he is particularly beholden for the introduction, 
which, coming from so interesting a source, will doubtless be specially valued by the reader. 

TORONTO, Dec. 9, 1890. 













A. 2 









" XIX. ART AND Music 







INDEX <>i Sri;ji.< T> AND 

,- - ---- ;- - 

- . .. fir-Ai-- .*, * 





THE VOLUME here presented supplies the reader with a lively picture of the development of a city from its first germ 
to full efflorescence, a consummation reached in the comparatively brief space of less than ten decades, destined it 
is hoped to be maintained perennially by the continued "Industry, Intelligence and Integrity" of its inhabitants in all 
time to come. There is not a city, town or village of the Province of Ontario which might not, had the proper 
precautions been taken years ago, have a like record of itself. 

The fault has been the non-establishment at an early period, of a pioneer and historical society for every county of 
the Province, associations of intelligent persons taking a real interest in the first foundations of settlements, zealous to collect 
and put on record minute particulars relative thereto. In the absence of such societies important documents, plans and diagrams 
of much local interest are continually lost, and characteristic narratives and anecdotes of enterprising men pass wholly into 
oblivion. Something has been done in the direction of forming such societies in the Counties of York, Peel, Wentworth, 
Welland, and Lincoln, but it is important that the practice should become genera! throughout the Province. Every city, town, 
and village would then have it in its power, from time to time, to report progress in regard to itself in as pleasing and satisfactory 
a manner as the Capital of the Province is enabled to do in the present volume. It is singular to observe in the works which 
some years ago were much in vogue, descriptive of ideal commonwealths and cities, that amidst all their arrangements, a 
provision for the maintenance of a standing record of the kind suggested is lacking. In a land like this, where in the future 
new communities are likely continually to be coming into existence, on more or less ideal principles, care should be taken to 
supply the omission. 

The New World has been a field for making many experiments, having in view the material and moral advancement of 
mankind, from the days of the Jesuits in Paraguay down to those of Joseph Smith, at Xauvoo, and Brigham Young, at Salt 
Lake City. Unfortunately, extravagances characterize many of these efforts : fanaticism, superstition and a subtle though 
unconscious selfishness have led to failures which it might be supposed every reasonable man would have foreseen. On the 
other hand, where the more moderate principles that usually guide ordinary mortals have been followed, as amongst ourselves 
and other off-shoots of the British stock on this continent, many examples of a very fair degree of success are to be met with. 
In this category, Toronto may be classed. 


Philadelphia Wnshinton and other places in the United States have been laid out from the beginning in accordance 
mtb idealistic schemes. For systematic regularity these would meet with the approval of even 1 ,ord Bacon or Sir Thomas 
More From a utilitarian point of view, the results have been sufficiently satisfactory. Boston, and some of the other older 
towns of the Union, came into being casually, as it were, and spread in a cramped, circumscribed sort of a way. somewhat after 


the manner of the old walled towns across the Atlantic, and their later inhabitants have been put to much trouble and expense 
in overcoming consequent inconveniences, from some of which they are not entirely freed to this day. In Canada, there have 
been experiences of a similar character. Through the circumstances of their original development, Quebec, Montreal and even 
Kingston are all more or less affected in the direction and dimensions of their streets, and assessments for the needful straight 
ening* and enlargements have been heavy. Our modern Winnipegs, Brandons, Reginas, and other burghs that are to be 
hereafter in our great North-West, will doubtless profit by their acquaintance with the past of their elder civic sisters, and be 

saved from several public inconveniences in the future. 
Happily for Toronto, the town was from the 
first laid out, like Philadelphia and Washington, in 
accordance with the theories of the idealists, and it 
has had scarcely anything to correct in its general 
ground-plan, which was simply that of a parallelo 
gram divided into parts by straight streets, generally 
sixty-six feet in width, running east and west, traversed 
by straight streets of about the same width, running 
north and south. Its site a widely-extended, gently 
sloping plain admitted of this, and from the time of 
its first projection, in 1793, on a very modest scale 
hard by the outlet of the River Don, to the present, 
when, through a populous suburb and a park, the 
munificent gift of the late Mr. Howard, its borders all 
but touch the Humber, some six miles westward of 
the starting-point, the germ-idea of the place has not 
been materially departed from. One thoroughfare 
north and south was staked out on the Toronto plain, 
some fifty years ago, of the exceptional width of one 
hundred and thirty-two feet, but grave persons of the 
1 HOLLOW. ST.. RESIDENCE 01 Hon. J. is. ROBINSON. period shook their heads and pronounced the notion 


extravagant and even visionary. It has come to pass, nevertheless, that this thoroughfare is a reality, and its width is not con 
sidered now as being anything especially out-of-the-way for a street which seems likely to be in the future the axis of Toronto, its 
dividing line into east and west. Unfavourable to the picturesque as is the parallelogram arrangement of streets in theory, in 
practice a good deal of impressiveness often 
results therefrom, and even beauty, so long 
as the roadways are wide and the building- 
lots continue to be spacious. Fine vistas 
are secured, and in certain localities the array 
of comfortable residences coming in quick 
succession on both sides is a sight quite 
pleasant to see. The free currents of pure 
air, too, w-hich this arrangement permits, and 
the facilities which it affords for a good sys 
tem of sewers, are points in its favour. 
Their city planned from the beginning on 
ideal lines, the inhabitants as their riches 
have increased have shown themselves well 
inclined to give some play to the ideal in 
several respects. Their churches, for 
example, have become very numerous, and 
quite sumptuous. From several points of OSGOODR HALL, THE SEAT OF THE LAW COUOTS. 

view, the skv-line is agreeably varied by the spires, towers, gables, turrets and pinnacles appertaining to these, while, below, the 
buildings themselves are most of them good specimens of style and substantial masonry, with extensive grounds surrounding 
them in several instances, tastefully planted and carefully kept ; the church itself consisting not merely of a solitary temple, as 
formerly, but of a cluster of apartments or halls, all of them rendered necessary by the exigencies of the church life revived 
everywhere in these days schools, lecture-rooms, class-rooms and libraries, to say nothing of appliances in some of them for 
the more convenient furnishing forth of acceptable mundane refreshments to large social gatherings on festive occasions. 

Again, from the extraordinary multiplication of very beautiful residences on every side, round and in the town, it is evident 
that a high ideal of a refined domestic life is present to the minds of a great number of the inhabitants. Rut a tendency to the 
ideal in another direction has of late years particularly asserted itself, in the deliberate pulling down of barriers and throwing 
open to the public view the groves and other ornamental surroundings of private residences. A laudable desire is thus shown to 
come near to the condition of a perfect community, wherein moral defences suffice for the protection of property, and implicit 
confidence is put in the civility and good-will of neighbours and the public at large. To plan houses and lay out grounds from 
the very first so as to conform to the new practice is now, as a matter of fact, quite common. All this is cheering as evidence of 
social progress. It likewise contributes to the general good appearance of the town. Already a certain noble air of spaciousness 

has been given to several thoroughfares and 
to the grounds bordering on them, an effect 
promoted also by the modern fashion of 
boulevarding. Then again, stroll round and 
inspect the educational institutions of the 
place, from the Universities and Departmen 
tal Establishment downward, and see how 
many things there are in their internal and 
external arrangements and their respective 
environments, which more than come up to 
the imaginings and hopes of the old specula 
tive writers on such subjects. Or let the 
benevolent institutions be visited, the hospi 
tals, asylums, refuges, homes for the young 
and old, and let the general roominess and 
TORONTO UMYEKMTY, AS >KKN FROM THE VOLUXTEF.R* MOM-MEM. pleasantness of each be noted, or go to the 


fields set apart for athletic sports and games, to the parks, the grounds allotted to the Industrial Exhibition purposes, or for the 
encouragement of horticulture ; or drop in on a sunny day and there are a great many such in this region all the year round - 
at the hanks, at the places of business of the wholesale merchants, at the offices of the large law firms, at the chambers of the 
judges at ( tegoode Hall, or at the great printing-houses. Is there not a bright, airy, ideal aspect about them all, as seen at the 
present hour in their comparative newness? Are there many places where the multiform affairs of men are carried on under 
conditions more favourable, on the whole, to happiness, health, and length of days? The exceptions to the rule which will 
ir are temporary, and they are engaging the attention of the proper persons. Three court houses on different sites have 
been seen in Toronto during its brief history, two of them abandoned and the third about to be abandoned, not on account of 
decay, but from having become ill-adapted to the wants of a rapidly growing community. A fourth, of dimensions and capacity 
suited to the city and county, is at present under construction. In like manner, at least three sets of parliamentary buildings 
have been seen here, also on different sites. A fourth will, ere long, be ready for occupation. 

An idea of the beauty and dignity of these edifices may be gathered from engravings to be seen elsewhere in the pages 
of this volume. This succession in buildings for public purposes is an outward and visible sign of the rapid progress of the 
country. As to the tenants who from time to time have peopled the buildings that have passed or are about to pass away, and 
filled their chambers great and small with a busy life, the judges, sheriffs, magistrates, pleaders, jurors, attorneys of the one, the 
legislators, executive councillors, lieutenant-governors, statesmen, financiers, orators, and various official functionaries of the 

ot | ier of these we have no room here to speak. They come within the purview rather of some local association established for 

the purpose of such matters. Let then these remarks be closed with a reiteration of the doctrine they started with, that there 
ought to be in every county of the Province, a Pioneer and Historical Society formed for the purpose of collecting and 
preserving characteristic sayings, doings, dress and demeanour of the first founders of settlements and communities amongst us. 
Such societies will occasionally be found convenient supplements to the ordinary registry office. While the latter preserves its 
minute record of the division and sub-division of the soil, and of the transfer of portions of its surface from hand to hand, the 
former will often preserve the memory of men who, by the sweat of their brow, earned the first implement of market value for 
that soil, who sometimes at an early period became ornaments of the acres which they tilled, gracing their respective neighbour 
hoods with characters of high moral excellence and great usefulness, and augmenting the fair fame of the country at large. 

TORONTO, IN 1834. 





HEN civilization first seriously invaded the sanctuaries of Nature in the region of what is 
now the fair City of Toronto, the startled onlookers were a flock of wild fowl and a 
couple of families of the Children of the Wood. At the time we speak of, in the 
beautiful basin of Toronto Harbour, if we except the noiseless movements during the 
hours of day of one or two Mississaga Indians, solitude reigned supreme. When the 
sun went down even Nature became still. As night fell upon the scene, the pines 
ceased their moaning, and nought was heard save the occasional splash of beaver or 
musquash in the waters of the forest-screened harbour, or the cry of the wood-duck as it 
took flight for its evening haunt in the recesses of the woods. But the year 1793, 
which we are accustomed to speak of as that of the founding of the capital of Ontario, 
was what may be called the mediaeval era in Toronto s annals, for the place had an 
earlier history. This history is spread over the fateful period of the dominion of France 
in Canada, in connection with her commerce with the Indians and with the thrilling 
story of the Jesuit Missions. 

7*U.v4 |;.5^^^^5 



The early years of the seventeenth century were big with enterprise and fruitful of results for the American Continent. 
Maritime adventure then sought on the Atlantic the field which had hitherto been monopolized by the Mediterranean : the 
New Uorld for the first time saw a fringe of colonies fasten upon its coasts. In 1607, Virginia was colonized by Sir 
Walter Raleigh: in 1608, Champlain founded Quebec, and in the following year Xew Vork was settled by the Dutch. To 
these settlements, in 1620, was added that 
of -Massachusetts, after the historic landing 
of the Pilgrim Fathers. From the French 
colony at Quebec came the first attempt to $; . 
penetrate the Continent, though the Dutch 
soon made their way up the Hudson, and 
established a trading-post at Orange (Albanv). 
New York State at this period was the lair 
of the Iroquois, while Canada, in the main. 
was the hunting-ground of the Algonquins 
and Hurons. The Algonquins were scat 
tered along the banks of the St. Lawrence 
and the Ottawa, while the home of the 
Hurons or Wyandots was the country lying 
immediately to the north of Toronto and 
skirting the waters of the lake that bears 
their name. Between the Hurons and their 
deadly enemy, the Iroquois, lay the Neutrals. 
a nation that with the Huron tribe the con 
federacy of the Iroquois was ere long to wipe 
out of existence. In 1615, Champlain, with 
his Jesuit following, made his eventful voyage HORTICI-I TI~K\I G VRDENS 



up the Ottawa, <r<>ssed Lake Nipissing and paddled down the French River to that inland sea of the \Vyandots, which he- 
called ].,i Mcr Doncf. Descending the Georgian Bay he came upon the country of the Hurons, among whom for a time 
he tarried. 

Here, in what is now known as the Matehedash Peninsula, the Black Robes, who had accompanied and preceded 
Champlain. began their evangeli/.ing work, and set up the altar of the Church in the wilderness. This intrusion of the "pale 
faces " into the territory of the Wyandots was regarded first with curiosity, but subsequently welcomed, in the hope that their 
new-found friends would become their allies in the Huron raids upon the Iroquois. In a weak hour to this Champlain 
consented, and for nearly a hundred and fifty years the colony of New France was to pay the bitter penalty. From carrying 
the Cross into the wilderness Champlain and his followers undertook to carry the arquebuse and the torch into the heart of the 
Iroquois confederacy ; and joining his Huron friends he speedily appears among the appalled tribes of the " Five Nations " in 
glittering armour. This heedless foray cost him and his nation dear ; and to the Huron tribe it brought ruin and desolation. 
What retribution fell upon the Hurons no pen can in its full horrors portray: and there is scarcely a chapter in history that 
oilers to it an adecjuate parallel. For the space of a generation there arose an internecine strife so cruel that one s blood curdles 
to read the record. Alas it was a conflict not confined to savages ; its bloodiest work was wreaked upon the French. The 
poor Jesuit missioner was made the sport of fiends, for no death seemed too terrible to glut Iroquois lust of blood. On the 
errands of hell, season after season, came bands of the Five Nation Indians, and in their path through the forest marked the 
pass by Toronto" with the scorchings of Iroquois hate. 


It seems but a baleful dream to stand to-day by the mouth of the I lumber, now almost a suburb of the great city, and 
reflect that by so placid a waterway the Spirit of Evil then sent its emissaries to work such havoc. It is nearly two hundred and 
fifty years since these tragic days in the history of Canada, but how few are there of Toronto s holiday crowds on the Humber 
who think to what scenes the present safe and pleasant waters, which connect Lake Ontario with Lakes Simcoe and Huron, 
then led. It was a time of fearful trial to the poor French missioner, a time of unredeemed barbarism and savagery. Vain 
and fruitless were the efforts he and his order put forth to convert and civilize the aborigines. The missions the Jesuit had 
come to plant among the Hurons were consecrated with tears and watered with his life-blood. Through years of unparalleled 
toil, and with great agony of soul, the hopes of the fathers were alternately raised and crushed. Despite their amazing fortitude 
and unquenchable zeal, the hopes of the mission were doomed to destruction, and the heart of Faith was humbled in the dust. 
In a time of such peril to both priest and convert there was sore need of a Comforter. The Comforter came, but in the form 


of the grim Iroquois exterminator, with his native tomahawk and the match-lock of the Dutch. In 1648 the merciful end 
drew near, and to the rigours of the following winter were added those of the stake and the torch. It is computed that within 
the space of thirty years the whole Huron nation, numbering about thirty thousand souls, save a small contingent that escaped 
for succour to Quebec, was ruthlessly exterminated. 

A full score of years passed by, from the period of this New World " harrying of the North," till we again hear of 
French adventure within proximate range of Toronto. With what devastation the regions north and west of the Humber hat! 
been swept by the Iroquois, the narratives of French exploration abundantly bear witness. On the maps of the period the 
ominous words, nation detruite" tribes exterminated "repeatedly occur, and tell their sad tale of woe and desolation. But 
French enterprise was now taken up, not with carrying into the wilderness the standard of the Cross, but with bearing aloft the 
fleur-de-lis of the Crown. The annexation of territory and the extension of trade were now the aim of French chivalry, and in 
pursuit of its object it met the jarring hostility and ceaseless rivalry of Britain. Keen and prolonged was the contest for 
supremacy on the continent of the New World, and we know how it ended. The story forms the most brilliant episode in 
Canadian history, and decks the nation s Walhalla with an aureola of fame. 


But, besides "the pass by Toronto," and that by the waters of the Ottawa and Lake Nipissing, there were other avenues 
to the north and west which French exploration and the pursuit of the fur trade soon opened up. fust beyond Fort Frontenac 
(now Kingston), at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, the Bay of Quinte gives access to the Trent River and the line of water 
and portage communication which connects Lake Ontario with Lake Simcoe and the Georgian Bay. By this route Champlain 
and his Huron raiders made their hapless descent upon the Iroquois, and by the same route, the great Frenchman, wounded 
and dispirited, was fain to return for sympathy and succour to the missions of the Huron Peninsula. By this waterway also, 
or by the highway of the Ottawa, the French trapper or missionary would find his toilsome way to the Upper Lakes, and the 
rich mines of Lake Superior ; for already the mineral wealth of the region divided with the mission at Sault Ste. Marie the 
hopes and aims of French evangeli/ation. 

As yet, little of the vast peninsula of Ontario was known to the French : many years were still to pass ere it began to 

e reclaimed from nature and the savage. In 1626 Daillon, a Recollet friar, ventured from the mission forts of the Huron 

district as far inland as the beaver meadows of the Grand River and the Thames. Fourteen years afterwards came Chaumonot 

from the same mission on an errand of love to the tribe of the Neutrals, and with him was Breboeuf, " the Ajax of the Huron 



Missions," who a few years later was to thrill the world with 
the heroism of his martyr death. But a new name was now 
to be emblazoned on the scroll of French exploration ; for in 
the year 1669, the eager-eyed La Salle was to descry for the 
first time Nature s lovely solitudes at the fond du lac, as the 
western end of 1 ,ake Frontenac (Ontario) was termed by the 
French. Ten years later, the adventurous young Norman 
found his way to the mouth of the .Mississippi, and rolled up 
the curtain of French domination over the south and west. 
With La Salle on his earlier expedition was the Sulpician mis 
sionary, Galinee, whose map, published in France in 1670, is 
the earliest chart we possess of the configuration of the Ontario 
peninsula. Galinee, who seems to have been an enthusiastic 
sportsman and fond of good cheer, speaks of the interior of 
the peninsula as a famous stalking-ground for deer and, he 
grimly adds, " a bear-garden of the Iroquois." 

Full of disaster as was the rule of the French colony at 
Quebec, there was a time when hope beamed on the fruits of 
French exploration and settlement in the West. The daring 
and ambition of the young French noblesse nothing could 
daunt ; and their enterprise laid the foundations of that trade 
which led to the partial opening up of the later province of 
Upper Canada, though it was ever and anon retarded by the 
rivalry of the English of the seaboard. In pursuit of the fur trade, that great source of wealth to the people of both 
nations, these trails to the West became avenues of commerce which it was important for the French to hold and for the 
English to obstruct or strive to obtain. To conserve the trade for the French crown, a number of forts were early established 
in the West, which had Frontenac (Kingston) as their base of supply. As trade expanded and rivalry grew keener, Fort Rouille 
(Toronto) was erected in 1749 to guard the passage by the River Humber. This stockade received its name from the French 
Colonial Minister of the period, Antoine Louis Rouille , Count de Jouy. It stood on the lake shore, about midway between 
the Garrison Creek, at the western entrance of the harbour, and the Humber, and may practically be spoken of as the first 
germ of the City of Toronto. Through the instrumentality of the Rev. Dr. Scadding, the venerable historiographer of the 
city, a memorial column has been erected to mark the original site of the Fort. It stands at the south-west angle of the 
Exhibition Grounds, near the 
exit to the wharf. 

On the south side of 
Lake Ontario the French had 
already a fort at Niagara, while 
the English had established a 
rival post at Chouegucn, now 
Osuego. The Hudson and 
the St. Lawrence were then, 
as now, in direct antagonism 
in the matter of trade. Com 
merce sought the most advan 
tageous market, and the re 
strictive imposts of the French 
at Quebec, and the high prices 
there of commodities offered 
in exchange for the products 
of the chase, threw much of 
the traffic of the Indians by 
the valley of the Mohawk, 
into the hands of the English. 
This naturally embittered the 
feelings of the French for their 
hereditary enemies of the sea 
board, and gave local zest to 
the contest which was long 




waged between England and France. But the end of the strife between the two nations was at hand, and though the rival 
routes of trade were still to be fought over. French dominion in the New World was to pass into the hands of the English, 
and the lilies of France were to give way to the Cross of St. George. But just before this happened, calamity overtook the 
four trading-posts on Lake Ontario. 

In 1756, Choueguen fell before the daring of Montcalm, and three years afterwards Colonel Bradstreet levelled Fort 
Frontenac with the dust. In the same year, after a short siege, Fort Niagara surrendered ; while the French stockade at 
Toronto, to prevent its falling into the hands of the victorious English, was destroyed by order of M. de Yaudrcuil. the 

Of the importance of the trading-post which guarded " the pass by Toronto," and which now historically disappears, 
there is on record the statement of Sir William Johnston, embodied in a despatch on Indian affairs to the Earl of Shelburne, 
that for the monoply of a season s trade with the Indians at Fort Rouille, could the post be restored, traders would be willing 
to give as much as a thousand pounds : 

Such was the value attached in 1767 to the trade of "the pass by Toronto," a value which its location and other 
advantages were increasingly to heighten, and a quarter of a century afterwards was to be turned to fresh account. 




VENTS were now about to bring into greater prominence, not only the historic "pass by 
Toronto," but the region through which the Indian trail led northwards to the waters of Lake 
Huron, the virgin site of Toronto itself, and the beautiful harbour that lay near to the 
southern outlet of "the Pass/ the reed-covered delta of the Humber. From the Fall of 
Quebec and the period of the dismantling of Fort Rouille, a generation in the haunts of men 
was to pass away ere we again hear of Toronto, or see sign of renewed life and activity in 
its neighbourhood. Nature was last resuming its sway over the place, and the little clearing 
round the trading-post was again being given up to solitude. Meanwhile, the drama of life 
was proceeding elsewhere, and through the scattered colonies of the continent there ran the 
pulsations of a quickened existence. The previous chapter ended with the close of French 
rule in Canada ; this opens with a new era of colonial history in America. European 
settlements in the New World had hitherto 
mainly been for trade ; now they partook 
of the character of, and felt the desire to be, 
a nation. The days of great privileged com 
panies, with their huge land grants and re 
strictive monopolies, had passed, and the 
ties, commercial and political, between the 
Mother Country and the colonies were al 
ready being sundered. Britain s dream of emprise over the New World had 

been fully realixed, and the trading-classes of the "tight little sea-girt isle" 

threw up their caps when she became mistress of the Western Continent. 

But while she had bravely conquered, she could not wisely hold. Her wars 

in the Old World had financially crippled her, and she looked to the New to 

have her coffers refilled. Nor was the desire altogether unnatural. The 

public debt of England had been piled up largely on account of her colonies. 

and it seemed reasonable that with their growth and prosperity return should 

in some measure be made to the Mother Country for what they had cost her. 

But how and in what shape was this to be returned to her? To lay heavier 

duties on her own imports would be to tax herself, not the colonies. To 

lay them on the colonies, English statesmen never dreamed would lead to 

revolt. To tax the carrying trade was first attempted, and when this was 




kicked at, what was carried was then 
taxed. I ut as little was this relished 
as was the proposed but cancelled 
Stamp Act. What took place at the 
Port of Boston anil what came of it, 
are too well known now to take up 
space to inquire into. With their 
birthright ISritish colonists had in 
herited British liberties, and ISritish 
liberties took ill with taxed teas. 

Hut before we turn this picture 
to the wall, let us look a little closer at 
the collapse of the colonial system in 
America, and see what its effects were 
upon Canada and how Toronto came 
thereby to be the gainer. A month 
after the capitulation of Montreal, 
Cieorge the Second was gathered to his 
fathers, as the historians minutely 
chronicle, in the seventy-seventh year 
of his life and the thirty-fourth of his 
reign. His page went one morning, as 
Thackeray tells us. to take him his royal 


Chocolate, and, behold : the most religious and gracious sovereign lay dead on the floor. The intractable monarch who succeeded 

him took the administration of affairs into his own hands, and though he made a mess of things on this continent he was not lacking 

when his mind was clear, would brook little interference from his counsellors. But George III. was unskilled 

in diplomacy, and having his own headstrong way, he brought humiliation on Britain ; and after the lapse of some years a 

tiful malady fell upon himself. The period of what is known as the " King s Ministry," extending from 1768 to 1782, covers 

the eventful era of the War of Independence, in which the colonists of the New World, resenting interference in matters of 

trade from administrations in London, and feeling that liberty was imperilled by the aggressions of the Crown, threw off 

allegiance to Britain and founded the government of the United States. 

Burke s magnificent plea for conciliation bore no fruit, and the eloquent warnings of Fox and Chatham were wasted on 

the insolent Lord North. For a time British arms met with their wonted successes, and the hopes of the young nation were 

Montgomery had fallen at Quebec, and Burgoyne had penetrated from the St. Lawrence to the Hudson 

capturing the stronghold of Ticonderoga by the way. Brant and his Indians were carrying terror through the Valley of the 
while New York and the lower Hudson were invested by the fleet of Lord Howe. Hut while the weary years of the 
iflict passed, fickle Fortune began to change, and the Fates to smile on the arms of the Young Republic The 
ith reverse after reverse, until the end came with the surrender at Saratoga of General Burgoyne, and at 
,.,-. ... , Vorktown of Lord Cornwallis, Victory finally 

* J 

resting upon the Continental arms, America 
achieved her independence and was formally 
admitted into the category of nations. In this 
she was no little assisted by Britain s heredi 
tary enemy. France, which nation on the 
surrender of Burgoyne. not only hastened to 
acknowledge the revolted colonies, but sent 
an army to aid them in their struggle with 
the common foe. But the capitulation of the 
British generals was not mere)} (lie capitula 
tion of an army, it was the surrender of half 
of Britain s hold upon the \ew \Vorld and 
withdrawal from the best part of a continent. 
To the loyalist "the lost cause" was freighted 
with evil, for to him and his it brought woe 
and desolation. With the success of the col 
onies came persecution and the loss of property. 
Then was accepted voluntary expatriation with 
its trials and privations, and the sad experiences 




of exile in the wildernesses of Canada. We need hardly point out that this expatriation had its happy, though as yet distant, 
sequel in the " making of Toronto." 

Much has been written about the United Empire Loyalists, on the one hand in disparagement of their hostile attitude 
towards the new-born Republic, and on the other, in well-deserved praise of their loyalty to the British Crown. Our own view 
is. that they made great and undoubted sacrifices in abandoning their homes and possessions for a domicile under the Old Flag. 
Some of their detractors have gone 
the length of saying that their devo 
tion to the House of Brunswick had 
not the merit of being even a senti 
mental one -that they were actuated 
by mercenary motives; by party al 
liance with the administration that 
had provoked the war ; and by a 
spirit of Tory hostility to the Whigs, 
who were opposed to coercive mea 
sures towards the colonies. But this 
is surely an extreme and an unfair 
view of the matter, and a libel on 
the memory of these patriots. Party 
feeling then, as now, no doubt ran 
high, and faction was almost certain 
in a great issue then pending to have 
its followers. But rebellion was a 



serious alternative ; and with men who loved the Old Land and reverenced the Flag, to renounce the one and be untrue to the 
other was a step they might well be excused from taking, however impolitic may have been the course of British administration, 
and unjust the measures forced upon the colony. 


On the other hand, it may he asked, were there not excesses indulged in by the partisans of the Republic; covetous 
eyes laid on the possessions of true men and loyal citi/ens, and taunts and jibes thrown at those who were known to look coldly 
upon the successes of the colonists in revolt, and who loved the land of their birth and honoured the home of their kindred ? 
It would not be difficult to prove that this was but too cruelly the case. Haliburton, in his " Rule and Misrule of the English 
in America." affirms that "tarring and feathering, and other acts of personal outrage, became so common in Massachusetts, that 
all suspected partisans of the Mother Country were obliged to seek refuge with the troops." Another authority says : " I could 

adduce instances of conduct in Loyalists that would do honour to 
human nature ; but there is one which I cannot pass over, because 
it shows with what firmness men will act when they are conscious 
that they have taken the right side of a question. A fort was reduced 
by the Americans on the River Savannah, and such of the loyal 
militia as were in garrison there had the alternative offered them of 
enlisting with the Americans, or being put to death. Among the 
Loyalists was a young man who desired a few minutes to consider 
the proposal, and after a short pause he resolutely answered that he 
preferred death to disgrace, on which account he was immediately 
cut down." 

But, whatever the actual facts and however varied the motives 
that kept the Loyalists from yielding up their fidelity to their king, 


there can be little question as to the hardships they 
endured in abandoning their estates in what was com 
parative civilization for a home in the inhospitable wilds 
of the trackless forest. Few of their number, it may 
be, who, for the sake of a principle, had the courage to 
prefer instant death rather than be untrue to their con 
victions : though many are known to have taken their 
chances of life or death with the British troops in the 
varying fortunes of the war. How many after the close 
of the conflict preferred expatriation to living in a 
country that had won independence through rebellion, 
history is here to attest ; and these were the men who 
were to form the brawn and muscle, the mind and heart 
of the new settlements of Acadia and Canada. True, 
the Loyalists received large gifts of the soil in the new 
land to which they had come, as some compensation for 
their losses : but these grants were such as any class of 

settlers would be likely to receive under anv politic m.w^ 01 i^r.r, i umii.Ti ^m_ ( i\^n. 

system of immigration. And as to the money appropriation by the Crown on their behalf, in view of what work lay before 
them as pioneers of a new and unopened country, and deprived as they were of almost everything their previous toil had 

ii them, no generous mind will cavil at, or say that, considering their need, it was not richly their due. 

1th the peace of 1783, which the Treaty of Versailles secured, bands of Loyalists entered Canada from various points, 
and settled in the neighbourhood of Niagara, round the shores of Lake Ontario, up the Bay of Quinte, down the St. Lawrence, 




and by way of Detroit, along the banks of the St. Clair and the Thames. In the East there was also considerable settlement 
in desirable locations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Of those that entered Canada by the Niagara River, not a few were 
to find their way round the head of Lake Ontario to Toronto, accompanied by contingents of disbanded soldiery from the 
town of Newark, which, on the division of the country into the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, was in 1791 to become 
the temporary capital. This Loyalist immigration was composed for the main part of the middle and upper clashes in the 
communities they had left classes that though well-to-do were accustomed to hard labour, acquainted with bush-life, familiar 
with the work of the farm, and possessed of a courage and endurance which, often put to the test, were to prove the best 
qualities for a pioneering lite and the gifts most needed for subduing the wilderness. As has been said of them, no portion of 
the British possessions ever received so noble an acquisition, for they brought to Canada the materials for a nation ready-made. 



TH the establishment, in 1791, of Upper Canada as a separate Province. Sir Guy Carleton, now 
Lord Dorchester the Governor-General of the colony had Kingston in view as the Provincial 
metropolis. How Toronto, or rather York, as it came for a time to be called, won the honour 
of being the capital, we shall presently see. Meantime let us take a glance at what had been 
transpiring in Canada since the Conquest. With the addition of New France to the Colonial 
Empire of Britain, the Mother Country took over an element of some perplexity, in a people she 
found it difficult to assimilate with her own nationality. France in the New World not only 
spoke another language, but she 
had peculiar laws of her own, and 
a religion which, though it had been 
that of the country from the time 
of Champlain, was not that of her 
new rulers. England s policy, of 
course, was to make it as easy a.s 

possible to incorporate the French-Canadians into the national 
system. For a time it was necessary to resort to military rule, 
but this indeed, if we except that of the Church, was the only 
rule the French Colony had hitherto known. With military rule, 
however, courts of judicature were constituted for the hearing and 
determining of all causes, criminal as well as civil, with liberty 

of appeal, under the usual restrictions, to the Crown. Unfortunately, though the laws were administered in the justest manner, 
and with due regard to the feelings of a people who were unfamiliar with the forms of British justice, the French, under 
the Quebec Act of 1774, had restored to them the "custom of Paris," a code of civil law which existed prior to the Conquest. 
This privilege, with guarantees for the maintenance of their language and their religion, and the system of seignorial tenure on 
which they were permitted to hold their lands, the French-Canadians have continued to enjoy to the present day. To the 
English who had settled in the country the concession gave instant and just offence, as it was a violation of the ordinance 

of 1764, securing the administration of English law, and on the 
faith of which numbers of English-speaking people had taken up 
residence in Canada. In some respects, however, the concession 
was a politic one. as, though it placed the English minority at a 
disadvantage, it strengthened the attachment of French Canada 
to the British Crown, an object at the time of no little moment, 
in view of the disaffection among the English colonies on the 

jjjteVfif ft(iiiM A* t .ini.frfiMfftwSir^T^i seaboard, and their subsequent revolt. In other respects the 

SSe&&n \ measure was good, namely, in its removal of the disabilities from 

Roman Catholics, as, among other benefits conferred, it gave a 
legal sanction to their religion an act of toleration which it took 
England many years to extend to the same communion in the 



mother-land, though it may he said that, from a present-day point of view, it has not contributed to the prosperity, hut rather to 
tlu- disadvantage, of Lower Canada. As we have said, the measure naturally gave great offence to British settlers in the country, 
lint dissatisfaction was especially expressed with it, in consequence of the extensive area throughout which the Act would 
have to he respected, for by its provisions the western boundary of Canada was to include a region so remote as the valley of 
the Ohio. In due time, however, the repeated protests of the Anglo-Canadians against the injustice of the Quebec Act 

induced the English Ministry to make a radi 
cal change in the administrative machinery 
of Canada, so far. at least, as the western 
portion of the country was concerned. The 
incoming of English-speaking settlers from the 
territory of the new-born Republic increased 
the volume of complaint heard at the Colonial 
Office, and no doubt hastened the passing of 
the ameliorating measure. 

By the Constitutional Act of 1791 as 
the Bill was called -the country was divided 
into two parts, designated Upper and Lower 
Canada, the boundary line being the Ottawa 
River. Each Province was to have its own 
Governor, and an Executive Council, ap 
pointed by the Crown, together with a Parlia 
ment, consisting of a Legislative Council and 
a Representative Assembly. The Govern 
ment in both Provinces was unfortunately 
made responsible, not to the Representative 
Assembly, but to 
the Colonial 
Office in England 
-a mistake which, 


Canada particularly,, was in time to bring forth evil fruit. In Upper Canada, English law 
was to be established, and provision made in both Provinces for the support of a Protestant clergy, 
bythe settingapart 
of certain wild 
Reserves, an en 
actment which 
later on was to lead 
to much conten 
tion in the L pper 
Province. Freed 
from the trammels 
of connection with 
Lower! anada.the 
I pper Province 
took a leap on 
ward in that path 
of progress which 
to look back on 
to-day seems as if 
it had come about 
by enchantment, 
si) ::rcat has : 
the transi 
andmarvi IN.isthe 

From 1783, when the Revolutionary War closed, the Province promised to be invaded along the whole of its water-front 

tive to the settler. Up to ,79,, however, with the exception of small communities along the St. 

Quinte the Niagara frontier, and the Detroit River -the bulk of which was of Loyalist settlement-there 

^on in the country, and the whole region was an almost trackless forest. The natural advantages of the 



newly-created Province of Upper Canada were great ; it abounded in timber, it had a good soil, plenty of fish and game, and in 
every direction was well watered by streams, generally navigable for boats and canoes, and possessed of a climate at once 
bracing and healthy. What alone was needed were the surveyor, the axeman and the settler. Record of the appearance of the 
first ,,f these we find trace of in the neighbourhood of Toronto, in the person of Surveyor-General Collins, who, in 1788, in a 
report of the region to Lord Dorchester, speaks of the Harbour of Toronto as "capacious, safe, and well-sheltered." Three 
years later, we find Mr. Augustus Jones. Provincial Land Surveyor, pursuing his vocation in the same land-locked waters, and 
prospecting generally in the neighbourhood. Colonel Bouchette, Surveyor-General of Lower Canada, at the time engaged in 
the naval and hydrographical service of the western lakes, also adds his testimony to the favourable location of Toronto for the 
seat of the Provincial capital. "I still distinctly recollect." he says, "the untamed aspect which the country exhibited when 
first I entered the beautiful basin. Dense 
and trackless forests lined the margin of the 
lake, and reflected their inverted images in 
its glassy surface. The wandering savage 
had constructed his ephemeral habitation 
beneath their luxuriant foliage the group 
then consisted of two families of Mississngas 
and the bay and neighbouring marshes 
were the hitherto uninvaded haunts of im 
mense coveys of wild fowl." 

The beauty and shelter afforded by 
the Bay of Toronto were such as readily to 
commend the site as a desirable one for the 
location of a city. It gave access, as we 
have seen, by the most direct path, to Lake 
la die (Simcoe) and the waters of Huron, 
and lay in close proximity to the Humber 
river, and the " place of meeting " as the 
word "Toronto" denotes of the Indians. 
Moreover, it was within easy hail of Niagara, 
the British fort on the opposite shore of the 
lake, and in the line of communication east 
ward. How these advantages were to tell 
in favour of the selection of Toronto as a 
capital we shall ere long discover. 

With the erection of Upper Canada 
into a distinct Province it secured, as we have 
said, a separate government ; and an admin 
istrator was to be appointed, with the title of 
Lieutenant-Governor. The governorship fell 
into the able hands of Lt.-Col. John Graves 
Simcoe, whose appointment, in 1792. led to 
his crossing the Atlantic and taking up resi 
dence at Newark, the Provincial capital 
With him came a staff of officials to admin 
ister the affairs of the new Province, including 
Mr. Peter Russell, a member of his Executive 
Council, and the officer who. some years 
later, succeeded Simcoe in the Lieutenant- 
Governorship. The Governor and his suite 
left England early in May. 1792, and arrived PARLIAMENT STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 

at Niagara on the 8th of the following July. Here, in the centre of the beau monde of the Province, as an early traveller 
through Canada facetiously remarks. Governor Simcoe. in the month of September, summoned the first Parliament of Upper 
Canada. It consisted of an Upper House of seven members, appointed by the Crown for life, and a Lower House of sixteen 
members, to be elected by the people. The latter were chosen, in the main, from the farming and trading classes, the profes 
sions, as yet. not having had foothold in the Province. The legislation of this primitive Parliament, though unambitious, 
sensibly met the requirements of the country. One of its earliest measures was the introduction of the Civil Law of England 
and trial by jury. Other measures made provi>ion for the erection of court-houses, jails, and such other public buildings as 
were required in the various districts into which the Province was at the time divided. 

These districts, which cancelled the divisions of the Province made some years before by Lord Dorchester, and to which 
he had given ( lerman names in compliment to England s Hanoverian King, were as follows : the Eastern district, covering the 



region lying between the Ottawa river and the Gananoque; the Midland, covering that between the latter and the Trent; the 
Home or Niagara district, extending from the Trent to Long Point on Lake Erie; and the Western or Detroit district, extending 
to the St. Clair. These districts were again subdivided into counties, and each of the latter was to have its jail and court-house. 
Thus were the initial steps taken to open up the Province for settlement, and evolution was to do the rest. 

Niagara at this period, if we except Kingston, was the only place of importance in Upper Canada, and it naturally became 
the cradle of the Western province. It had, therefore, some claim to become the permanent capital. Unfortunately for the 
town, its nearness to United States territory, and the dangerous proximity of Fort Niagara, dashed the hopes in this respect of 
its inhabitants. To Governor Simcoe s surprise, he found that the fort at the mouth of the river was shortly to be garrisoned by 
American soldiery, and that it did not belong to King George. Hut this need not have surprised the Governor had he 
considered for a moment with what ignorance the colonial office had been wont to give effect to treaties disposing of enormous 
areas in the New World, without the slightest knowledge of geography and with sublime indifference to local considerations. 
The tolly of Downing Street in regard to treaty-making was not only manifest in the proceedings which gave effect to the Treaty 
of Paris, confirming the independence of the United States, but was also to be shown, at a later date, in the Treaty of Ghent, 
which terminated the \\"ur of 1812. By the former, England not only lost a large slice of territory, but, in its ignorantly placed 
and impracticable line, Canada has recently had to grope in the dark in fixing the western boundary of Ontario, from the 
notable north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods. By the Treaty of Ghent, it is almost unnecessary to remind the reader, 
Britain lost the whole of the State of Maine, which by right of conquest belonged to Canada, and at the time was ours with the 
" consent and content " of its people. 

Meanwhile, the location of a site for the capital was not long in doubt. From the chronicles of the period we learn that 
Governor Simcoe entered Toronto Bay, with becoming state, in the month of May, 1793, and at once selected the place of 
landing a spot near the mouth of the Don as the scene of his future administrative operations, and made his canvas-tent, 
pitched on the river bank, the germ of what he hastened to call the capital town of York. 







. . , 

istorical retrospect we have, in the previous chapters, placed before the reader, will 
now enable him to enter upon the annals of the yet embryo Toronto with a better idea 
of how the Province, of which it is the capital, was called into existence, and what 
material, in the main, came to the making of the future city. In the vanguard of the 
army of peaceful invaders were, as we have seen, the U. E. Loyalists and the royalist 
soldiery, who had fought and lost in the Revolution. With them had come contingents of 
sturdy yeomanry, who had either entered the Province from the neighbouring Republic, or 
had moved westward from the banks of the St. Lawrence to take advantage of the land 
grants of the newly-formed Upper Canada administration, and hew homes for themselves 
in the wilderness. In the personnel of the administration there was fine material for the 
rearing of a new commonwealth. Colonel Simcoe, the soldier-Governor, was himself a 
man of note. As Commander of the Queen s Rangers, one of the most efficient Provin 
cial corps, part infantry and part horse, that fought on the loyal side in the Revolutionary War, he rendered distinguished 
service through the campaigns of 1777 to 1781. Towards the close of the war he fell into the hands of the enemy, and becom 
ing invalided, was sent home on parole to England. He was subsequently released from his parole, entered Parliament, and as 
a member for a borough in Cornwall, took part in the debates on Pitt s Bill, the Constitutional Act of 1791, by which the 
Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada. On the passing of the Bill in the Imperial Parliament, 
Colonel Simcoe was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Upper Province and, accompanied by his wife, he proceeded at once 
to the scene of his future labours. 

With him . aim . or on his arrival were immediately appointed to office, the following gentlemen, whose names, either in 

who then bore them or in that of their descendants, are familiar to the ears of Toronto citizens. Hon. 

William Osgoode, Chief Justice ; Mr. Robert Gray, Solicitor-General ; Mr. John White, Attorney-General ; 1). W. Smyth, 




Surveyor-General : Hon. Peter Russell, Receiver-General ; Thomas Ridout and William Chewett, Assistant Receivers-General; 

Major Littlehales, Military Secretary ; William larv.s, Civil Secretary ; Knsign (afterwards Colonel) Thomas 1 alhot. Aid 

Camp. Early in July, 1792, Governor Simcoe was sworn in at Kingston, with the five members of His K 

Council. The members of this first Upper Canada Council were Wm. Osgoode, Peter Russell, James P>aby, Alex. Grant and 

Wm. Robertson. Later on Robert Hamilton, 

Richard Cartwright and John Munro were 

nominated Legislative Councillors ; and still 

later fifteen members were returned as repre 
sentatives of the people to the Provincial 

Assembly. Of this first Parliamentary body, 

Mr. John Macdonell was elected Speaker, 

while Mr. John Small was appointed Clerk 

of the Executive Council. 

The first Upper Canada Legislature, 

we have already seen, was called to meet in 

Newark (Niagara) on the lyth of September. 

1792, and its first session lasted till the i5th 

of the following month. But Governor Sim 
coe had other tasks to perform than to open 

and prorogue Parliament. A capital was to 

be found for the newly-constituted State. As 

yet Toronto was a metropolis only on paper. 

In the spring of 1793, just before the second 

session of the Legislature met, Simcoe set 

out with a party in boats for an excursion 

round the head of the lake, resolving to lay 

the foundations of the future capital at 

Toronto. At the end of July, having previously dispatched some companies of the Queen s Rangers to take possession of the 
town, His Excellency, on the 2 9 th inst., left Navy Hall and embarked, as the Gazette tells us, " on board His Majesty s 
schooner Mississaga for York, with the remainder of the Queen s Rangers." The troop established themselves under canvas 
by the Garrison Creek at the mouth of the harbour, and Simcoe and his suite made a home for themselves in a large marquee. 
which once belonged to Captain Cook, the navigator, erected on the shores of the bay, near the mouth of the Don. Here were 

soon to arise the halls of the Upper Canada West 
minster, and near by was the rude cradling-place of 
the future city. The troops were set to work, first to 
connect the site of the garrison with the nucleus site 
of the city, and afterwards to open up lines of com 
munication with the interior of the new Province. 
The forests, as yet, covered the whole country as with 
a garment, so that road-making, while it was a necessary, 
was by no means a light undertaking. Yonge Street 
(named after Sir 1 Vederick Yonge, English Secretary 
of War), an arterial line, connecting the infant capital 
with the Holland River and the waterway to the West, 
was the first great achievement of the troops. Another 
important undertaking was the construction of Dimdas 
Street, a post-road traversing the Province, and giving 
access to the fertile regions of the Western Peninsula. 
The fine geographical position of the site pitched 
upon for the city, with the advantages of a capacious 
and well-sheltered harbour, lent enthusiasm to the 
work, which now went rapidly on, of giving to it form 
and substance. What has since been achieved has 
amply justified Governor Simcoe s location for the 
capital. Whatever counter-attractions other sites pre 
sented, there is little doubt that Simcoe in his heart 
accepted Toronto. We say Toronto, but this, as our readers know, was not the name he chose for the future city. The King s 
army was then in Holland, and his second son, the Duke of York, had command of the continental contingent. He it was that 
our soldier-Governor had it in his mind to honour ; hence York, and not Toronto, came for a time to be the name of the capital. 




A word may be allowed us here on the somewhat vexed signification of the word "Toronto." Some have erroneously 
derived the word from the Mohawk, and speak of it as meaning "Trees out of water " the reference being to the willows and 
other trees on the island as seen at a distance on the lake. This derivation Dr. Scadding than whom there is no better 
authority has told us is a wrong one, and affirms that the true meaning of the word, in the Huron dialect, is " Place of 
Meeting. The term, we learn, was a genera] one, and at an early period was applied to the region around Lake Simcoe, the 
" meeting-place " of French and Indian voyageurs and of ro.nning bands of the native tribes that peopled or frequented the 
district. Alter a lapse of years, however, it was found convenient to limit the area covered by the elastic term, and the name 
Toronto came to be applied exclusively to what its citi/cns now proudly designate " the Queen City of the West." 

Throughout the brief period of Simcoe s governorship, we see traces of the military rather than of the civil administrator. 
It was the civilian and his family he sent into the backwoods, and he gave to the old soldiers grants of land in the front 
townships within easy hail of the capital. The capital itself he seems to have designed for an arsenal. The 
town-plot he locates, with the Court House and Parliament Buildings, at a safe distance from the entrance into the 
harbour, and the latter he protects by block-houses on Gibraltar Point and at the mouth of the Garrison Creek. 
In his communications with the authorities at Quebec, he speaks of sending them " some observations 
on the military strength and naval convenience of Toronto, now York, which I propose immediately 
to occupy." In writing also to the Secretary of War in England, we find him remarking that " York 
is the most important and defensible situation in Upper Canada, or that I have seen in North America. 
All this was doubtless because Fort Niagara was to be given up to the Americans, and, until Toronto 
was fortified, the colony would be at the mercy of his old foe. 

Meanwhile, however, the civic growth of York went on apace. The 
work of laying out the town rapidly advanced. " The town-plot, as defined 
at this time," observes our antiquary, Dr. Scadding,* "was a compact little 
parallelogram, bounded on the west by George Street, on the east by Ontario 
Street, on the north by Duchess Street, and on the south by Palace Street- 
streets that still retain their original names. The loyal monarchical character 
of the Governor appears in nearly every one of 
these street names, as also in the names given to 
other streets, as well as in the name of the town 
itself. The main thoroughfare was King Street ; 
the next street parallel to it on the north was 
Duke Street ; the street north of that Duchess 
Street. The boundary westward was George 
Street ; the next street parallel to that eastward 
was Frederick Street, and the street following 
that was Caroline Street, while the one succeeding 
that was Princes Street. The last street running 
north and south was Ontario Street. George 
Street bore the name of George, Prince of Wales, 
afterwards George IV. Caroline Street com 
memorated his wife, the unfortunate Caroline of 
Mrunswick. Duke Street alluded to the Duke 
of York. Duchess Street to his wife, and Frederick 
Street was distinguished by his Christian name. 
The general name, Princes Street, was a compre 
hensive compliment to the other royal princes, 
without specifying them. Ontario Street indicated 
the track which, doubtless from time immemorial, 
led down to the canoe-landing nearest to the 
carrying-place on the Island, where the small WOMEN S MEDICAL COLLEGE, SUMACH STREET. 

craft pass,,,, up and down the lake and trading at York, were wont to be lifted across the narrow neck of land there. Palace 
so ^ e f because it was expected to be theirxni to the Palace of Government, to speak in French style; 
buiWings for parliamentary and other purposes, to which, in fact, it did lead, down to 1824." It is curious to-day 
imcc s effusive loyalty, as seen in the nomenclature of Toronto s early streets. Within the century we 
have evidently swung to the other extreme of democracy ! 

The first winter was spent by the Governor under canvas, and the roof of the Council Chamber was that of the airy tent 

reared by His Excellency on the heights overlooking the Don, to which he gave the 
Its site was across the ravine, opposite the northern limits of St. James Cemetery. To this 

" Toronto, Past and Present : Historical and Descriptive," page 19. 



summer house of logs, a bridle-path led from the town, and communication with it was also available by the meandering 
stream which bounded the city on the east. As the Parliament lUiildings were not yet erected, the Governor periodically 
returned to Niagara to summon and prorogue the Legislature and direct the affairs of State. He also undertook many 
expeditions through the Province, to make himself acquainted with the appearance of the country and have an eye to the wants 

and well-being of settlers. The routine 
of life was occasionally varied by the 
festivities of a ball at Niagara, and 
by the Ciovernor s lavish hospitalities 
at Navy Hall or under his famous 
tent. These hospitalities would be 
shared at one time by the Indian 
Brant, at another by an Old World 
traveller and diplomat. The subjects 
of conversation would then turn on 
Republicanism and the revolted Col 
onies, against which the newly-formed 
Province was to be a bulwark and 
wall of defence. Unhappily for the 
Province and its capital, it would 
seem these talks of the Governor 
were far from pacific, and lest lie 
might embroil the King s Government 
with his Republican neighbours, the 
sturdy loyalist Governor was trans 
ferred to another post. In Septeml >er, 
1796, Simcoe left Navy Hall for San 
Domingo, and the Province that owed 
TORONTO STREET. him so much saw him no more. 

With what devotion and sturdy fidelity he had served the King in his new Province of Upper Canada, there is hardly need 
here to tell. As we have said of him elsewhere, he gave the Colony his every thought, and worked resolutely to put it on its 
feet. Could he have had his own way, it is not too much to say that it would not long have remained a mere stripling by the side 
of the nation to the south of it. But he was too independent to be an official truckler, and had been brought up in a school 

that knew little of dissimulation. The student 

of history can have nothing but respect for 
the bluff old soldier. 

Before the first decade of the present 
century had passed, the brawn and muscle 
of the inhabitants had done great things for 
the town of York. Even the face of the 
Province had undergone much change since 
the withdrawal of its first administrator. On 
Simcoe s departure the affairs of the country 
had passed temporarily into the charge of 
President Russell, until the Crown, in 1799, 
sent out a new Lieutenant-Governor, in the 
person of General Peter Hunter. Hunter 
retained office until his death in 1805, when 
he was succeeded in the Governorship by Sir 
1 Vancis Gore. Gore, in turn, withdrew to 
England a year before the outbreak of the 
war, and the defence of the Province fell 
into the hands of Sir Isaac Brock, the acting- 
Governor. While these changes in the ad 
ministration were taking place, York had 
grown and spread itself ; churches, houses 
and stores had been built ; streets had been opened out which, though they have long since become unfashionable, were in 
their day the home of wealth and the dress-parade of fashion ; the Parliament Buildings had been completed, and according to 
British use and wont, had witnessed the ceremonial of many openings and closings of the House. Even the recesses of the neigh 
bouring forest had been invaded by courageous settlers, seeking to found a home for themselves and their families in the woods. 




When the century opened, the Provincial capital was still but a little place, though the Governor, in kingly phrase, was 
wont to speak of it, in summoning his faithful ("ominous, as " our royal town of York." Its population, exclusive of about two 
hundred soldiers, did not at the time exceed a score or so of families. When the Legislature was called together, it cost some 
effort to house and feed " the faithful Commons." This we learn from a letter written by the acting-Governor in Niagara, to 
some one in authority in York, on the occasion of the first meeting of Parliament at the capital. "As the Legislature," 
writes President Russell, " is to meet at York on the ist of June [1797], it becomes absolutely necessary that provision shall be 
made without loss of time for its reception. You will therefore be pleased to apprise the inhabitants of the town that twenty- 
five gentlemen will want board and lodgings during the session, which may possibly induce them to fit up their houses and lay 
in provisions to accommodate them." Evidently there were uses in those days for a Lieutenant-Governor ! Nor was the 

market of the town, at that period, given to 
dainties, for the present writer once came 
across a letter written by an officer of the 
guard of honour stationed at the garrison to 
a chum in Newark, begging him " for sweet 
mercy s sake" to send him over a few pounds 
of fresh butter ! Unfortunately, soon there 
was to come a time of real privation, as 
well as of peril, to both military man and 
civilian. Meantime, to the good people of 
York, life was in a real and honest way "worth 
living;" existence might be a trifle humdrum, 
but toil gave zest to enjoyment, and abuses 
in the system of administration had already 
begun to loosen the tongue and sharpen the 
wits. If the infant city just then was not 
quite a political and social paradise, a con 
temporary gazetteer depicts it as a pleasant 
place. Surveyor-General David W. Smyth 
has left on record the following topographical 
description of York in 1797 : 

" York," he says, " is in about 43 
degrees and 35 minutes of north latitude, 
and is the present seat of Government of 
Upper Canada. It is most beautifully situated 
within an excellent harbour of the same name, 
made of a long peninsula, which confines a 
basin of water sufficiently large to contain a 
considerable fleet ; on the extremity of the 
peninsula, which is called Gibraltar Point, are 
commodious stores and block-houses, which 
command the entrance to the harbour. On 
the mainland, opposite to the Point, is the 
Garrison, situated in a fork made by the 
harbour and a small rivulet, which, being 
improved by sluices, affords an easy access 
for boats to go up to the stores ; the barracks, 
being built on a knoll, are well situated for 
health, and command a delightful prospect of 
the lake to the west, and of the harbour to 
the east. The Government House is about 
two miles above the Garrison, near the head of the harbour, and the town is increasing rapidly ; the River Don empties itself 
into the harbour a little above the town, running through a marsh, which when drained will afford most beautiful and fruitful 
meadows. This ha~. already been commenced in a small degree, which will no doubt encourage further attempts. The long 
beach, or peninsula, which affords a most delightful ride, is considered so healthy by the Indians that they resort to it whenever 
indisposed : and so soon as the bridge over the Don i.s finished, it will, of course, be most generally resorted to, not only 
for pleasure, but as the most convenient road to the heights of Scarborough. The ground which has been prepared R>r the 
Government House is situated between the town and the River Don, on a most beautiful spot, the vicinity of which is well 
suited for gardens and a park. The oaks are in general large ; the soil is excellent and well watered with creeks, one of which, 
by means of a short dam, may be thrown into all the streets of the town. Vessels of all sizes may be conveniently built here, 
and a kind of terrace or second bank in front of the town, affords an excellent situation for a rope-walk (!) The remains of 




the old French fort, Toronto, stand a little to the westward of the present garrison, and the River Humber discharges into 
the Lake Ontario about two miles and a half west of that ; on this river and the Don are excellent mills, and all the waters 
abound in fish. In the winter the harbour is fro/en, and affords excellent ice for the amusement of northern countries, driving 
en traineau. The climate of York is temperate and well sheltered from the northerly winds by the high lands in the rear. The 
Yonge Street leads from hence to Lake Simcoe, and the 1 )undas Street crosses the rear of the town." 

Such is the picture preserved to us, by a contemporary hand of the appearance of Toronto at the close of the last century. 
Few, we may be sure, of the rude forefathers of the then hamlet, ever dreamed of the potentialities that lay hid in the 
embryo city. Nor, to look at Captain Gother Mann s paper-plan of Toronto*, ideal as it is, would even the seer of the period 
be likely to predict what the city would become before a hundred years had elapsed. As yet the chroniclings of the Official 
Gazette do not indicate a very fast-growing 
town. The press of the period is chiefly 
burdened with the records of the going and 
coming of the Governor or acting-Governor, 
and the movements of the Government 
schooners on the lake, as they carried to 
and fro, on the business of the Crown, the 
law-officers of the Province, and such naval 
and military magnates as were in this part of 
the world on His Majesty s service. Among 
the latter, in 1803, was the Duke of Kent, 
uncle of Her Present Majesty, who, on paying 
the Province a second visit, was entertained 
at York, we learn, by General the Hon. 
.-Eneas Shaw, one of the Provincial Governor s 
Councillors. A still later arrival was the 
Hon. Francis Gore, who for some years was 
to figure in Provincial history as Lieutenant- 
Governor. During his administration, both 
York and the Province continued to advance 
in settlement. Parliament voted sums for 
the construction of roads and bridges, and 
made considerable effort to open up new 
sections of the country. Postal facilities 
were also increased, and communication with 
Lower Canada and the outer world became 
more practicable. At this time, we learn, 
the mail between Montreal and York was 
brought at lengthened intervals, on the backs 
of pedestrians, while the number of post 
offices in the two Provinces was then under 

With all the disadvantages, society at 
the capital, however, grew apace. In 1803, 
a weekly public market was established in 
the town, and in the following year was 
erected " the church at York " the first 
" meeting-house for Episcopalians," as it was 
for a time termed, which subsequently bios- 
somed out into the Cathedral of St. James. JARVI - STREET LooK1Nf; NORTH (EAST SIDE). 

Its first clergyman was the Rev. G. Okill Stuart, who afterwards became an archdeacon in the Church, and for a time was 
master of the Home District School at York. In the records of both church and school, Canadian sociologists will meet with 
the names of many estimable citizens who, with their families and their descendants, have been intimately associated with the 
town, as well as with the settlement and the political and social advancement of English-speaking Canada. 

A few incidents in the professional and social life of Toronto at this period are not without interest. One of these is the 
creation of the first members of the legal profession by royal proclamation, in the year 1803. The honour fell upon the 
following gentlemen, who were facetiously termed the " heaven-descended barristers :"Dr. W. W. Baldwin, father of the Hon. 

"This map was discovered some years ago in the archives of the Colonial Office, London, by Mr. Thomas Hodgins, Q.C., and is in ihe 
possession of that gentleman. 



Robert Baldwin, the noted later-day Liberal ; Wm. Dickson, of Niagara ; D Arcy Boulton, of Augusta, and John Powell, of 
York. II these worthy gentlemen of the early Upper Canada Bar had an eye to fees, it would seem that they must have had 
difficulty in collecting them, for currency of all kinds was scarce, and only a system of barter in the main prevailed. If they 
are to be looked upon as guardians of the public morals, there was, it would appear, much need, however, for their services, 
for intemperance and street brawls, we learn, were then prevalent vices. Inordinate tippling was at the period dealt with after 
a utilitarian manner : All persons, we read, guilty of drunkenness, were made to give a certain amount of labour in pulling out 
tree-stumps in the public streets. Nor, despite early legislation against slavery, was the holding and transfer of human chattels 
wholly unknown at this period. While we hear of slaves being manumitted, we also hear of their being sold or offered for sale. 
In the Gazette of the time, Mr. Peter Russell, then administrator of the affairs of the Province, advertises for sale "a black woman, 
named Peggy, aged forty years, and a black boy, her son, named Jupiter, aged about fifteen years, both of them the property of 
the subscriber ! The woman," so sets forth the advertisement, " is a tolerable cook and washerwoman, and perfectly under 
stands making soap and candles." The price set upon Peggy is $150, and upon Jupiter Junior, $200, " payable in three years, 
with interest from the day of sale, and to be secured by bond." His Excellency is good enough to say, however, that " one- 
fourth less will be taken for ready money !" These are but a few glimpses of the social life of the time. 






EFORE the memorable figure of Brock appears actively on the scene, the clouds of war had begun 
to stretch their murky curtain over British possessions in Canada, and the mutterings of a por 
tentous storm were already distracting the little town of York. In Governor Gore s address at 
the opening of Parliament, in 1809, occurs this presage of the coming conflict : " Hitherto," says 
His Excellency, " we have enjoyed tranquillity, plenty and peace. How long it may please the 
Supreme Ruler of Nations thus to favour us, is wisely concealed from our view. But under such 
circumstances it becomes us to prepare ourselves to meet every event, and to evince by our zeal 
and loyalty that we know the value of our Constitution, and are worthy of the name of British 
subjects." Nor were the loyal citizens of England s Crown in York slow to respond to the appeal 
of patriotism, or indifferent to what was expected of them when the hour of trial came. In the 

thirty months conflict that was about to ensue, no community could well have given a better account of themselves. It is 

with just pride that the Canadian historian pens the narrative of the unequal struggle of those terrible years, 1812-14; for when 

Congress, on the i <;th of June, 1812, declared war against the Motherland, and took instant steps to invade Canada, Canada, 

with equal promptitude, proceeded to call out her militia, and determinedly braced herself to resist invasion. 

The total population of the British Colony at this time did not exceed 300,000, of which only about a fourth was 

settled in the Upper Province. The regular troops of all arms in 

the country, as the present writer has elsewhere observed, did not 

quite number 4,500 men. Less than a third of this number was 

then in Upper Canada. With this small body of troops Canada 

had to defend a frontier of over 1,500 miles, threatened at many 

points by a large and fairly disciplined army, with a population 

to draw from of nearly eight millions. Yet, such was the spirit of 

her sons that, hopeless as seemed the undertaking, she did not 

hesitate to take the field at the first signal of danger. Within a 

month after the declaration of war, the American General Hull, 

with an army of 2,500 men, crossed the Detroit River and 

entered Canada. Later on, at other points, the country was 

invaded, namely, on the Niagara frontier, and in Lower Canada, 

by way of Lake Champlain. On learning of the invasion of the 

western peninsula, General Brock called an emergency meeting KlNG STREET EASTi ,g 34 . 



of tliL 1 Provincial Parliament at the capital, despatched some companies of the 4ist Regiment, then in garrison at York, and 
thither, within a leu- days, followed them. Colonel Proctor, with the remaining companies of the -fist, was ordered to reinforce 
the troops at Amherstburg. With the 3rd Regiment of York Militia, Brock himself set out, on the 6th of August, for the 
\Vest. At Amherstburg he was joined by the Shawnee Chief Tccumseh, with whom and his Indian followers, Brock concerted 
measures for the capture of Fort Detroit. By this time General Hull had withdrawn his army from Canada and retired upon 
the stronghold on the Detroit River. Promptly carrying out his project, Brock put his small force in fighting array and crossed 
the river into Michigan. Before assaulting the fort, he summoned the garrison to surrender. The summons, to Brock s surprise, 
was complied with, and 2,500 American soldiers gave up their arms. Elated at his unlooked-for success, and enabled by the 
capitulation of the fort to more efficiently arm the Canadian militia, he resolved at once to return to York, thereafter to cross 
Lake Ontario and sweep from the Niagara frontier other detachments of the enemy. By the 27th of August Brock and his 
troops were back at the capital, where they were received with the warmest acclaims of the populace. Unfortunately, when about 
to set out again, Brock s design to prevent the enemy from massing on the Niagara River was for the time frustrated by an ill- 
timed armistice. This had been agreed to by Sir George Prevost, who at the period held supreme command in Lower Canada. 
The armistice delayed action till the following October, and gave the Americans time to concentrate a force of about 
6,000 men, under Van Rensselaer, in the ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
neighbourhood of Lewiston. At daybreak 
on the 1 3th the advance-guard of the Ameri 
can force effected a landing on the Canadian 
bank of the Niagara River, despite the 
heroism of its defenders. General Brock, 
hearing at Fort George the cannonading, gal 
loped with his aides-de-camp to the scene of 
action, and at once found himself in the 
thick of a desperate onset. The story is a 
brief one. Two companies of the 49th Regi 
ment, with about a hundred of the Canadian 
militia, had for some time been holding the 
enemy in check, when the engagement sud 
denly became general. A portion of the 
invading force, gaining the heights unob 
served, from this vantage-ground began to 
pour a destructive fire upon the defenders. 
Brock, with characteristic gallantry, instantly 
placed himself at the head of the troops, with 
whom were two companies of the militia of 
York, and hastened to dislodge the enemy 
from the heights. Conspicuously leading the 
storming party, and with the cry, " Push on, 
the York Volunteers!" on his lips. Brock was 
struck by a musket-ball and fell mortally 
wounded. Maddened at the death of their 
heroic leader, the troops twice essayed to 
clear the invaders from the flame-clad heights. 
Twice, however, were they driven back, and 
the gallant column of barely 300 men was 
compelled to retire upon the village and 
wait reinforcements. Presently these came up, and under General Sheaffe they now outflanked the Americans and drove them 
over the precipice, or, on the brink of the river, forced them to surrender. Victory once more rested upon British arms, though 
its lustre was grievously dimmed by heavy losses sustained by the victors, and by the death of Sir Isaac Brock, their loved 
commander. Three days afterwards they laid his body temporarily to rest in a bastion of Fort George, and the Canadian people 
mourned for the dead hero. 

In these pages it is not our purpose to trace the events of the war further than we have done. All we can properly deal 
with is to record briefly its effects upon the Town of York, and to show how bravely its citizens bore themselves in the conflict. 
The Battle of Queenston Heights brought mourning into many a Toronto home. With General Brock there fell his acting 
aide-de-camp, Colonel McDonnell, the Attorney-General of the Province. Numbers of the soldiery of York and the Home 
1 )istrict also fell on the battle-ground. But the town itself was now to suffer from a closer contact with the enemy. In the 
spring of the following year, the Americans renewed their efforts to capture Canada. Their designs included extensive naval 
operations on the lakes, with, if possible, the burning or raiding of the Provincial capital. On the 25th of April. Commodore 
Chauncey set out from Sackett s Harbour with a fleet of fourteen armed vessels, and 1,600 troops under the command of 
General Dearborn. On the evening of the following day, the good people of York saw this winged menace pass westward, 



outside the harbour, and come to anchor near the Humber. Next day the enemy landed, under cover of a hot fire from the 
fleet, and a column, headed by Brigadier Pike, advanced to attack Fort Toronto. The defences both of the Fort and the town 
were unhappily weak, for Sir James Veo s contingent of the Royal Marines had not as yet left its winter quarters at Kingston. 
Conscious of the untenableness of his position, General Sheaffe, then in command at York, concluded to evacuate the Fort, and 
to (all back upon the town. Passing through the latter with his few " regulars," he proceeded eastward, ignominiously leaving 
the defence of the capital to the enrolled militia. Meanwhile the enemy advanced on Fort Toronto expecting to make it an 
easy prey. As they pushed on in column to take possession, the fire of the fort having ceased, suddenly there was a terrific 
explosion and Brigadier Pike, with 200 of his command, were unceremoniously shot into the air. The powder magazine, it 
seems, had been fired by an artillery sergeant of the retreating regulars, to prevent it falling into the hands of the enemy, and 
the fuse was lit, from all accounts undesignedly, at a horribly inopportune moment. Despite this calamitous check and the 
consternation that ensued, the Americans advanced upon the town and received the submission of Colonel Chewett and the 
handful of militia who had not fallen in defence of it. 

The exploding of the magazine and the loss of life it occasioned, put the invaders in no humour to treat generously, 
either with the town or with the people. York was not only taken possession of by the Americans, but the place was sacked and 
many of the public buildings were given to the flames. The Houses of Parliament, with the library and public records, were 
burned, and everything of value that could be removed was put on board the fleet. The Rev. John (afterwards Bishop) 
Strachan, who had recently come to York, was instrumental in restraining the wantonness of the enemy, in the lust of destruc 
tion, and in saving from the torch not a little 
private property. He was also enabled to 
secure some modifications in the articles of 
capitulation, and to effect the release on parole 
of the Canadian militia and other volunteer 
defenders of the town. 

Unhappily the humiliation of York 
was not yet complete. Three months after 
wards, Chauncey s fleet made another descent 
upon the capital to revenge the aid it had 
given General Vincent in his defence of 
Burlington Heights. The town had to sub 
mit to a further scorching and looting, though 
the Americans had soon to pay for their 
wantonness by severe losses elsewhere and 
by grim reprisals in the later history of the 
war. To balance the account Canada has 
to show to her credit the engagements at 
Beaver Dam and Stony Creek, the exploit at 
Ogdensburg, and the descent upon Black 
Rock. In these affairs, as well as in the 
victories of the next year at Chrysler s Farm 
and Chateauguay, the loss to her arms of the 
young Colony was fully counterbalanced. 
On the lakes, fortune was capricious, now 
playing into the hands of Chauncey and Perry, anon into those of Barclay and Yeo. The year 1813, as we have chronicled 
elsewhere, closed amid woe and desolation. The American General McClure, in command of the captured stronghold of 
Fort George, being hard pressed by Vincent s troops, decided to winter in Fort Niagara, on the other side of the river. Thinking 
his safety even then endangered by the proximity of Newark, he committed the inhuman act of turning out of their homes, in 
the depth of winter, about 150 families, including 400 women and children, and fired the town at thirty minutes notice. For 
this barbarous act the Americans were held to a terrible account, in the reprisals which instantly followed, the surprise and 
capture of Fort Niagara, and the consigning to the flames of all American villages from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. 

There is little, as we have said elsewhere, to record in the events of 1814, save the failure of the British attack on the 
strong position of the Americans at Chippewa, and the crowning victory of the war, the Battle of Lundy s Lane, with which the 
kVar of 1812 may be said to have practically ended. The Treaty of Ghent, which was signed on the i 4 th of December, 1814, 
terminated the protracted struggle, and left Canada in possession of her own. The country had been devastated, innumerable 
homes made desolate, and thousands of lives sacrificed, in an inglorious attempt by the American people to subjugate Canada, 
and supplant the Union Jack by the Stars and Stripes. The ordeal was a trying one for the country; but her sons were equal to 
the occasion, and she acquitted herself with honour, and carried to the credit of her national life that which has since 
strengthened and ennobled it, 






URING a considerable period Toronto, or as it was still called, York, suffered from the 
paralyxing effects of the war. From the sword and torch of the invader it, however, 
rallied with the return of peace. The cessation of hostilities in Europe brought con 
siderable accessions to the troops in Canada, and set free from the service of Mars not 
a few who came to the Province to engage in more peaceful pursuits. Among other 
recent acquisitions of the young capital was one who had already become a prominent 
citizen, and who was destined to fill a large space in the annals both of the city and the 
Province. In the first year of the war there had come to York the Rev. John Strachan, 
a divine who was to be more to Upper Canada and its lusty metropolis than a repre 
sentative of the Church militant. From his first coming the town felt the stimulus of 
his active and forceful mind. His earliest energies were directed to devising means for mitigating the horrors and alleviating 
the sufferings of the time. He founded and took a large share in conducting the affairs of an association, called the " Loyal 
and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada," the chief objects of which were to make provision for the widows and orphans of the 
war, to tend the wounded, and give succour to those whose homes had been made desolate. Of this institution, the late Bishop 
Bethune, Strachan s biographer, observes, that " it contributed more towards the defence of the Province than half-a-dozen regi 
ments, from the confidence and good-will it inspired, and the encouragement it gave to the young men of the country to leave their 
homes and take their share in its defence." There was other patriotic work which, while the war 
went on, enlisted the energies, as well as the sympathies, of the resourceful young ecclesiastic. In 
the chronicles of the time, Strachan is seen to have taken an active, though rather aggressive, 
part in negotiating the terms of capitulation with the American invaders of York. To him, in 
the overtures with the enemy, the town owed whatever clemency was shown to it, though his curt 
speech and dour manner, neutralized only by the courteous address and genial ways of Attorney- 
General (afterwards Chief Justice) Robinson, came near cancelling all that had been gained_from 
York s rude captors. 

Before passing on with the 
history, let us take a closer glance 
at the town s sturdy champion and 
shrewd, though brusque, mediator. 
Strachan was a young Scotch school 
master (born at Aberdeen in 1778) 
who had come to Canada in his 
twenty-first year, with some expecta 
tion of receiving the principalship of 
a college which was designed to be 
founded by the Government and en 
dowed with a large grant of land 
from the public domain. On the 
last day of the century the young 
dominie arrived at Kingston, where 
he learned that, with Simcoe s de- 


parture from the colony, the project of founding a college under the auspices of the Government, had for the time been 
abandoned. He, however, had a friend in Mr. Richard Cartwright, an influential resident, who prevailed upon him to open 
a school in the town and light the lamp of learning in the youthful colony. In this work Strachan zealously engaged, until 
having taken orders, he was appointed by Bishop Mountain to a charge at Cornwall. At Cornwall he combined educational 
with clerical work, and there, in what became a famous preceptory, he taught many who were ere long to go forth to fill the 
highest positions in the Province. In 1811, owing to the death of the Rev. Dr. Okill Stuart, the first incumbent of St. James 



Church at York and the headmaster of the Home District Grammar School, Strachan was invited by Governor Gore to come- 
to the capital and take up Stuart s work. To this the young cleric consented, and, as we have seen, entered upon his duties 
in the year 1812. With the outbreak of the war. he identified himself with all the concerns of the capital, chivalrously took 
part in its defence, and became the animating spirit of the I .oval and Patriotic League. By General Brock he was appointed 
to the chaplaincy of the troops, and ere long he rose to a seat in the Legislative Council. In this latter post, Strachan subse 
quently figures as one of the mem 
bers of the "Family Compact 
oligarchy, and the mark for the 
barbed arrows of discontent and 
sedition. Later history knows him 
only, as it knows him best, as the 
first Bishop appointed by the Crown 
in Upper Canada. 

With the close of the war, 
York set itself the task of laying 
anew the foundations of its material 
advancement. Immigration set in, 
and the increase in population not 
only gave a fresh impulse to the 
expansion of the city, but led to 
the further opening up of the Prov 
ince. With improved facilities of 
communication, roads and canals 
were built, and at this period came 
steam transit on the lakes. The 
Government also began to redeem 
the army bills, which it is ued during 
the war, and to pay the war pensions. 
Phis set money in circulation and 
made a call for banks, which were 


soon established : while the Legislature made large appropriations for the construction of roads and bridges, and for the founding 
of < omrnon Schools. As the result of this activity, a new day dawned upon York and the young Colony. 

While the town and the country were thus making satisfactory material progress, the situation of affairs politically was 
deplorable. In both the Upper and the Lower Province, public feeling was aroused over the irresponsible character of the 
Executive Council, and found vent in many stormy scenes in Parliament, as well as in angry outbursts in the Radical press. In 
the Upper Province especially there was a plentiful crop of grievances. Among these 
we quote from our words elsewhere were the scandalous system on which the public- 
lands were granted, and the partiality shown in the issue of land-patents and other favours 
in the gift of the Crown. Immigrants from the United States, being tainted as it was 
supposed with Republicanism, were the special objects of official dislike and the victims 
of legislative injustice and wrong. Oppressive laws were passed against them, and an 
Alien Act was rigorously enforced, which for a time deprived them of their political rights, 
excluded them from the privilege of taking up land, and subjected them to many indig 
nities, including arbitrary expulsion from the Province. The chief authors of these abuses 
were the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, who by their close alliances 
for mutual advantage, came to be known by the rather sinister designation of the Family 
Compact. For the most part they were of U. E. Loyalist descent, men of education, 
occupying good social and political positions in the city or Province not a few of them 
being connected by family ties and having at their disposal offices of emolument and 
other Crown patronage, which secured for them a strongly attached, but not always a 
scrupulously honest, following. In the reforming spirit that now set in, it must in justice 
be said, that whatever good was in the administration of the time was but indifferently 
acknowledged. We may admit that, at the period, power was firmly centrali/ed in the 
hands of a dominant and exclusive class that all the public offices were in their gift, and 
that the entire public domain, including the Crown and Clergy Land Reserves, was also 
in their hands. It is true also that, through the patronage at their disposal, the Family Compact were enabled to fill the Lower 
House with their supporters and adherents, and, in large measure, to shape the Provincial legislation so as to maintain their hold 
of office and perpetuate a monopoly of power. That they used their positions autocratic-ally, and laid a heavy hand upon the 
turbulent and disaffected, was also true ; but their respect for British institutions, and their staunch loyalty to the Crown, at a 





time when Republican sentiments were dangerously prevalent, were virtues which might well offset innumerable misdeeds, and 

square the account in any unprejudiced arraignment. Viewing the matter judicially, and in the calm light of a later and better 

day, this, we venture to think, is the opinion that ought now to prevail. 

In the period between the War and the Rebellion, the nominal chiefs in the Provincial Administration, who represented 

the Crown in the Colony, were Governors 

Gore, Maitland, and Colborne. The rule of 

these men extends from the period when 

Gore returned, in 1815, from England to 

Toronto, down to the year 1836, when Col- 
borne was transferred to the Governorship of 

Nova Scotia, and Sir Francis Bond Head 

came upon the troubled scene. Within these 

twenty years the Town of York, as we have 

in part indicated, made great strides. On 

the lake, steamers supplanted the sailing- 
packet in the passage to Niagara, and an era 

of extensive building operations set in in the 

town. New Houses of Parliament were 

erected on the site of those which had been 

burned by the Americans in 1813. Here, 

in 1821, Parliament was convened, though 

three years afterwards the new buildings fell 

a prey to the flames. A new Court House 

and Gaol was also about this time built, and 

the square on which it was erected was long 

a place of rendezvous for the citizens. Its 

location was a little way north of King, be 
tween Church and Toronto Streets. The 

market, which was now enclosed, became 

also a place of public resort ; while halls of 

modest dimensions, attached as yet to the hotels, were erected for mass-meetings and occasionally used for the play and the 

dance. Nor did the citizens of the time neglect the need of places of worship. In 1818 the first Methodist Church was built, 

and shortly afterwards the Episcopal Church of St. James was enlarged and remodelled. Later still, came an entirely new 

_ edifice, which, despite its being of 

stone, fire unhappily devoured in 
1839. In the " twenties " were also 
erected sacred edifices for the use 
of the Roman Catholic and Presl >y- 
terian communions. Towards the 
close of this decade, the York citizen 
also saw erected a new General Hos 
pital, a Government House, and 
ground cleared for the buildings 
devoted to the use of Upper Canada 
College and for a home for the Law 
Society of the Province. In 1822, 
the Bank of Upper Canada was 
founded, and four years later the 
Canada Land Company began its 
operations. Nor was the individual 
citizen slow to fashion a home for 
himself in " Muddy Little York." 
About this period were erected a 
number of family mansions, some 
of which to-day retain their old-time 
glory, while others have gone into 
BANK OF MONTREAL, CORNER OF YONC.E AXIJ FRONT STRKKTS. decline with the passing years. Of 

the former are The Grange, Beverley House, and Moss Park; of the latter "The Palace," on Front Street, is a type. The decade 
is also memorable as that of the coming to York of William Lyon Mackenzie and the increased troubling of the political waters. 







HK year 1834 is memorable as that which saw the Town of York extend its limits and 
rise to the dignity of an Incorporated City, under its old historic name of Toronto. It 
was a happy idea that suggested itself to the minds of the " rude forefathers of the 
hamlet " that with the honours of incorporation as a city the place should resume its 
beautiful Indian appellative. Nor could anything be more appropriate than that the 
great metropolis that was to be, which but forty years before had opened as a mere 
forest pathway between the Don River and the mouth of the harbour, should bear the 
name associated in early French annals with the Huron tribes, known as the Toronto 
nations, whose hunting-grounds lay immediately to the northward, and with the 

blood-stained region long identified with their fateful history. In the four decades that had passed over the town since its 

early cradling-time, the place had seen many changes, and its citizens had striven hard to plant Toronto firmly on its feet. 

Slow as yet, however, were the successive stages of civic development, and the visitor within its gates often mocked the preten 
sions, and. when he shook its dust from his feet, even spoke slightingly of the society, of the still squalid Provincial metropolis. 

Hut with the stocks and the pillory were soon to go the humdrum and unprogressive era of " Muddy Little York." Before 

the brighter day came, however, Toronto had to enter upon a conflict which tried the spirits of its sons, and proved, as with 

fire, their sturdy claim to the rights and privileges of freemen. 

At the time, as we have seen, political power was centralized in the hands of a dominant and exclusive class, who ruled 

the Province autocratically, and shaped the Provincial legislation so as to maintain their hold of office and reward, with 

extensive land grants and other favours, their large and not over-scrupulous body of retainers. Against this ruling oligarchy 

and the placemen of the time, Robert Gourlay, earliest of Canadian Radicals, was the first to protest ; and when he had been 

harshly driven from the Province, his work was actively taken up by Win. Lyon Mackenzie, who had removed to the city in 

1824, and was now to become a prickly 

thorn in the flanks of the administrative 

junto. Ciourlay had, in 1817, lit the flame 

of discontent by his series of disturbing 

questions addressed to the people of the 

! rovince as to the retarding effects of the land 

laws and the arbitrary legislation, embodied 

in Alien and Sedition Acts, passed by the 

autocratic Provincial Executive. Mackenzie 

took up and carried forward the Kxcalibur 

brand of the agitator, and with it vigorously 

smote the Family Compact and the whole 

system of privilege that had craftily wormed 

itself into the machinery of irresponsible 

government. In his paper, The Colonial 

Advocate, he warmly espoused the work of 

reform, and during a series of stormy years 

gave voice to the popular discontent and let 

the light of day in upon a large and unhal 
lowed crop of grievances. For this patriotic 

service he was rewarded by seeing the young 

Torydom of the time suck his printing office, HMHHKitt 

smash his presses to pieces, and gleefully T|IE HOMEOPATHIC HOSPITAL. 



turn liis fonts of type into the May. Being returned a member of Parliament, ascended Toryism pursued him to the Legis 
lature and five times expelled him from the House. But not thus could the sturdy spirit of the patriot he broken, for 
Marken/ie had now a large and sympathetic following, and as often as he was ejected from his seat, public sentiment and the 
Liberal element in his constituency returned him as a representative. 

In this high prerogative era, Torydom, though it was often nettled and sometimes abashed, was not yet worsted in the 
fight. It had long been entrenched in office, and possessed not a few doughty champions whose skill in the art of political 
warfare was great, and whose sources of strength were the Crown and the loyalist cries it knew well how to rally to its support. 
Of these champions, the most redoubtable were the politico-ecclesiastic, the Archdeacon of York, and his chief liegeman, the 
youthful Attorney-General of the Province. Besides Strachan and Robinson, the leading spirits of the Family Compact, the 
privileged order could call to its aid a numerous band of supporters, whose names have become historic in the annals of 
the city and were then bandied about in 
the rough tumult of the time. But if fossil 
Toryism had its shining lights, so, too, had 
youthful Liberalism. If the one could point 
to the Strachans, Robinsons, Boultons, Hager- 
mans, Sherwoods, Drapers, Allans, and Mac- 
Nabs, the other could pit against them the 
Mackenzies, Rolphs, Bidwells, Baldwins, 
Perrys, and Dunns. Nor were the differences 
slight ones that separated the two bands of 
combatants. Each side, no doubt, considered 
itself fighting religiously for a principle. In 
the politics of the young colony, it was the 
first sharp contest between privilege and non- 
privilege. The one side sought to conserve 
what it deemed its sacred trust and was 
jealous of its own rights and privileges ; the 
other had little respect for Crown nominations 
if its nominees abused their trust and would 
pay no deference to the voice of the parlia 
mentary majority. In the struggle that 
ensued, we shall better see what the reform 
ing spirit of the time sought to remedy. 

In the meantime the field of party 
strife changed from the Legislature to the 
Civic Chamber. With the year 1834, the 
citizens of York had come to feel that the 
civic administration would be more satis 
factory were the affairs of the county sepa 
rated from those of the town and the latter 
given a municipal system of its own. This 
idea, at once progressive and reasonable, 
met, however, with opposition, the Reformers, 
strangely enough, opposing, while the Con 
servatives were in favour of, the measure. 
Political feeling, which had long been at fever 
heat, took sides in the civic contest ; and 
though Reform, perhaps fearing the evils of 
increased centralization, had at first scouted 
the innovation, it finally accepted it, and in 
the elections carried with it a majority of the 

"--: - -, -r,] 

party as representatives on the Council. 


As the event is of some importance in the annals of the city, it may be worth while to note the successive incidents in 
the affair of incorporation. In February, 1834, Mr. Jarvis, member for York, introduced into the Legislature a Bill embodying 
the proposed measure. On the 6th of March it received the Royal assent and became law. The main features of the Bill 
constituted the town a city, under the name of the City of Toronto, and divided it into five wards, with two aldermen and two 
councilmen for each ward. The citizens were to elect the ward representatives, while the latter were to elect from themselves 
a mayor. The combined body was to have the management of the city s affairs, and power was given to it to levy such taxes 
as should be found necessary for the proper maintenance of the city s government and the requisite public improvements. On 



the 1 5th of March a proclamation was issued appointing the ayth of the same month as the date of the elections. The 
following were returned as the representatives of the various wards : 


ST. ANDREW S Dr. T. 1 >. Morrison John Armstrong 

John Harper John 1 )oel 

ST. 1 )AVID S Win. 1 -yon Mackenzie Franklin Jackes 

James I .esslie Colin I Irummond 

ST. GEORGE S Thomas Carfrae, Jr John Craig 

Edward Wright George ( lurnett 

ST. I ,.\ \VRKNCK George Monro Wm. Arthurs 

George Duggan, Sr Lardner Bostwick 

ST. PATRICK S Dr. John Rolph Joseph Turton 

George T. Denison, Sr James Trotter 

On the 3rd of April, the Council met and elected, as the first Mayor of Toronto, Wm. I, yon Mackenzie. The instal 
lation of Mackenzie into the civic chair was naturally looked upon as possessing some political significance ; it was a triumph, 
at least, for the cause of Reform. Mackenzie held office only for the year, but within the period much was done in the way of 

public improvements. The first thing to which the 
Council addressed itself was the mending and ex 
tending of the city s sidewalks and roads. To meet 
this necessary expenditure, an application was made 
to the Bank of Upper Canada for the loan of a 
thousand pounds, but as the city was already a 
debtor to the extent of nine times this sum, the 
loan was timidly refused. A contemporary docu 
ment shows, however, that an application to the 
Farmers Bank was more successful, though the 
money was had only on the personal security of the 
Mayor and City Council. The city then mended 
its ways. In these days of liberal and substantial 
street pavements, it is not a little curious to con 
trast with them the meagre and parsimonious 
sidewalks of the year of Toronto s incorporation. 
All that was then allowed of a promenading area, 
were two twelve-inch planks, laid longitudinally on 
the chief streets. 

The statistics of the period, in other direc 
tions, show similar sharp contrasts between then 
and now. Into these we have not space here to 
enter, though it may be noted that the population, 
in 1834, was under T 0,000, and that the value of the 
COI.I.KIIK STKKKT BAPTIST CHUKCII. ratable property within the city limits did not exceed 

three-quarters of a million of dollars. The " leaps and bounds" by which the city has attained its present proportions, the 
reader may realize when it is recalled that the then area of Toronto was compressed between the Don and Peter Street, and 
between Lot (or Oueen) Street and the Bay. Outside of these bounds was an unkempt, if not impenetrable, wilderness. Nor 
must we forget one at least, and the most dread, of the local causes of the time that retarded the city s advancement. In the 
ye:ir of incorporation. Toronto suffered from a visitation of Asiatic cholera. Every twentieth inhabitant, it is recorded, 
became a victim to the fell scourge. 

In spite of this calamitous dispensation and the increasing political turbulence, the youthful city, impelled by an internal 
force of its own, continued to make progress. Stores, blocks, churches, and public buildings were built; new streets and 
avenues were opened up ; and many fair family residences rose solitary among the thick-set pines, upon what are now old city 
sites. Vet, in appearance, much of the town was still rude and uncouth. This we learn from a picture limned for us, in 1^36, 
by Mrs. Jameson, wife of the then Provincial Vice-Chancellor, though its lugubrious tone was doubtless the product of the 
artist s depressed spirits. Says Mrs. Jameson (vide "Winter Studies and Summer Rambles ")," U hat Toronto may be in 
summer, I cannot tell ; they say it is a pretty place. At present its appearance to me, a stranger, is most strangely mean and 
melancholy. A little ill-built town, on low land, at the bottom of a frozen bay, with one very ugly church, without tower or 
pie ; some Go\ernment offuvs, built of staring red brick, in the most tasteless, vulgar style imaginable ; three feet of snow 
all around ; and the grey, sullen, wintry lake, and the dark gloom of the pine forest bounding the prospect ; such seems Toronto 
to me now." This ill-used, unhappy lady, we are glad to remember, has left us a later and brighter picture of Toronto. 






X DESPAIR of effecting reform through constitutional means, and exasperated by the 
attitude of successive Governors, who threw the prestige and influence of the Crown into 
the camj) of irresponsibility and privilege, Mackenzie, and the Radical section of his 
allies were driven to the desperate alternative of rebellion. Only by such a course, it 
would seem, could the principles for which the Reformers contended triumph, and the 
defiant Executive be made amenable to the popular will. Only thus was it possible " to 
break up the Familv Compact : to make the Administration responsible to the repre 
sentatives of the people ; to sweep away the invidious privileges claimed by the Church 
of England : to promote a better system of Crown Land management, immigration and 
settlement ; to extend education to the children of the poorer classes ; and, generally, to 
establish a less costly and more economical Government, that would spend less money on high salaries, pensions and sinecures, 
and more on roads, canals, and other works of public utility." Constitutional measures of redress had been long tried, and 
had signally failed. The popular Chamber could do nothing, for its legislation was not only burked by the Upper House, but 
the Executive Councillors snapped their fingers at the Assemblymen and disregarded censure and the appeals to the Lieutenant- 
Cos ernor and the Crown. Nor was this done from mere wantonness. On the contrary, the ruling powers deemed it a 
patriotic duty thus to deal with disaffection, and to resist to the utmost what was termed the encroachments of the people. 
The integrity both of the Crown and the Constitution, it was thought, depended upon this course being pursued. Moreover, 
the contumacy of the electors in repeatedly returning the popular idol, Mackenzie, as a representative to Parliament, had to be 
reproved ; and this must be done -so Torydom reasoned though the breach yawned between the Crown and the Canadian 
people. Even in the Mother Country, Responsible Government was at the time far from the goal to which it subsequently 
reached, and reform had still its battles to fight. We need not wonder, therefore, that in its distant Colony the popular 
liberties had to be wrung by in 
surrection from the grasp of privi 
lege, and that a crisis had to be 
passed ere the old Colonial system 
gave place to self-government. 

Matters were in no way 
improved by the home authorities 
making a change in the Lieut 
enant-Governorship. In 1835, Sir 
John Colborne was superseded 
by Sir Francis liond Head, who 
reached Toronto in January of 
the following year. OnSir Francis 
arrival, ecclesiastical jealousies 
had added fuel to political fer 
ment, over the erection, by his 
predecessor in office, of fifty-six 
rectories out of the landed estates 
known as the "Clergy Reserves." 
This act raised the hostility of 
the denominations towards the 
Crown, though among the Re 
formers it was thought that the 
new Governor was friendly to 
their views, and would aid them ST . GEORGE STREET, EAST SIDE. 



in the redress of their grievances. Time soon showed that this was a misconception. Not only did the Governor oppose 
the popular demand for an elective Legislative Council and a responsible Executive, but, failing in his attempt to bribe three 
Reformers with seats in the Executive, he threw himself, with foolish partisanship, into the arms of the Family Compact. 
In the popular Chamber the natural results followed the Reform element denounced the Governor, and for the first time the 
Hou>e refined to vote the supplies. Sir Francis retorted by dissolving Parliament and unconstitutionally appealing himself to 
the people. Every device was resorted to in the effort to prejudice the cause of Reform. The day was won by the Tories, and 
the Governor, elated at his success, became a thorough partisan, and still further widened the breach between the Government 
and the people. 

In Lower Canada, a somewhat similar state of things prevailed, and precipitated the crisis that now fell upon the whole 
country. In both Provinces, Imperial authority was renounced, disaffection clasped hands, and balked Reform slid into 
rebellion. In the closing days of July, 1837, Mackenzie organized a "Committee of Vigilance," to guard the interests Reform 
had in view ; but the violent appeals it issued soon inflamed the heart of sedition, and the next move was a hostile demonstra 
tion and the attempt to erect a revolutionary government. That armed resistance to authority was now the game, is sufficiently 


seen from the inflammatory handbills which the leading spirit of the movement issued, calling upon his fellow " patriots " to 
rise and strike for freedom. Here are a few rather spicy extracts : 

Canadians: God has put it into the bold and honest hearts of our brethren in Lower Canada to revolt not against 
lawful but against unlawful authority. The law says we shall not be taxed without our consent by the voice of the men of our 
choice : but a wicked and tyrannical Government has trampled upon that law, robbed the exchequer, divided the plunder, and 
declared that, regardless of justice, they will continue to roll in their splendid carriages and riot in their palaces at our expense ; 
that we arc poor, spiritless, ignorant peasants, who were born to toil for our betters. * * You give a bounty for wolves 
scalps. \Vhy ? Because wolves harass you. The -bounty you must pay for freedom (blessed word ! ) is to give the strength of 
your arms to put down tyranny at Toronto. One short hour will deliver our country from the oppressor, and freedom in 
religion, peace and tranquillity, equal laws and an improved country, will be the prize. * * We have given Head (the 
Governor) and his employers a trial of forty-five years, five years longer than the Israelites were detained in the wilderness. The 
promised land is now before us up then and take it but set not the torch to one house in Toronto, unless we are fired at 
from the houses, in which case self-preservation will teach us to put down those who would murder us when up in the defence 
of laws. * * * 

" Mark my words, Canadians ! The struggle has begun it will end in freedom ; but timidity, cowardice or tampering 
on our part, will only delay its close. We cannot be reconciled to Britain. We have humbled ourselves to the Pharaoh of 
England, to the Ministers and great people, and they will neither rule us nor let us go. We are determined never to rest until 
independence is ours the prize is a splendid one. A country larger than France or England, natural resources equal to our 



most boundless wishes, a Government of equal laws, religion pure and undefined, perpetual peace, education for all, millions of 
acres for land revenue, freedom from British tribute, free trade with all the world but stop ! I never could enumerate all the 
blessings attendant upon independence ! 

" Up, then, brave Canadians ! Get ready your rifles and make short work of it ; a connection with England would 
involve us in all her wars, undertaken for her own advantage, never for ours. With Governors from England we will have 
bribery at elections, corruption, villainy and perpetual discord in every township ; but independence would give us the means 
of enjoying many blessings. Our enemies in Toronto are in terror and dismay ; they know their wickedness and dread our 
vengeance. Woe to those who oppose us, for God is our trust. " 

The publication of this incendiary tractate, we need hardly say, laid its writer open to the grim courtesies of the law ; 
and the Attorney-General of the Province naturally informed the Governor that Mackenzie should be proceeded against for 
treason. The Governor acquiescing, a warrant was issued for the rebel s arrest. But Mackenzie had fled ere he could be 
apprehended, and was now busy gathering the clans of revolt for the descent upon the capital. Besides Mackenzie, among the 
leading Upper Canada plotters of rebellion, were Messrs. Van Egmond, Perry, Lount, Matthews, I )uncombe, Morrison, Mont 
gomery, Price, Gorham, Doel, Gibson, Graham, Anderson, Ketchum, Fletcher, Lloyd, with other Toronto citizens and yeomen 
of the county. Other influential sympathizers there were, such as Robert Baldwin and Marshall Spring Bidwell, who stopped 
short, however, at actual and overt rebellion. Another name, that of Dr. John Rolph, is to be added to the black list, though 
he belonged to the number of astute rebels, in more or less open disguise. The chief leaders of the revolt in Lower Canada, 
it is hardly necessary now to say, 
were Papineau, Dr. Wolfred Nelson, 
and Etienne Cartier. 

With the incidents of " the 
rising," we have space only to deal 
briefly. The seditious movement 
seems to have drawn into its vortex 
the yeomanry chiefly of Yonge 
Street, extending from the northern 
boundary of the city northward to 
Newmarket and Holland landing. 
The rallying-place of the insurgents 
we naturally find, therefore, was 
Montgomery s Tavern, on Yonge 
Street, situate about a mile beyond 
Deer Park, the northern suburb of 
Toronto. Here, in the opening 
days of December, gathered Mac 
kenzie s rank and file, including the 
Toronto contingent, which used to 
meet clandestinely at Doel s brewery, 
on Bay Street, with a sprinkling of 
moderate Reformers from other parts 
of the Province, now goaded into 
active rebellion. Arms and accou 
trements had already been quietly 
passed about, and there was much leaden stir in the melting-pot to provide the requisite bullets. So far, Torydom in the city 
had not taken much alarm. What regular troops were in garrison had been despatched to Lower Canada by the Governor, to 
the assistance of menaced law and order in that Province. By the prevailing indifference and limpness of official authority, 
Toronto invited its doom. But its doom, however sternly rebeldom had decreed it, was not yet. 

The date fixed for the descent upon Toronto was originally the ;th of December. On Sunday, the 3rd, when Mackenzie 
reached the appointed rendezvous, he learned with surprise that Dr. Rolph had changed the day to the 4th instant. Why 
this had been done was at the time not clear, though it was surmised that it was in consequence of preparations being 
made by the authorities to put Toronto in a state of defence, and that delay would be bad for the rebels and good for the 
loyalists. The insurgent chief determined, however, to find out the real position of affairs, and with that purpose he set out 
after dark for the city, accompanied by three of his troopers as a bodyguard. On the way they met two men on horseback, one 
of whom was Mr. John Powell, an Alderman of Toronto, who were proceeding as spies in the direction of the rebel camp. 
Mackenzie s party, being two to one, took the citizens prisoners and sent them on to Montgomery s, in the custody of two of 
the insurgents. But care, it seems, had not been taken to divest one of them at least of his concealed weapons. Taking 
advantage of this oversight, Alderman Powell, on the way, drew a revolver and killed one of the guard, then wheeled about and 
galloped for the city. Overtaking Mackenzie and his companion, shots were exchanged on the highway, but without effect on 
either side ; and Powell continued his flight to the town, where he aroused Governor Head from his bed and with him routed 




, the civic authorities and summoned Toronto to arms. Mid clangour of hells, news of the impending danger s speedily 

, u ,, unt ee,, mustered at the city hall and were armed, and a strong picket was despatched by Col. 
" J General. O guard the city on the north. So real no, was the fright, that the . aeutenanU.overnor s 

L7on board a steamer ,n the harbour for safe keeping. The next clay, public tremor continued and , was increased 
reached Toronto that incendiarism was at work, and that a loyalist had been shot by the rebels, while on h,s 
ortheeUy. The victim was 1 ,,eut,Col. Moodie, of Richmond H ,11, a officer 

meanwhile, the insurgents continued to mass at Montgomery s, and thither, on Tuesday the S th came Robert 
Baldwin and Dr. Rolph, on an embassy from the Lieutenant-Governor. Being without written credentials Mackenzie refused, 
h ;, tt , 
,, 1(1 

ldwin and Dr. Rolph, on an embassy from the Lieutenant-Governor. eng wou we e , 

tt ,. v , r u , t ,,, t w ,th then, That they were unaccredited was probably due to the equivocal posmon 1 r. Rolph had assumed 
(1 a doubt in the Governor s mind of that gentleman s bona fides. However, nothing came of the parley. WednesdJ 


: without any action being taken, the insurgents frittering away valuable time in fruitless discussion. With the morrow 
arrived Colonel Van Lgmond, an old French officer, who had served under Napoleon, and who was at once given the military 
command of the rebel force. This old campaigner went energetically to work. He sent part of the insurgents to the east of 
the city to destroy the Don Bridge, to cut off communication, and to endeavour to divert to that quarter a portion of the force 
that was now hastening from the west to the defence of Toronto. Of the latter, a large contingent had arrived from Hamilton, 
under Colonel (afterwards Sir Allan) MacNab. 

On the same day (Thursday) the main column of the rebels, somewhat shrunken from its original strength of 700 men, 
preyed forward upon Toronto. Simultaneously the loyalists, in number about 900, moved out from the city. The latter were 
commanded by Colonel Fit/gibbon, with Colonel MacNab at the head of " the Men of Gore." Loyal contingents were also 
under the direction of Colonels Chishohn and Jarvis, assisted by Mr. Justice McLean. Between one and two o clock in the 
day. the two forces confronted each other. They confronted each other, but there was no engagement. Hardly was there even 
Jty. l o field -pieces, laboriously dragged by the loyalists to the ground, were brought into requisition, but the insurgents 
did not M. > lie sullen fun. All there was to the fight was a couple of random volleys of musketry, and a promiscuous 

retreat by the rebels to their once defiant headquarters, the Tavern. Of course, there was a speedy dispersion of the whole rebel 
army. Marken/ie and Rolph took to flight, the former, though outlawed and with a reward of ,1,000 upon his head, con 
tinuing for a time t< -gi\e trouble on the frontier. For two others of the insurgents there was an unhappy sequel. Outraged 
loyalty, when it had captured Samuel Lount and 1 eter Matthews, hanged them. 

Thus ended, in a fia>co, the rising of 37. But in other ways rebellion was not without profit. It brought its 

as, though at the time it was freighted with estranging passions and social disorder. Without it, political abuses might 
not have h and more distant would have been the morrow that brought to the Colony the boon of self- 







RITISH integrity and supremacy, though they were imperilled, were not overthrown in 
Canada, by the seditious disturbances in the two old Provinces. Rebellion, while it was 
a vent for the discontent and disaffection of the time, was, in its national consequences, 
no more than this ; though it became the means of social and political amelioration, and 
gave birth to a new constitutional era and a more prosperous period of industrial develop 
ment. It won for the political abuses, under which the people had long smarted, the 
attention of the Imperial authorities ; and though the relief which was granted was at 
first an imperfect application of the principle, the ultimate concession was the boon, in 
full measure, of Responsible Government. Besides the question of ministerial account 
ability, there were other complications of a more or less embarrassing kind, which con- 

ised the main issue in the minds of British statesmen, and delayed for a time the fair working of the applied remedy. Of 

lose complications, we need mention but two : the Clergy Reserves imbroglio, and the racial conflict in the Lower Province, 

here the British and Protestant minority had to fight French nationalism, which thus early began, under British rule, to 

.-build French power on the St. Lawrence. These domestic complications for a time bewildered British administrations, in 

>cir conciliatory attempts to provide a legislative modus vivendi, though Lord Durham s masterly Report, had it been fully 

:cepted and followed, would have made the way 

lain for English statesmen. But in the Old Land 

le day of liberal concessions to a colony had scarcely 

at come, while even in England there was much 

ill to achieve ere Reform could be said to have 

icre done its work. 

It was some time after the events related in 

ur last chapter ere the fever of political discontent 

bated in Toronto. The troubles brought in their 

-ain two topics which for a while kept the political 

ot simmering. These were the disposal of the poli- 

ical prisoners, and compensation, especially in the 

.ower Province, for the rebellion losses. Nor were 

latters quiet on the frontier. Canadian refugees, 

istigated by American adventurers, there gave trouble 

3 the Government. Though the active spirit of re- 

icllion was crushed, disaffection still smouldered. Nor 

,-as the feeling of insecurity and unrest allayed until 

Governor Head had resigned, and his immediate 

uccessor, Sir George Arthur, had come and gone. 

Vith the appearance of Lord Durham on the scene, 

ffairs began to mend. This nobleman had been 

ppointed Governor-General by the Liberal Admin- 

stration of Lords Grey and Melbourne, and was to 

ct as High Commissioner for the adjustment of the 

mportant political questions that disturbed the two 

Janadas ; and for this duty he was clothed with 

pecial powers by the British Government. For the 

>erformance of his high task he was admirably fitted, hi. PAUL S MI-;IHI>JM CHURCH, AVENUE ROAD. 


and his delegated powers he exercised on the side both of mercy and of justice. Unfortunately, in the fulfilment of his 
duties, he was not able to satisfy his Imperial masters, and, incensed at the opposition some of his acts met with in England, he 
abruptly resigned his office and withdrew from his mission. 

The Durham Administration, however, brought important results. It was the turning-point in the political history of 
nadas : for while in the country his Lordship had prepared an elaborate report on the situation of affairs, and this states 
manlike document he submitted to the Home Government, and, in the main, his views were acted upon. In a clear, bold, and 
dispassionate manner, Lord Durham set forth the difficulties besetting government in the Canadas, and, with rare prescience, 
-ted a confederation of all the British North American Provinces. Admitting that this project was too great for immediate 
fulfilment, he contented himself with pressing upon the Imperial Government and Parliament a modification of his scheme, in 
(he Legislative Union of Upper and Lower Canada. This idea presented itself as a more feasible one ; and to give it effect, 
the British Government sent out to the colony the Hon. Mr. Poulett Thomson (afterwards Lord Sydenham), who undertook, 
at a special council convened in Lower Canada, to draft a bill uniting the two Provinces, and to obtain the acceptance of the 
measure by the two political parties in both sections of the country. The distinctive provisions of the Act (of 1840) were that 
the two Provinces should be united under one Government ; that there should be one Legislative Council and one Assembly, 
with equal representation in both branches ; and that the Executive Council should hold office only so long as it, as a body, 
commanded the support of a majority in the popular Chamber. Thus was gained what Reform had long and wearily contended 

for government by the people, the 
essential principle of responsible 
political rule. The Union Bill was 
passed in the Imperial Parliament 
on the 23rd of July, 1840, and it 
came into force in Canada in Feb 
ruary of the following year. 

In the new political order of 
things, Toronto for a time lost the 
nominal honours of the capital. 
The first Union Parliament met at 
Kingston, that city being deemed 
more central for conducting the ad 
ministrative affairs of the United 
Provinces. But Toronto s prestige 
was not now dependent upon the 
retention or the removal of the 
Legislature. Despite the troubles 
and distractions of the period, the 
city had grown apace. Ten years 
after its incorporation the population 
had doubled, while its trade and 
commerce had greatly increased. 
Many of its first men were proud 
to sit in the civic chair, and the 
names of those it sent to Parliament 
became " household words." In 1840, Toronto for the first time lit its streets with gas, and four years later, Reform founded 
its long-time chief organ of journalism, The Globe. Contemporary with the latter, there were issued in the rapidly-developinJ 
city, eight or ten other newspapers, whose names the Patriot, Mirror, Banner, Colonist, Examiner, and Christian Guardian 
will be familiar to the old-time citizen. To these evidences of progress has to be added those connected with improved 
facilities of communication by land and water, besides the building of churches and founding of schools. This period is 
also known as that which saw the erection of the Provincial University. Occasionally, progress had its set-backs, such as the 
great fire in 1849, which destroyed half a million of property, including the Cathedral Church of St. James. This calamity 
was followed by the second outbreak of Asiatic cholera, which carried off over five hundred of the city s inhabitants, most of 
whom were lately-arrived immigrants. On the whole, however, Toronto during this period made great strides. It generated 
the energies and amassed the resources which found further and higher development in the next decade, known as that of the 
Railway Era. 

Early in the " Fifties," Toronto and the Province began to reap the benefits of machinery and steam, which for the 
previous twenty years had done so much for the development of the Mother Land. Hitherto they had been the servants of 
man in the workshop, the mine and the manufactory ; now they were to be brought into play to carry him and his goods over 
the wide stretches of Canada and the Continent. Railway enterprise had its inception in Canada in a project for connecting 
Toronto first with lake Simcoe and the Georgian Bay, and afterwards, in the more gigantic undertaking, of connecting Montreal 
with Toronto and the towns of the Western peninsula. The first of these enterprises was known as the Ontario, Simcoe & 




Huron Railway, afterwards and for long called " the Northern." This road was " completed and opened to Aurora in May, 
1853, and to Collingwood in 1855, in which year also Toronto obtained direct railway communication with Hamilton, by the 
Toronto & Hamilton (or more familiarly, the Great Western ), and with Montreal by the Grand Trunk. The latter line was 
later on extended westward to Guelph, and soon after to Sarnia. The " Great Western " road was also carried through to the 
Niagara River, in the East, and to Windsor and the St. Clair River, in the West. Great was the benefit to Toronto of these 
roads, for they laid deep the foundations of the commercial fabric which now arose in the capital, and furnished to the towns of 
the Province a central emporium for trade. To the commercial development of the city, Reciprocity with the United States, 
which had been secured during Lord Elgin s regime, was very helpful ; and Toronto and the Province were also to gain much 
by the Civil War which broke out in 1861 in the neighbouring Republic, calamitous as was that event to those unhappily 
engaged in the strife. 

With the political developments in Upper Canada, from the period of the Rebellion, the annalist of Toronto has not 
much to do, save to record something of the general movements in the then United Provinces, in which the city took part, or 
by which it was in some degree aided. Of these movements, two were to be distinctly helpful to Toronto, namely, the 
founding of a system of Common School educa 
tion, with its higher extensions, in the way of 
Grammar or High Schools, leading up to the 
University, and the creation of the municipal 
system of local government in cities, towns and 
villages, with power to levy taxes for local im 
provements, to provide the machinery and pay 
the cost of local administration. The city was 
also more or less aided by the Parliamentary 
appropriations of the period for the extension 
of the canal system of the Province, the con 
struction of colonization roads, the building of 
public works, and the annual disbursements for 
the encouragement of immigration. Another 
gain of the time, from which Toronto and the 
country generally benefited, was the granting by 
the Mother Land of Commercial Freedom to 
the Colony, and the opening of her ports, un- 
taxed, to its lumber, grain and other products 
of trade. 

In the Canadian Parliament, party had 
still its burning questions to fight over, and 
keen and bitter was the strife and great the 
social agitation and discord. On the death of 
Lord Sydenham, came the brief administration 
of Sir Charles Bagot, followed, in 1843, by that 
of Sir Charles (afterwards Lord) Metcalfe. In 
assuming the Governor-Generalship, Metcalfe 
soon betrayed the fact that he looked with dis 
favour upon Responsible Government, and that 
in the distribution of patronage and appoint 
ment to office he rigidly upheld the prerogative 
of the Crown. This attitude, with which the 
Draper Tory Government was identified, was a 


retrograde step unpalatable to Reform and to the Liberal element in the country. Fortunately the regime did not last long, 
for, in 1847, Metcalfe withdrew in ill-health to England, and he was succeeded in office by Lord Elgin, a son-in-law of the 
Earl of Durham. The administration of this statesman is marked by the full development of Responsible Government, for 
his policy was not only conciliatory, but it led him to pay deference to the wishes of the people, as expressed by their 
Parliamentary representatives, and to guide himself by the counsels of those only who enjoyed their confidence. His 
regime was unfortunately marred by factious opposition in Parliament, which then met at Montreal, and was the scene of 
fren/ied riots and incendiarism, and by much wild agitation in both Provinces. This arose over the passing, by a Reform 
Administration then in power, of the Rebellion Losses Hill, a measure which authorised the Government to raise 
,100,000 to indemnify Lower Canadians for their losses in 1837, but which was opposed by the Tories, on the ground (hat 
the claims were preferred by and the compensation was to be paid to " rebels." Notwithstanding this contention, the Bill 
passed, though it cost the country the loss of the Parliament Buildings, which the Montreal malcontents gave to the flames, and 
for a time subjected Lord Elgin, though unfairly, to public odium. Time, however, allayed the excitement, and Toronto once 



more became the seat of Government, though until Ottawa was named by Her Majesty as the permanent capital, the city had 
to share with Quebec the honour of housing the United Parliament. Within its halls, the last great question which agitated the 
country, previous to the debates which heralded Confederation, was that of Representation by Population. This measure was 
one which sought to increase the number of Upper Canadians in the Assembly so as to correspond with the increased popula 
tion in the Upper Province. The Reform was initiated and accomplished by the persistent efforts of Mr. George Brown, in a 
Parliament whose chief now was Mr. John A. Macdonald, a name henceforth to be distinguished in the higher political life of 
the Young nation. In 1856, it is worthy of note, the elective principle was applied to the Legislative Council, a reform which 
changed that formerly Crown-nominated body into an elective one, on the death of the then Crown-appointed members. Two 
years previously, another disturbing question had been set at rest, by the secularization of the Clergy Reserves. In 1854, Lord 
Elgin resigned the Governor-Generalship, and was succeeded in the following year by Sir Edmund Walker Head. Six years 
later, Sir Edmund surrendered the reins of Government to his successor, Lord Monck. 

I luring Sir Edmund Head s occupancy of office, Toronto had the honour of entertaining the Prince of Wales, then on a 
tour through Canada, This notable event occurred in the year 1860, when His Royal Highness was in his nineteenth year. 

Accompanied by the Duke 
of Newcastle, Colonial Sec 
retary, and a brilliant suite, 
the Prince made his State 
entry into the city, which 
had decked itself in gor 
geous array to do honour 
to the occasion. Never did 
the Queen City of the West 
present a brighter spectacle 
or show a more fervid 
loyalty. For five days, To 
ronto gave itself up to the 
delirium of enthusiasm, and 
the citi/ens vied with each 
other in decking the town 
with bunting and, at night 
fall, in making the streets 
ablaze with illuminations. 
Few who saw the greeting 
at the landing-place, in the 
immense amphitheatre, 
temporarily erected at the 
foot of John Street, will 
forget the gay scene. Nor, 
RESIDENCE OF MK. WILLIAM CHRISTIE, QUEEN S I AKK. to aii appearance, was the 

Prince himself indifferent to the passionate enthusiasm which gave welcome to Britain s heir apparent and Victoria s eldest son. 
In sharp contrast, unhappily, to this scene of gladness and festivity, was another gathering of the populace on Toronto s 
water-front six years afterwards. On that occasion the scene was one of weeping and wailing. The evening was that of 
Sunday, the 3rd of June, 1866, when the steamer, the City of Toronto, brought back to their homes the dead and wounded from 
the field of Ridgeway. which had witnessed the brave deed of a handful of Canadian Volunteers defending their country s soil 
from the desecrating invasion of a band of Fenian marauders. Two days before, these youthful patriots, members of the 
gallant city corps, the Queen s Own Rifles, had gone forth in the joy and lustiness of life. Now they were being received by 
their anxious or bereaved relatives and a whole cityful of people, who, with a common -almost a divine impulse, had 
gathered to do honour to the memory of the fallen, and with a touching sympathy, eagerly sought to tend the stricken and the 
wounded. Scarcely less impressive was the mournful pageant, a few days aftewards, which wound its way through the streets 
of the city, mid the sorrow stricken and reverent multitude, to the tomb. The subject is too painful to linger over ; but it has 
its bright side, in the evidence it furnishes that, sneered at as sentiment and patriotism may be, they are nevertheless active 
principles in the breasts of Toronto s sons and in the common heart of the youth of Canada, impelling them, in the hour of 
need, to be true to their manhood, and loyal and unselfish in the service they offer and render to their country. 





N THE ist day of July, 1867, a change took place in the political system which had hitherto 
existed among the several Provinces of British North America. This came about, 
primarily, as the result of a deadlock in the two Canadas, in the Parliament of which 
legislation had long been hindered by the strife of parties, neither of whom could now 
command a sufficient majority to enable it efficiently to administer affairs. But union 
was already in the air ; for at the period the Maritime Provinces contemplated a closer 
alliance among themselves, while reason, as well as expediency, suggested that in the 
broader light of a new day, and in view of complications that might possibly arise 
between the Mother Country and the neighbouring Republic, as the outcome of the \Var 
of Secession, there should be a union of a more comprehensive kind among all the 
British communities of the Continent. This eminently sane and patriotic project, which, 
it will be remembered, was mooted by Lord Durham, had for some years been before the minds of the leading Canadian 
politicians, and by a few of them had been discussed with British statesmen. From the first, the Mother Country looked 
favourably on the scheme, for she saw her possessions in the New World becoming more hopelessly distracted by party conflicts 
and other internal dissensions, and without any bright outlook or bond of union, save that which English sovereignty in common 
supplied. Wisely, therefore, she deemed the measure one which she could heartily encourage, though the proposal, she properly 
concluded, must originate with the Colonies and not with the Crown. Increasing differences of race and interest in the 
Parliament of the old Canadas at last precipitated a crisis, and brought what had heretofore been but a vague idea into the 
arena of practical politics. At the period there were seven distinct Colonies in British America, owning allegiance to Britain, 
each if we except the two Canadas having its own political system and separate Government. These were the Provinces 
of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the two Canadas, and the Crown Colonies of Newfoundland and 
British Columbia. The proposal was to fed 
erate these, under a general Government, 
with a subordinate Legislature in each Prov 
ince, having jurisdiction over its own local 
affairs. The project continuing to engage 
the attention of Canadian statesmen, a con 
vention of representatives from the various 
Provinces met in 1864, first at Charlotte- 
town, P.E.I., and then at Quebec, to discuss 
the feasibility of the scheme, and finally to 
arrange the terms of the contemplated union. 
In the following year, the Canadian Legisla 
ture adopted the Union Resolutions, which 
by this time, as we have said, had received 
the hearty support of the Imperial authorities; 
and the next move was a meeting of Pro 
vincial delegates in London to arrange with 
the Home Government a formal basis of 
union. The delegates from Newfoundland 
withdrew from the scheme. The final result 
was the passing in the Imperial Parliament 
of the British North America Act, and the 
ratifying of the Confederation proposals. The RESIDENCE OF DR. G. S. KYEKSON, COLLEGE STKEF.T. 



Union embraced, as all our readers know, the four Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Upper and Lower Canada, 
under the designation of the Dominion of Canada. The name of Upper Canada was changed to Ontario, and that of Lower 
Canada to Ouebec. Provision was at the same time made for the admission of other Provinces, which might desire to come 
into the Union. Arrangements were subsequently made for the acquirement by purchase of the Hudson s Bay Company s 
interests in the vast region of the North-West, and for the construction of an Intercolonial Railway, connecting the Maritime 
Provinces with the two Canadas. Lord Monck became the first Governor-General of the Dominion, while Lieutenant-Governors 
were appointed to the several Provinces. Elections were at once held under the new constitution, and the first Dominion 
Parliament met, in 1867, at Ottawa, now the permanent seat of Government, Sir John A. Macdonald being Premier. 

We shall but complete the political summary, if we chronicle the fact that, in 1871, British Columbia entered Confedera 
tion, though she stipulated in doing so that it be connected with the East by a railway across the Continent. After various 
misadventures of a political kind, which we need not here go into, this great undertaking was completed, in 1886, to Vancouver 
and the sea, and the Pacific Province, with its vast resources, was thus brought within easy reach of the older settlements. In 
1870, Manitoba was carved out of the North-West ; and three years later, Prince Edward Island completed the chain, from 
ocean to ocean, of the Confederated British Colonies by entering the Dominion. 

In this Northern Empire of Britain, on the American Continent, the Province of Ontario holds the chief place, and 
Toronto, its capital, has a high and unchallenged share in its prestige and honours. It is perhaps not an exaggeration to say 


that Toronto has had much to do in making, at once, the Province and the Dominion. From her loins have gone forth not a 
little of the brain and muscle which have entered into both and contributed to their stability and greatness. So far as local 
government is concerned, Confederation has conferred a boon upon both the capital and the Province. It has taken from 
Toronto some political importance, but it has given it peace, and removed from it the chief cock-pit of party estrangement and 
strife. That has gone to the other end of the Province, and ours to-day is the happiest of all histories. Only the ghosts of old 
factions now stalk in our legislative halls, though we sometimes seek to reanimate them with the evil spirit of the past. But we 
have something better to do than this. On our people devolves the care of half a continent, whose resources are illimitable, 
whose capabilities are untold. Ours is a noble heritage. In population, if we have not as yet the numbers which betoken 
progress, we have a country vast and productive enough to rear numbers. In our North-West we have a belt of land which 
could provide sustenance, with plenty, for thirty or forty millions. In Ontario alone, twice the present population of the 
whole Dominion could be comfortably housed and fed. 

\\ ith such a past and present, if we are but true to ourselves, who can despair of what the future will bring ? The past 
twenty years progress of Toronto is in itself sufficient to dispel all doubts. The development of the city is but a reflex of the 
development of the nation as a whole. If this is challenged, let the questioner look abroad, and if he has known what 
the country was a generation ago, he will, if a candid man, be convinced. Nor has the progress alone been material. Besides 
the advance in wealth, and all that wealth has brought in its train, there has been a steady rise in the moral and intellectual 



status of the people. The gain in this direction is perhaps not all that \ve could wish it to have been, but the progress has 
been upward : and the ascent has not been that of a class, but of the people as a whole. In our national outlook, there is not 
a little still to perplex and bewilder ; but there is also much to encourage and inspire. 

Only optimistic can be the observer of the recent growth of Toronto. Since Confederation, its strides in population 
and realty outvie even the mushroom growth of the typical Western city. In 1867, the population was under 50,000, 
and the realty 20 million : to-day the population is in the neighbourhood of 200,000, while the realty exceeds a 135 millions . 
It is said that on one of our streets -Toronto Street though only a block in length, the realty and personalty are assessed, 
in round numbers, at one million dollars. The imports of the city, within the period, show a like marvellous advance. 
In 1867, the amount was a trifle over seven millions ; in 1889, they approached twenty millions. Facts such as these speak 
volumes. When we consider not only this amazing increase, in population and in the value of the city s ratable property, 
but the evidences on all sides of solid prosperity and substantial comfort, and even luxury, we may venture to picture the 
Toronto of the coming time as a place of phenomenal importance, and wielding great influence over the destinies of the 
country. Much in this respect will of course depend on 
the character of its public men, the repute and public 
spirit of its citizens, and the manner in which its affairs 
are administered. Patriotism requires that a man shall 
work for his country and fellowmen as he works for 
himself. Self-seeking and the building up of the indi 
vidual at the expense of every other interest has been 
too often the rule, and civic life has thus been deprived 
of its animating principle, and the public weal has been 
left to shift for itself. Cities, like nations, it should be 
remembered, are living and growing or atrophied and 
dying organisms ; and the individual citizen has a pro 
portionate interest in the life and prosperity, and a 
corresponding responsibility for the decay and retrogres 
sion, of the city which he makes his habitation and finds 
his daily bread. 

Of interest in any historical retrospect of Toronto s 
annals must be the list of her chief magistrates. There 
have been, in all. twenty-six men who have filled the 
civic chair since the city s incorporation in 1834. Of 
the number, most of them have been her own sons and 
some of them her best blood. Not a few have served 
her interests so well, that they have enjoyed a second, 
and even a third, term. In the early days, when the 
incumbent of office was elected by the Council rather 
than by the people, some mayors have even done better 
than a third term. The list is full of interest for another reason. It marks out not only the men who have had the distinction 
of a high office conferred upon them, but identifies with successive periods in the life of the city those who have been 
instrumental in laboriously and faithfully serving her. We append the list : 



1834. Win. I. yon Mackenzie. 

1835. Hon. R. B. Sullivan, Q.C. 

1836. Thos. D. Morrison. M.I). 

1837. George Gurnett. 

1 838- -39-40. John Powell. 

1841. George Monro. 

1842-43-44. Hon. Henry Sherwood, Q.C. 

1845-46-47. Wm. Henry Boulton. 

1848 49 -50. George Gurnett. 

1851-52-53. John Geo. Bowes. 

1854. Joshua G. Beard. 

1855. Hon. Geo. W. Allan, D.C.I.. 

1856. Hon. Jno. Beverley Robinson. 

1857. John Hutchison. 

1858. Win. Henry Boulton. 
1858. D. Breckenridge Read, Q.C. 

1859 60. Hon. (Sir) Adam Wilson, Q.C. 
)no. Carr, President of Council. 
1861-62-63. John Geo. Bowes. 
1864-65-66. Francis H. Medcalf. 
1867-68. James E. Smith. 
1869-70. Samuel B. Harman. 
1871-72. Joseph Sheard. 
1873. Alexander Manning. 
1874-75. Francis H. Medcalf. 
1876-77-78. Angus Morrison. 
1879-80. James Beaty, D.C.I.., Q.C. 
1881-82. Wm. B. McMurrich, M.A. 
1883-84. Arthur R. Boswell. 
1885. Alexander Manning. 
1886-87. Win. H. Howland. 
1888-89-90. Edward F. Clarke, M.P.K 





HE history of Toronto, as those who have followed us through these pages will have seen, 
is pretty much the history of the Province, of which it is now the imposing metropolis. 
The two come necessarily into close, occasionally into perilous, and, considering the 
public weal, not infrequently into disadvantageous contact. Especially is this the case in 
the early and mediaeval period of the city s career, when the Province was being rough- 
hewn out of the wilderness and its affairs administered by an Executive whose whole 
machinery of Government was centred in Toronto, and whose servants were not always 
the servants of the public, but those of a junto at the Capital. Yet Toronto has an inter 
esting local history of its own, not, it is true, like that of Quebec or Montreal, full of the 
striking and picturesque elements which belong to the French re gime of old Canada, with 
the soldier and the priest within its walls, and nature and nature s savage without. It 
knew no feudal state, though it had an autocracy which for a time ruled it, and fettered its development, as though its govern 
ment were that of the Middle Ages. But while Toronto has neither the history that attaches, say, to Quebec, nor the position 
that has given that city its fame, her past is by no means lacking in incident, though her annals, since the stirring era 
of 1812 and the troublous times of 1837, are mainly those of peace. The rise of Toronto, however, though chiefly, has not 
been wholly, due to the enterprise of civilians, or to the undisturbed pursuits of a time of peace. The rude nursings of war, 
as we have seen, cradled the city s limbs into lusty life. In its early days, its population had a large military infusion, while, 
later on, not a little of its growth shot up during a lengthened period of civil embroilment. We have seen also, that at the time 
of its incorporation as a city, Toronto s framework was shaken in its socket by political strife, while its municipal system was 
founded amid the noise of faction and with the bitterness of party contention. Yet what was done then, the people enjoy 

In contrast to the cities on the St. Lawrence, Toronto is a British and, in the main, a Protestant city. " How English is 
Toronto !" is the common remark of the visitor, whether he comes from the Motherland itself or from the Republic to the south 
of us. English speech and English ways are 
the characteristics of our people. In face 
and figure, too, our population confess kin 
ship with the Motherland across the sea, and 
betray customs, habits, and institutions here 
faithfully reproduced. Even the nomencla 
ture of our streets, though not the rectangular 
method in which they are laid out, speaks 
eloquently of the Old Land, whence came 
the sturdy life that reclaimed them from the 

The industrial and social evolution of 
Toronto, especially within the last two de 
cades, is so remarkable as to be almost 
without a parallel in the history of the com 
munities of the New World. It is so grati 
fying a circumstance that its people may well 
point to it with pride. When it rose to the 
dignity of a city, its actual population was 
|>ivi*cly 9.254 souls; ten years later, de 
population had doubled; in another ten years, 
that again had doubled. In 1880, the popu 
lation, including the suburbs, had risen to a 
100,000 ; to-day, as we know, it is 200,000 ! 
The value of assessable property, within the vw I.-ROM -CHORI.EY PARK," SUMMKK RESIDENCE OF MR. JOHN HALLAM. 



corporation, has also, of recent years especially, risen by leaps and hounds. In 1879, the total realty was 50 millions: last year it 
rose to 136 millions ! Within the same period, though the rate of taxation had been reduced from i 7^ to i 4 }4 mills, the annual 
municipal assessment had doubled. In 1879, the revenue derived from taxation was, in round numbers, $900,000 ; last year 
(1889), it had risen to over $2,000,000 ! The city s strides in population and taxable wealth are matched by the growth of 
its domestic trade, as well as by the increase of the volume of its foreign imports and exports. High also is the status to which 
Toronto has risen as the great mart and distributing centre of industry and commerce. To it, the rich Province of Ontario, 
with not a little of the great North-West, is tributary. It has become a vast commercial emporium, a great railway and shipping 
centre, the literary hub of the Dominion, the Mecca of tourists, an Episcopal and Archiepiscopal See, and the ecclesiastical 
headquarters of numerous denominations, the seat of the Law Courts, the Provincial Legislature, the Universities, Colleges and 
great schools of learning. In addition to all these it has become a most attractive place of residence. 

The charm of Toronto, in this latter respect, is great, and each year adds to its attractions. The shaded streets, the 
parks, the drives ; the cool breezes from the lake, with a pull to the Humber ; the ferry passage to the Island, or to the many 
accessible resorts on the water-front extending east and west of the city ; yachting on the lake, an afternoon trip to Niagara 



Grimsby, Hamilton or St. Catharines ; or a run up over Sunday to the Muskoka Lakes and the Georgian Bay, make a summer 
residence in the Provincial metropolis a joy and delight. Nor are the means of passing the winter enjoyably and instructively 
with access to libraries, museums and art-galleries, besides the attractions of lectures, concerts, operas, etc. less pleasing or 
abundant. Nor should the attractions of the "Fair" time, for a fortnight each autumn, be forgotten, during which the 
Industrial Exhibition Association lays every activity under tribute, not only to present the visitor with a pleasing and instructive 
spectacle, but to foster the agricultural and manufacturing industries of the Province, to afford evidence of their marvellous 
growth, and to display the manual achievements or the natural products of the year. 

Neither the Toronto of the past nor the Toronto of to-day owes anything to its natural position. In this respect it is 
unlike Montreal, Quebec, or even Ottawa ; it is no city set upon a hill. Its one glory is its harbour, which is not only useful 
but beautiful. This spacious basin is screened from the lake by a fine island fender, a delightful summer resort of the citizens, 
on which may be seen numberless picturesque cottages, while on the bay disport every species of sailing, steaming and rowing 
craft. The city itself lies on a flat plain, with a rising inclination to the northward. It covers an area five miles in breadth 



(i.e parallel with the lake) by three miles in depth (f.e. X. and S., or running back from the water-front). Beyond the wharves, 
risuVup from the bay, are three hundred miles of branching streets, which intersect each other, generally at right angles, 
and m winch "live move and have their being" two hundred thousand souls. The chief streets devoted to retail business are 
King and Queen, running parallel with the bay and a tew blocks north of it, and Yonge Street, cleaving the city in twain and 
extending to its northern limits and beyond them. The area of the business portion of the city occupied by the large wholesale 
houses, the banks, financial institutions, loan and insurance companies, the Government and Municipal Offices, etc., maybe 
indicated as that between Front and the Esplanade and Adelaide Street, and between York Street and the Market. The 
residential part of the city lies chiefly to the north and west of the business section, and is well set off and ornamented by neat 
villas and rows of detached or semi-detached houses, with boulevards, lawns and fine shade trees. What the city lacks in 

picturesqueness of situation is well atoned 
for in the evidences that everywhere meet 
the eye of cultivated aesthetic taste. This 
finds expression in the pleasing revival of old 
English architecture in. the many handsome 
villas, churches and public buildings of the 
city. Nor is this taste less apparent in the 
mammoth stores and warehouses of com 
merce, the banks, insurance and financial 
establishments, which have been erected in 
recent years and which have been largely 
brought within the sphere of art. We have 
now less flimsy sheet-iron or wood ornamen 
tation, and more of decorative work in stone. 
Individuality is asserting itself, also, in the 
designs of many of the street fronts, which, 
though they afford little room for the more 
ambitious combinations of the architect, 
present sufficient scope for the display of 
taste and the avoidance of weary repetition. 
Colour, especially in stone, is being effectively 
introduced and adds much to the grace and 
cheerfulness of the new exteriors. This is 
particularly to be noticed in the many hand 
some recent churches. Architecturally speak 
ing, Toronto has of recent years put on a 
new face, and it is the face of comeliness 
and beauty. 

The activities of the past few years 
are happy augurs of the activities of the 
future. From what Toronto is, we may judge 
what Toronto will become. At present there- 
are vast building enterprises under way, which 
soon will add immensely to the artistic beauty 
as well as to the substantial wealth of the 
city. We have just seen completed the 
new and imposing offices of the Canada Lite 
Assurance Co., the substantial banking house of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, and the artistic home of the Board of 
Trade, Hesides these, is in course of erection the splendid pile of the Confederation Life Insurance Co., with other huge 
financial and mercantile edifices. Another great hotel building we believe is soon to go up, and ere long we may look for 
the rising of the new City Hall and Court House. The fine Parliament Buildings are now taking form and shape, and the new 
home of Upper Canada College is about completed. With these and other new architectural achievements, including a 
resurrected University, and a new home for the denominational uses of Victoria College, Toronto s outlook is bright for the 
increased decking of herself in the early coming years. The prospect is enhanced in attractiveness by the promise of additions 
and improvements to the city s public parks and drives. 







Ml NKii-Al. Di:i;r. 

1 HERE can be few better ways of illustrating the progress of Toronto or of marking the 
changes which the passing years have wrought, than to turn the eye of memory backward 
on some aspects of the city a generation ago. Most of us live nowadays so hurried a 
life that we have little leisure for retrospects. Hence the vivid impressions of change 
and vicissitude, to which cities as well as human existence are subject, are in the main 
lost upon us. But it is well now and then to take a look backward, that we may correct 
any tendency to despond or be influenced by the lugubrious pessimism of the age, 
either with regard to our material or our intellectual and social advancement. The old resident who recollects the city of " the 
fifties " and knows the city of to-day will, if his heart be right, appreciate what the years have done for Toronto during the 
interval. The present writer can well remember his own impressions of the place when he first came, a youth of nineteen, 
to the city in the autumn of 1858. The street railway was not yet in operation; nor had we those useful adjuncts of our 
modern civilization telephones, coupes, and the electric light. The opera houses and art galleries, which we have to-day, 
were not then built ; nor had we many of the public resorts, parks and drives, or the myriad island ferries which the later- 
day resident revels in. Concerts and public meetings had then no pavilion or mammoth rink for the comfortable housing of 
nightly multitudes. The best edifices we then had for public lectures and entertainments were the St. Lawrence Hall, on King 
Street East, and the Music Hall, on Church, over the present Public Library. In the former, we first heard Thomas D Arcy 
McCiee, Canada s silver-tongued orator, who by the way on that occasion could not get beyond the exordium of his extempor 
ised address, having dined that evening "not wisely but too well." Our memories of the latter are connected with Vandenhoff, 
the elocutionist, Charles Kingsley, the Rev. Dr. McCaul, his snuff-box and red pocket handkerchief, and Mrs. John Beverley 
Robinson and her closing function, the singing, with thrilling fervour, of the National Anthem. Eor 
smaller gatherings, there was.a Hall on Temperance Street, in which we remember to have heard Emerson 
lecture, and also the Royal Lyceum on King Street West, in the immediate proximity of the Remain 
Buildings, but a little south of the street. Here we used frequently to spend an evening enjoying the lyric 
drama, as rendered by the Holman Sisters, or delighting ourselves with the personations in light comedy 
of Charlotte Nickinson, better known to a later generation as Mrs. Morrison. 

The passenger station at which we landed 
was an open, and somewhat straggling, one, of 
very modest pretensions; for the Grand Trunk had 
not long been in operation and that road and the 
Great Western had, overlooking the bay, a sort of 
wayside terminus in common. Two landmarks 
there were on the Esplanade, at either end of the 
town, which were among the first objects to strike 
our eye on arriving. These were the old Windmill 
and County Jail, on the East, and on the West, 
the new Crystal Palace, or Provincial Exhibition 
liuilding, a glittering edifice built on the lines and 
after the style of its great London prototype in 
ll\de Park. The dingy old Parliament Buildings, 
we remember, were an attraction to us, more how 
ever lor historic than for aesthetic reasons. The HKVKKI.EY STREET BAI-TIST CHUKCH. 
gayest thing we can recall about them was seeing 

the Royal Standard, on the occasion of the visit of the Prince of Wales, fluttering over the pile, though the whole was dominated 
by the loft) and spacious drill-shed adjoining. As an old officer of the militia force, we have proud memories of that great 
drill-shed, in connection with our volunteering days, during the exciting era of the Eenian Raids. It has long since been 
demolished, its immense roof having fallen in with the accumulated burden of a long winter s snows. 



Other landmarks, familiar to us in our early rambles through the city, have also disappeared. Of these we recall the old 
Globe Office, on King Street West, and the Leader and Colonist offices, on King Street East. Then there were the Registry 
Office, on Toronto Street, and, a little north of it, the Adelaide Street Methodist Church, and round the corner, eastward, the 
church known as Old St. Andrew s. Three other sacred edifices have also passed out of sight, namely, Zion Church, at the 
corner of Bay and Adelaide, the Bay Street United Presbyterian Church, and the old-fashioned structure, with its Grecian 
affectations, long used by the Methodist body, on Richmond Street. The modern buildings that occupy the sites of these old 
landmarks are emphatic reminders of the real and substantial progress of Toronto. The "then and now" present many curious 
contrasts, which one could pursue for pages without stint of matter. Perhaps the most striking of these is that which might be 
drawn between the imposing warehouse of Messrs. Wyld, Grasett & Darling, on Bay Street, and the old Mercer cottage which 
it displaced. 

But not all of the old landmarks have been swept away : many yet remain and hold their heads high. In " the 
fifties," a number of tasteful and substantial buildings were erected, which do no discredit to-day to the architecture of the time. 
The prevailing fashion of that era was for the neat, and indeed elegant, Italian type of public buildings. Of this type, or akin to 
it, are the Masonic Hall, Toronto Street, the Romain Buildings, King Street West, the St. Lawrence Hall, King Street East, 


and the edifice now used by the Public Library. Of the Grecian and Doric orders, are the old Post Office (now the Receiver- 
General s Office), Toronto Street, and the Exchange Building (now the Imperial Bank), on Wellington Street. Belonging to 
the era of which we speak, there were then, as there are still, a number of prominent public buildings, which were the "show 
places " of the period, and which to-day maintain their attractions, despite accident and the tooth of time. These are the 
University, the Normal School and Education Office, Osgoode Hall, Trinity College, Upper Canada College, and St. lames 
and St. Michael s Cathedrals. To these, the city has added in recent years an almost countless number of architectural 
attractions, chiefly in the way of churches. In the main, the style of building has radically changed. Of the old orthodox 
type of expensive church edifice with its tapering spire, which has gone out of fashion, Knox (Presbyterian), Gould Street 
(Catholic Apostolic), St. George s (Anglican), and a few others, remain. The recent structures if not more solid, are more 
ornate and imposing. The number of them (now upwards of 150) is a wonderful showing for a city like Toronto. Their 
beauty is in many instances remarkable, the denominations seemingly vicing with each other as to which of them shall adorn 
the city with the most costly and attractive edifice. Many of the old ones are dear to us, in having survived decay, and resisted 
innovation and the march of improvement. Among Episcopal churches, we recall a few in the once-outlying parishes which 
time has venerated, while they retain their old lineaments. Of the number are St. John s, St. Stephen s, St. Paul s, St. Peter s, 



and Little Trinity. Though in the heart of the city, the Church of the Holy Trinity has also escaped change, while it has 
added to its associations with age and good works. The other denominations can also count their early out-post churches in 
Toronto, some of which however have been modernized or rebuilt, or have passed into the possession of other ecclesiastical 
bodies. In one or two instances, in the change of hands, the church buildings have become seculari/ed. In the increase of 
denominations and the multiplying of churches, we seem still a long way from the unity of Christendom, though happily there 
are signs in our day that speculative dogma is becoming of less, and practical morality of more, importance. In the long run, 
the result must be to bring the various churches more closely together. 

The increase in the number of school buildings in Toronto, and their substantial outfit and artistic adornment, are further 
gratifying features in the city s recent career. A quarter of a century ago, if our memory is not at fault, there were not more 
than eight or nine city schools, besides the Provincial, Normal and Model Schools, chiefly for professional training. To-day the 
number has increased to forty-eight, while most of the old ones have been rebuilt and enlarged. The school equipment has 
also greatly improved, while the character of the training has advanced. The city has also added to the number of its colleges 
and seats of higher education for both sexes. In this and other ways, Toronto has added greatly to its attractions as a place 
of residence, particularly for those having families to rear and educate. 

As the eye ranges over the immense area which recent years have brought within the city s embrace, one notes also with 
pride the evidences of a higher ideal in the comfort and luxury of living. Not only does the vast number of elegant villas and 
semi-detached houses on our chief residential streets denote an increase of wealth and the enterprise born of its possession, but 
it is an indication that we have refined our taste in domestic architecture and heightened and beautified our manner of life. 
This is also shown in the tasteful surround 
ings of our homes and in the boulevarding ^^^KM^? 
and tree-planting of our streets. The recog- Wk 
nition of the need for public parks and drives 
about the city, and what we have already 
achieved in this direction, are further pleasing 
features in Toronto s social advancement. 
Nor in this enumeration must we overlook 
the additions which philanthropy has of recent 
years made to the number of hospitals, chari 
ties and other eleemosynary institutions in 
all parts of the city. The gain in this respect 
has been large and gratifying. In these pro- 
fust: evidences of practical benevolence there 
is proof that the hearts of Toronto s citizens, 
with all their wealth, have not hardened. 

What is seen in the way of improve 
ment in Toronto s domestic; and social life 
has its counterpart in Toronto s manufactur 
ing and business life. The dingy and cramped 
establishments of other days have been re 
placed by those of spaciousness, loftiness and 
light. If one wants to see the evidence of 
this, let him look in at the mammoth ware- 
rooms of our merchant princes, at the now 
bright and roomy factories, at the palatial 
banking houses, and at the imposing offices 
of the great insurance and loan companies RESIDENCE OP MRS. JOHN RIORDAH, QUEEN S PARK. 

and other homes ol industry and commerce. Are there many places, observes Toronto s venerable historiographer, where the 
multiform affairs of men are carried on under conditions more favourable, on the whole, to happiness, health, and length 
of days ? 

Not less worthy of comment, as marks of the city s progress within the past two or three decades, is the extension of the 
various agencies of the civic administration, and notably those of the Police Force and the Fire Brigade. The growth of recent 
years of both of these departments is another indication of the city s development; and the growth is not more remarkable than 
is the practical efficiency. With the enlargement of the municipal area, absorbing as it now does the once-outlying suburbs of 
Brockton, Parkdale, Seaton Village, Yorkville, and Deer Park, there has of necessity been a considerable addition to the city s 
debt. But to-day the debt does not exceed twelve millions of dollars, and it is amply covered by the value of the enlarged and 
improved city property. Much, of course, requires still to be done, and large sums have yet to be expended ere Toronto s city 
fathers and the public generally shall be content with the sanitary condition and the esthetic appearance of the town. But 
what has been accomplished inspires confidence in what will be accomplished, and gives assurance that Toronto will continue 
to add to her greatness and to the material and moral enrichment of every phase of her civic life. 






I/THOUGH not a picturesque city, Toronto is not lacking in natural and artistic beauty. 
Its chief adornment is its water-front, as seen from the harbour and island, or the lake 
beyond. The approach by water, either by the gap or by the western entrance to the 
harbour, is singularly fine. The spires, towers and cupolas of its churches and public 
buildings, with the imposing array of substantial warehouses that line the shore-front, 
afford an agreeable contrast to the confused mass of the city, sloping up in the distance, 
and mark it as a place of wealth and enterprise. The impression is heightened when the 
visitor passes from the steamer and is instantly confronted with the traffic of the streets 
and the noise and movement which are its ceaseless accompaniments. It is computed 

that there are 300 miles of streets within the compass of the city. The names of many of them, a.s we have already observed, 
bespeak our English origin, to wit King, Queen, Adelaide, Nelson, Wellington, Richmond, Victoria, Albert and Louisa Streets , 
besides those that commemorate an earlier Hanoverian era. Those in our immediate vicinity, it will at once be seen, are given 
up to commerce. The residential portion of the town lies to the northward, branching off Yonge Street, its main axis, to the 
east and west. To see Toronto in its pictorial aspects, let the visitor take a carriage at landing and make two tours, starting, 
say, from the intersection of Yonge and Front Streets one embracing some of the sights of the city to the east and north, the 
other all that is important to the west and north. In these tours, the following itinerary may prove of interest. 

At the starting-point named, three fine buildings, fairly typical of the city s wealth and enterprise, will be sure to attract 
the tourist s attention. These are the Custom House, the Toronto Branch of the Bank of Montreal, and the newlv-erected 
home of the local Board of Trade. The interior as well as the exterior beauty of these three buildings is a matter of just pride 
to the citizens. From this point radiate 
the business streets, whose massive ware 
houses may be seen on every hand, each 
house or firm seeming to vie with its 
neighbour in the erection of elegant and 
commodious premises, with the best facili 
ties for doing business. To the westward, 
a block and a half distant, is the well- 
known hostelry of "The Queen s." A 
little beyond the latter, on the Esplanade, 
is the Union Station, the joint terminus 
of the two great railway corporations of 
the Dominion, the Grand Trunk and the 
Canadian Pacific. Near by, are the old 
Parliament Buildings, with which Time 
deals gently, pending the erection in the 
Queen s Park of more imposing halls for 
the Provincial Legislature. Proceedinu 
northward, on Yonge Street, we pass suc 
cessively the Bank of British North 
America, the Trader s Bank, the offices of 
the Toronto General Trusts Co., the new 

home of The Globe newspaper the chief f*~ 

organ of the Liberal party in Canada - >E32Es3^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^fc^ 

and, at the intersection of King and Yonge, JAKVIS STREET (\VEST SIDE), NEAR BLOOR. 



the fine building of the Dominion Bank. On Wellington Street, which we have just now passed, are the headquarters of the 
financial corporations the Standard, Ontario, Toronto, and Imperial Hanks, the local branches of the Merchant s Bank and 
the Union Hank of Canada, and two Canadian and American Mercantile Agencies, together with the offices, surrounded by 
congeries of wires, of the Great Nortlv \Ycstern and the Canadian Pacific Telegraph Companies. At the intersection of Yonge 
and King Streets, we reach the commercial hub of the city, round and about which revolve Toronto s chief trading and manu 
facturing industries, in close touch, at all hours of the day, with its professional and social life. Here, as we have observed 
elsewhere, the dense traffic and throng of vehicles will not permit of more than a moment s pause, though the visitor who is on 
foot will no doubt be tempted to turn aside to have a look into the shops or the shop windows, the contents of which furnish 
impressive proof of the city s wealth and buying capacity, as well as of the enterprise and taste of its native manufacturing and 
importing houses. 

Proceeding eastward on King Street, we pass many of the finest retail stores in the city, including the handsome Credit 
Valley brown stone buildings occupied by the Upper Canada Furniture Company and the Carpet Warehouse. Presently we 

reach Toronto Street, at the northern end of 

which is the Toronto General Post Office, a 
handsome edifice, built of richly-wrought 
Ohio stone, with a finely carved facade and 
high mansard roof. On this street, also, is 
the Receiver-General s Office, and a number 
of the leading financial and other flourishing 
institutions of the Provincial Capital. Near 
by, is the local Scotland Yard, the head 
quarters of the Police Department, and of the 
city s Fire Protection service. Continuing our 
way eastward, we reach at the corner of 
Church Street, St. James Cathedral, a fine 
historic edifice, with a massive tower and 
graceful spire, which rears its finial ornament 
some 300 feet from the base. The Cathedral 
has a grand nave and spacious aisles, with 
apsidal chancel, underneath which, in a crypt, 
sleep the first Bishop of Toronto, Dr. John 
Strachan, and its long-time rector, Dean 
Grasett. In rear of the Cathedral grounds, is 
Toronto s Free Public Library, under the 
intelligent supervision of its chief librarian, 
Mr. James Bain. This useful institution, with 
its branches, is maintained by a direct muni 
cipal tax amounting to about $30,000 a year, 
and is an agency of much value in contri 
buting to the intellectual life, as well as to 
the literary recreation, of the citizens. 

In our rapid tour of the city we shall 
not be able to overtake all its points of 
interest, and must narrow the area of our 
sight-seeing. Under this compulsion we shall 
therefore .vend our way northward, by way 
of Church Street, looking in for a brief while 
at the Museum, Art Gallery and Library of 

the Education Department, situate in the fine enclosure of St. James Square. Here are the headquarters of the educational 
system of the Province, under the administration of a Minister of Education. The Art Gallery and Museum contain a large 
and miscellaneous collection of pictures and statuary, copies of the old masters and other famous paintings, with models of 
Assyrian and Egyptian sculpture. The adjoining buildings are used as a Model School for the youth of both sexes, and a 
Normal School for the professional training of teachers. In the square immediately to the south which we have passed on 
the way to the Education Office, stands one of the largest ecclesiastical edifices in the Dominion and a special adornment to 
Toronto, the Metropolitan (Methodist) Church. The church owes its existence to the denominational zeal and ability of the 
Rev. Dr. Morley I unshon, who for some years made Toronto his home and did much for Methodism in Canada. The interior 
of the building is elegant as well as spacious, and the whole structure excites admiration for the harmony and effectiveness of 
its general design. Close by, on Shuter Street, is St. Michael s (R.C.) Cathedral, a massive structure with a fine tower and 
spire, and adjoining the Cathedral is St. Michael s Palace, the Archiepiscopal See House. 



Turning eastward, we may pass into one or other of the two principal residential streets of the eastern part of the city 
:reet and Sherbourne Street. On both the visitor will find some ornate villas, set out with well-kept grounds and plenty 
of beautiful shade trees. Here he will also find some charming specimens of ecclesiastical architecture, a particularly attractive 
one being the Jarvis Street Baptist Church. In Jams Street is situate the Toronto Collegiate Institute, one of the best of the 
ondary schools of the Province, under its efficient rector, Archibald MacMurchy, M.A. Occupying a square about ten acres 
in extent, flanked by Gerrard, Carlton and Sherbourne Streets, are the beautiful Horticultural Gardens and Pavilion, a shrine 
Mora much frequented by the citizens and the wheeled cherubs of the home. The grounds are laid out with great taste 
and with an artist s eye for floral adornment. In the north-east corner of the town overlooking the beautiful vale of the Don 
the city cemeteries, where sleep the rude forefathers of the hamlet "-the old-time " Little York " with their offspring of 
a later generation. Across what is known as the Rosedale Ravine, which is connected with the city by two ornamental bridges 
extends to the northward a new and picturesque suburb of Toronto. This section of the city should be seen by the visitor 
who has an eye for the beautiful. There are pleasant drives in the neighbourhood, and the whole region is taken in bv the new 
lelt Railway round the city, and by a cordon of public drives and parks. 

We shall now turn westward along Bloor Street and take a glance at Occidental Toronto. For nearly a couple of 
generations, Bloor Street was the northern limit 
of the city, and for long more than one-half of 
the area to the south of it was covered with 
virgin woods. To-day, not only has the city 
been built up to the erst-while bounds, but it 
extends far beyond and is now climbing the 
ridge, the ancient marge of the lake, and on 
this high elevation is branching out into vast 
extensions of the town. Here avenues and 
streets are being rapidly opened up to the west 
ward of Deer Park and Yonge Street, the real 
estate agencies giving an impetus to the civic 
development. In a beautiful situation on this 
high ground, thirty acres in extent, is being 
erected the new home for Upper Canada Col 
lege. A half mile or so to the eastward is the 
pretty woodland cemetery of Mount Pleasant. 
Pursuing our westward route on Bloor we come 
to the upper boundary of the Queen s Park, on 
the northern alignment of which is situate Mc- 
Master Hall, the denominational college of the 
Baptist body. It is built of a rich dark-brown 
stone, with dressings of black and red brick. 
The college is the gift of the donor whose name 
it bears, and it is affiliated with the Toronto 
University. On Bloor Street will be found a 
continuous chain of churches, called into ex 
istence by the recent extension to the north 
ward of the residential area of the city. Their 
elaborate architecture and elegant roominess 
within are indicative of the general opulence of 
the neighbourhood. 

Turning into the Queen s Park, a short 

drive will bring _the visitor to the precincts of Toronto University. We say precincts, for unfortunately this grand Norman 

lie, which was justly deemed the flower and glory of Toronto s architecture, fell recently a prey to the flames. Luckily its 

r walls, and particularly its noble front, were saved from destruction, and the beneficence which the calamity called forth 

expected soon to restore the building to its uses. Though in partial ruin, the beauty of the structure and the harmony 

are not concealed from the admiring spectator. Across the lawn from the University will be found a group of 

gs, aux, haries of the College, viz. : the new Biological Institute, the School of Practical Science and the Meteorological 

, | hc rovlnce In rear of th ese are Wycliffe College, the theological hall of the evangelical section of the 

Anglican Church and the fine auditorium of the University Young Men s Christian Association. The parent home of the 

onge Street, a little to the south of the College Avenue. In the Queen s Park are in course of erection the 

ruament Buildings, a vast pile which is now beginning to take noble form and shape, though a questionable intrusion 
ation grounds of the people. In the vicinity will be found a fine bronze statue of the late Hon George Brown 

.onument m memory of the volunteers of the city who fell at Ridgeway, on the 2nd of June, 1866, in repelling invasion 




On the eastern flank of the Park may be seen St. Michael s (R.C.) College, which is in affiliation with the National University. 
A little to the westward of the Park, looking lakeward on Spadina Avenue, is Knox College, the training institution of the 
ministry of the Presbyterian Church. To the northwestward, in a further and recent extension of the town, is the partially- 
erected Cathedral Church of St. Albans. This beautiful edifice attests the apostolic zeal and faithfulness of Dr. Sweatman, 
the Anglican Bishop of Toronto, under whose fostering care the Cathedral has so far been reared. On College Street will also 
be found an almost continuous line of churches, all of which possess good claims to architectural beauty. 

The return to the business portions of the city may be made either by the throng of Yonge Street, on the East, or by 
the spacious highway of Spadina Avenue, on the West. It may be more convenient, however, to drive down the intermediate 
exit from the Park by way of College Avenue, with its double line of fine chestnut trees, to Queen Street, and there take a look 
into Osgoode Hall, the seat of the great law courts of the Province. Here the Law Society of Upper Canada has its home. 
To those who know the majesty of the law, only in the person of the constable, we would recommend a visit to one or other 


of the courts, sitting in Bane, or a ramble through the Library, Convocation Hall and the corridors, and up and down the great 
staircases, upon which and upon the visitor the grave and learned judges look forth from their frames with august and 
impressive mien. 

Turning eastward, on Queen, to regain Yonge Street, we reach the site, at the head of Bay Street, of the future Municipal 
and County Buildings, now in course of erection. The site is a central and convenient one, and when it is cleared of the " old 
rookeries" and other dilapidated relics of a bygone day, which at present occupy and surround it, the new and handsome pile 
to be devoted to the uses of the County and City will have an imposing appearance. The striking feature of the building will 
be the massive and lofty clock tower, which, in the plan, forms the front facade, and presents a graceful and symmetrical appear 
ance. The whole structure, which is modern Romanesque in style, will be a great ornament to the city, and, with the New 
Parliament Buildings, will vastly increase its attractions. Close by is Knox Church, one of the earliest places of worship in the 
city connected with the Presbyterian denomination, and at the head of James Street, somewhat back from Yonge, is the 


Anglican Church of the Holy Trinity. From the head of Bay Street, the visitor can see, at the comer of Richmond, the sub- 

.ant , ed,,,ce erected recently by the ( louncil of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. From Yonge, after passing the new 
sue oi e ( onfederation Life buildings and Yonge Street Arcade, a glimpse may be had of "The Grand" and Toronto 
"7 ; While a fe " stc )S onwards wi lj g u < once more to the intersection of Yonge and King. Proceeding west 
ward on the latter street the visitor w,,l be struck with the fine aspect which the handsome offices and stores present the skt 
^ being agreeaby broken by the imposing and lofty structure just erected for the Canada Life Assurance Co and by the 

tower and pinnacled roof of The Mail Printing Company. The Canada Life building, with us well - inden ed front is 

novel departure in the city s 

architectural designs, and 

is the cynosure of all 

passers by on the street. 

Another very handsome ad 
dition to this portion of 

King Street, and a great 

ornament to Toronto, is 

the new banking-house of 

the Canadian Bank of 

Commerce, situate at the 

corner of Jordan. Opposite 

to it is the .Manning Arcade, 

and at the corner of Bay, 

the printing house of the 

Toronto Evening Telegram. 

In rear of the latter, is the 

National Club ; while, on 

Wellington Street, are the 

Reform Club and the To 
ronto Club. On Colborne 

Street is the home of 

another social and quasi- 
political organization, 

known as " The Albany." 

On King Street \V., are the 

Canadian Pacific R y Offi 
ces, and, beyond York, the 

Toronto Art Gallery and 

Academy of Music. At the corner of York, stands one of the chief hotels of the city, the " Rossin House : " another may be 

"Walker House," on York Street, near the Union Station. Proceeding westward, on King, we come to St. 

Andrew s Church, with its elaborate Minster front and high Norman tower, the chief worshipping-place of Presbyterianism, of 

the Old Scotch Establishment type. The building is one of the grand ornaments of the city. Adjoining it. on the south-west 

..-,, corner of Simcoe Street, is the elegant residence, in 
a charming setting of floral terraces and spacious 
lawns, of the lieutenant-Governor of the Province. 
The style of architecture is the modern French. In 
the grand hall, dining-room and ball-room may be 
seen many life-size portraits of the old Governors 
of Cpper Canada and those of a later regime. 
Across from the Gubernatorial residence, a little 
back from King Street, is the old historic home of 
Upper Canada College. This favourite educational 


institution of the Province, which was modelled 
after the great Public Schools of Kngland, and has 
had a famous record, is. as we have said, about to be removed to a new and spacious site in the northern suburbs of the city. 

Turning northward from King, on John Street, and skirting the College cricket-grounds on the one side and " The 
Arlington " Hotel on the other, we pass Beverlev House, the old-time residence of the late Chief Justice. Sir John Bcverley 

Robinson. At the head of the street, just beyond St. George s Church, we see " The Grange." another historic residence the 

oldest and most attractive in the city. This famous manor house was built a little over seventy years ago by the late Indue 
Boulton, and is still in the possession of a member of his family by marriage the wife of Professor Goldwin Smith. In the 
beautifully-kept grounds, ample and well-trimmed lawns, with ancient elms placidly looking down upon the scene, "The 
Grange " recalls a pleasant bit of Old England. 

.- I 


\\ e shall complete the circuit of the city if we continue our drive westward to the flourishing suburbs, now included in 
corporation limits, of Parkdale and Brockton, with their busy separate extension of West Toronto Junction. As we proceed in 
this direction, via Oueen Street, we shall pass Spadina Avenue, the lower portion of which, long known as Brock Street, com 
memorates in its familiar appellation the hero of Queenston Heights. This spacious avenue, which is double the width of the 
ordinary streets, is fast coming under the dominion of commerce, and will soon form another great trade artery like Yonge 
Street. 1 assiim still westward, we come to Trinity University, a fine ecclesiastical looking edifice, set in a park of twenty acres, 
with a background of romantic beauty. The College was founded, in 1852, by Bishop Strachan, in consequence of the abolition 
of the theological chair in Toronto University, at the time known as King s College, and with the view of supplying the Province 
with an institution which should be strictly Church of England in its character. The College buildings were designed by Mr. 
Kivas Tully, and are in the pointed style of English architecture. The convocation hall and chapel are later additions to the 
College equipment. Just beyond Trinity College, in a plot of land originally fifty acres in extent, stands the Provincial 
Lunatic Asylum, soon we believe to be removed out of town. To the south of the Asylum are the Central Prison and the 
Mercer Reformatory. Still westward are the Orphan s Home and the Home for the Incurables, and one or two other refuges for 
the city s sick and suffering, or the erring and the homeless. South again of the Central Prison, on Dominion Ordnance Lands 

___^_______ hy the Lake shore, are the Old 

and the New Eorts, and the 
barracks of " C " School of 
Infantry. The men attached 
to the Military School form a 
section of the skeleton army 
of Canada, known as " regu 
lars." The School, which is 
under the command of Lieut.- 
Col. Otter, Deputy Adjutant- 
General, is housed in the New 
Fort. The Old Fort, which is 
historically identified with the 
beginnings of Toronto and 
with the incidents of the War 
of 1812, has long since lost its 
active military character. Un 
trodden grass and weeds now 
cover the old parade ground, 
and encircle with the symbols 
of peace the Russian cannon, 
the wooden barracks, and the 
embrasured clay parapet which 
commands the lake approach 
to the harbour. From this 
point an excellent view of the 


Island is to be had, as far east as the club house of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and the Wiman Baths, with the flitting 
summer traffic of Toronto super mare. 

A little distance westward, within spacious, well-kept grounds, overlooking the lake, is a vast congerie of buildings 
devoted to the objects of the Industrial Exhibition Association. Here gather for a fortnight every autumn an aggregate of over 
300,000 people, to view the displays of the Provincial and Metropolitan manufacturers, the art exhibits, Canada s finest breeds 
of horses and cattle, and the bountiful array of her horticultural and agricultural products. West and north of the Exhibition 
Park lie the recently annexed suburban villages of Parkdale and Brockton, and the further city-overflow, West Toronto Junc 
tion. The rise of these new and populous Torontos, within recent years, has seemed magical, for where but yesterday was an 
almost unbroken forest of oak and yellow pine, there is now a vast network of streets and avenues, with handsome villas or rows 
of contiguous houses. Before returning to the city proper, the visitor, if he wishes to see something of the sylvan beauty of 
Toronto s immediate surroundings, should continue his drive along the lake shore to the Humber River the famed " Pass " by 
Toronto. Here he might branch northward, to take in High Park, the beautifully wooded resort of the citizens, and the 
munificent gift of the late Mr. J. G. Howard, an old resident. If there is leisure, the drive might be extended, with quie 
enjoyment, by way of the new avenues or the old concession roads, so that more of the city s picturesque environs may be 
seen. Or should there not be time for this and the visitor return at some future day, he may then, we hope, overtake the 
circumnavigation of the city from the pleasant outlook of a car-window on the completed Toronto Belt Railway. 







HE fell exigencies of space have compelled the projectors and editor of this volume to 
limit the representation of the public men who have made or are making Toronto, in the 
main, to contemporaries. The space taken up with views illustrative of the city, pictur 
esque and historical, including the churches, public buildings, educational and eleemosy 
nary institutions, villas and private residences, with some indication of Toronto s industrial, 
financial and commercial enterprise, has necessarily narrowed the space to be given to 
the portraits and brief biographical sketches of the citizens. What scope there was. it 
was thought better to utilize it in confining the muster-roll to living Torontonians, who, 
in large measure, reflect the spirit, genius and life of the community, and to those within 
as wide a classification as the design of the work would permit. This being the plan 
decided upon, the following pages will seek to preserve for the present and coming gener 
ations some pen-and-ink sketches of the citizens of to-day, gathered from the professions 
and from business and lay circles in the community embracing divines, judges, doctors, lawyers, politicians, educationists, 
manufacturers, and men of commerce. In a young country like Canada, where individual effort seems to tell immediately in 
the building up of the industrial and social framework of a nation, it cannot but be important that some record should be 
preserved of the career of prominent citizens, and treasured, for its historical value no less than for its inspiring effect upon the 
young, among the general annals of the people. With this purpose in view, the present collection of biographies has been 
made : and though, in some measure, it may, at the present era, be of chief interest to the subjects of the sketches themselves, 
or to their immediate relatives and friends, it must certainly, in the coming time, prove of much wider and more general historic 
interest. Had we detailed records of the social life of the small community of " Little Vork " from which the present city has 
sprung, how gladly, how interestedly, should 
we now look into them, that we might know 
the " men of the time " better, and see more 
clearly what was their daily toil and what 
manner of lives they then led. In like man 
ner, by generations to come after us, these 
pages may be scanned, to glean some record 
of the men who are identified with the pre 
sent era of Toronto s social life and progress, 
and perchance to contrast the era and its 
human types with those of a later and doubt 
less higher stage of material and intellectual 
development. What change Evolution is to 
bring in the physical structures and mental 
capacities of ages of unborn citizens, we. 
being no seer, have it not in our power to 
say. All that it is given us to attempt, is to 
deal with the present, and to open, with the 
pardonable conviction that the exhibit, pic 
torial and biographical, is not unworthy of 
critical inspection, the portrait-gallery of 
some of the present-day public men of the 
Provincial Capital. 

The Hon. Sir Alexander Campbell, K.C.M.d.. O.C.. P.C., has deservedly won the high position he holds in the com 
munity, of Lieutenant-Govemor of the Province of Ontario. His many years unobtrusive yet important public services as 
a Minister of the Crown in Canada, and for long the trusted leader of the Conservative Party in the Upper of the two 
Houses of Parliament, before and since Confederation, have earned him the respect and approval of the country as well as 
the regard and attachment of his many personal friends. Sir Alexander is of Scotch descent, though an Englishman by birth. 



His father was the late Dr. James Campbell, of the Village of Hedon. near Kingston-upon-Hull. in the east riding of Yorkshire. 
There Sir Alexander was horn in the year 1821. When about two years old his parents emigrated to Canada and settled near 
I.achine, where the future Provincial Governor spent his youth, receiving his education there and at the R. C. Seminary of St. 
Hyacinthe. His family subsequently removing to Kingston, U.C., his education was completed at the Royal Grammar School 
of that town. In 1838, determining to follow law as a profession, Mr. Campbell passed his preliminary examination, and in the 
following year entered the office of Mr. now the Hon. Sir J. A. Macdonald, where he remained as a student until his 

admission as an attorney in 1842. 
He then formed a partnership 
with his principal which lasted 
for many years, Mr. Campbell 
having meantime been called to 
the Bar. In 1856, he was created 
a Queen s Counsel. Two years 
later, he entered public life as 
representative of the Cataraqui 
Division in the Legislative Coun 
cil of the United Canadas. From 
1858 to Confederation, Mr. 
Campbell sat in the Legislative 
Council and was for two years 
Speaker of that body. I Hiring 
the Macdonald-Tache adminis 
tration, he held the portfolio of 
Commissioner of Crown Lands. 
In the Confederation movement 
he took an active part, aiding it 
by his advice and occasionally by 
a weighty and effective speech. 
When Confederation was con 
summated, he was made a mem 
ber of the Privy Council, and 
from 1867 to 1873 held succes 
sively the portfolios of the Post 
master-General and Minister of 
the Interior. During this period 
Mr. Campbell was the Govern 
ment leader in the Senate, and 
throughout the Mackenzie 
regime led the Opposition in the 
same Chamber. Upon the ac 
cession of the Conservative 
Part}- to power, he accepted the 
portfolio of Receiver-General, 
and a year afterwards exchanged 
it for that of the Postmaster- 
General. From 1880 to 1887, 
when he retired from the Senate 
to accept the Lieutenant-Gover 
norship of Ontario, he was 
successively Postmaster-General, 
Minister of Militia, Minister of 
Justice, and again Postmaster- 
General. In May, 1879, he was 
created a K. C. M. G., and in 

June, 1887, was appointed Lieutenant-Governor. For some time Sir Alexander Campbell was Dean of the Faculty of Law 
in Queen s College. Kingston, and has always taken a warm interest in Queen s University. He is, ex ojficio, a Bencher of 
the Law Society. In 1887, Sir Alexander attended the Imperial Federation Conference in London as the representative of 
Canada, and is understood to take a hearty interest in the Federation of the Empire. His public career, though uneventful, 
has been both honourable and useful. Though by no means eloquent, Sir Alexander is a good, and on occasion can be an 




effective, speaker. In Parliament, he was always known as a loyal friend, a true 
gentleman and an honourable opponent. In his present exalted office, though he 
has not courted popularity, he has not disdained it, and he has won the respect 
and goodwill of the people. 

There are few men in the political arena, particularly of this 1 rovince. who 
have won, and deservedly won, a higher name than has the Attorncv-( leneral and 
Premier of Ontario. The claim of his friends for him of being "a Christian poli 
tician " has in some quarters, it is said, been sneered at. l!ut this surely is 
incorrect. What has been deemed a sneer must, we think, have been mistaken 
for a smile of incredulity, for incredulous rather than contemptuous must be the 
feeling with which one looks to find a lofty ethical ideal among the influencing 
motives and life-governing principles of a modern politician. However this may 
be. there can be no question as to the high character borne by the honourable 
gentleman, both in his official and in his private relations. The witness to this is 
the all-but-universal assent of the public mind and judgment. This estimate has 
been formed, not upon a few years of dexterous yet unscrupulous party rule, but 
upon the more critical and severer test of twenty long years of able, economical 
and patriotic administration. The Hon. Oliver Mowat was born, of Scottish 
parentage, at Kingston in 1820. At school, it is said, he had for his fellow-pupil 
the present Premier of the Dominion, whose law office he afterwards entered and 
studied for his profession. Called to the Bar in 1842, he commenced practice in 
Kingston, but soon afterwards removed permanently to Toronto. Here he formed a partnership, first with Mr. (afterwards 
Justice) Hums, and secondly with Mr. (afterwards Chancellor) Yankoughnet. During the existence of these and later partner 
ships, he rose rapidly in his profession and became one of the best known men at the Chancery Bar. In 1856, he was 
created a (Queen s Counsel and acted as a commissioner for consolidating the Public General Statutes of Canada and Upper 
Canada. In the following year he entered Parliament as member for South Oxford, which constituency he represented until 
1864. when, after the fall of the Sandfield Macdonald Coalition Government, in which he held the portfolio of Postmaster- 
General, he accepted a Yice-Chanceilorship and withdrew for a time from political life. Before his elevation to the Bench, Mr. 
Mowat took part in the Union Conference at Quebec, at which the Confederation scheme was framed. In October, 1872, he 
resigned the Vice-Chancellorship to form a new administration in Ontario on the retirement of Messrs. Blake and Mackenzie 
to the Ottawa House, owing to the provision of the Dual Representation Act, which prevented members sitting at the same 
time in the Local and Federal Assemblies. He took his seat in the Ontario Legislature for North Oxford, and became 
Attorney-General and a member of the Executive Council for the Province. Since 1872. he has continuously represented 
North Oxford and held the Premiership in the Local Assembly. As the head of the Provincial administration, Mr. Mowat has 
won the full confidence of the country, by his wise and economical management of its affairs, by his industry and great capacity 

for business, by his judicious settlement 
of many troublesome and complex ques 
tions, and by instituting many reforms and 
initiating much and beneficial legislation. 
He has moreover signali/.ed his career in 
the Local House by many acts which 
belong to the higher realm of statesman 
ship, and by his intimate knowledge of 
judicial matters and constitutional law. By 
these he has been enabled on several im 
portant questions to win honours for the 
Province as well as to vindicate its rights. 
Though a staunch upholder of party gov 
ernment and an uncompromising Liberal. 
Mr. Mowat s political views are broad and 
comprehensive, and his actions, for the 
most part, are reasonable and just. 

Of the bright roll of the native 
judiciary there is no one who has more 
worthily helped to give character to the 
Canadian Bench, and at the same time to 
shell lustre on the profession of law in 
this Province, than has the present Chief 
DOORWAY OF TORONTO UNIVERSITY. justice of Ontario. It is now fiftv vears 



since the Hon. John Hawkins Hagarty. 1). ( . 1-., was called to the Bar of Upper Canada, and for the space now of a generation 
has he sat upon the Bench. In the half-century s interval, the sand in the hour-glass of almost all his professional contem 
poraries has run out ; while many even of those who had seats on the Bench when he was first elevated to it have preceded him 
to the tomb. The halls which thev trod, and the courts in which they presided, resound now only with their spectral voice and 

tread. Only out of the frames that rim their pictured faces in the 
corridors of Osgoode Hall, do they now look upon us, and the his 
toric memory is fain to he thankful that even this much is left as a 
memorial of their lives and work. Chief Justice Hagarty, like many 
of his eminent colleagues on the Canadian Bench, is an Irishman. 
He was horn in Dublin in 1816, his father being Registrar in His 
Majesty s Court of Prerogative for Ireland. After receiving his early 
education at a private school in Dublin, the future Chief Justice 
entered Trinity College in his sixteenth year ; but while still an 
undergraduate he abandoned his academic course and came to 
Canada. He had, however, received an excellent training in Classics 
and English subjects, and when he became a resident of Toronto in 
1835, and proceeded to the study of the law, his future eminence in 
that profession was at once assured. Within five years he was called 
to the Bar, and in the legal circles of the time he forthwith took a 
high place. Before he was five-and-twenty, he had begun to make 
a mark among his contemporaries, and the ease with which, even at 
that early age, he won distinction is an evidence of the gifts, natural 
and acquired, with which he was endowed. Besides a well-stored 
mind, he had attractive social qualities, fine literary tastes, a bright 
mother wit and the bearing and manners of a gentleman. To this 
early period in Mr. Hagarty s career, attaches his fame as a poet, 
for while actively pursuing law, in the partnership which he had 
formed with the Hon. John Crawford, late Lieutenant-Governor of 
Ontario, he was fain to dally with the Muses. In 1850, he was 
created a Q.C., and in 1856 was appointed to a judgeship in the 
Court of Common Pleas. Once on the Bench, preferment was rapid, 
for he had in an unusual degree the qualities that well fitted him 
to fulfil its high duties. In 1862, Judge Hagarty was transferred to 
the Queen s Bench, and six 
years later he was raised to 
the Chief Justiceship of his 
old court. In 1878, he 
gained the Chief Justice 
ship of the Queen s Bench, 
and in 1884 was elevated 
to the Chief Justiceship of 
Ontario. The learned 
gentleman, in his private 
and professional capacity, 
is deservedly held in the 

highest esteem. He is a man of many parts -a scholar, a poet, a wit, and an accom 
plished jurist. He is at the same time a man of sterling character, of high principle 
and inflexible honour. On the Bench, while he is uniformly courteous and considerate, 
he is also eminently just, and unflinching in the discharge of his duty. In 1855, the 
University of Trinity College, Toronto, conferred on Chief Justice Hagarty the hon 
orary degree of Doctor of Laws. Knighthood, it is understood, the Chief Justice has 

It will hardly, we think, be said that we have reached in Toronto the ideal of 
municipal government. The strings of the civic administration in many of the depart 
ments, unhappily, still "hang loose." Nor do we always make sure that we shall get 

either as chief magistrate or as aldermen, men rigidly selected on the ground only of high personal qualifications or of moral 
fitness. The municipal administration, too often, has been enveloped in an atmosphere of morals neither clean nor wholesome. 
Matters, it is true, might be worse : we might, as in some other cities, have not only incapacity, ignorance, and dereliction of 
duty, but gross breaches of trust and a municipal reign of Beelzebub. Apathetic and indifferent as our people, for the most 





part, are, it is a wonder that the civic administration is as good as it is, and that we have not to complain of graver municipal 
maladies. The trust now-a-duys is a very important and responsible one, for we have made great strides since the era of incor 
poration. In 1834. the population was not much over 9,000 : and the value of the city s assessable property, within its then five 
wards, was under three-quarters of a million ! Even twenty years later, the city directory does not reveal a very marvellous 
advance. In 1856, the number of bakers in the city was not more than 37, of butchers 66, of plumbers 16, of bankers 11, of 
clergymen ;;. of doctors 36, and of lawyers 108. Even the number of clerks, usually a numerous array, was only 119 . Modest 
as are these figures, the social condition then of the town was not a matter to boast of, for the Police statistics of the period 
show that of the total population, in 1857, one in every nine appears on the criminal records. On the score of morals there has 
manifestly been improvement, whatever need there may be for other reforms, including sanitary renovation. The demands, too, 
are now great upon the Executive Officers, Chairmen and the practical heads of departments. If we want efficient administra 
tion we must soon come to a paid Executive, and economy here will be fatuous and inexcusable. With the city s large and 
ever-nrowini; interests, honest and efficient administration can only be secured by permanence in office and liberal remuneration. 
No man of sense who has any notion of what is now demanded of the Mayor and Executive heads of departments will hence 
forth withhold either. In Mayor Clarke, justice requires it to be said that he has proved an honest and efficient administrator. 
His Worship, Edward Frederick Clarke, M. P. P., Mayor of the City of Toronto, was born in the County of Cavan, 
Ireland, April 24th, 1850. While quite a youth he came to Canada, and for a time resided in Michigan. U.S., though "the 
sixties" found him a resident of Toronto, pursuing his avocation as a printer. Eor some years, he was engaged on The G7ofie 
and The Liberal newspapers, and 
was also on The Mail staff as com 
positor and proof reader. In 1877, 
a compam was formed, for the pur 
chase of The Sentinel, the organ of 
the Orange body, and Mr. Clarke 
was chosen managing-editor. He 
afterwards bought up the stock and 
became sole proprietor. Mr. Clarke 
has always taken an active interest 
in secret societies, especially, we 
believe, in the United Workmen, 
Freemasons, and Loyal Orange As 
sociations. In the latter organixa- 
tion, he was in 1887 elected, at the 
annual meeting held at Belleville, 
Deputy Grand Master of the Order 
in British America. In 1886, he- 
first entered political life as the 
nominee of the Liberal-Conservative 
party in Toronto in the Ontario 
Legislature. At the general elections 
in the present year, he was again 
returned one of the three city mem 
bers. In the House, he is an active 
and useful representative, being well 
informed on the political questions 
of the day, and a fluent and ready 

speaker. In 1888 he was first returned for the Mayoralty of Toronto, and has subsequently been twice re-i 
high office he has the qualifications of industry, energy, and an intimate acquaintance with the city s affairs. Mr. Clarke 
enhances these qualifications by honesty, discretion, and a good address. 

Colonel Sir Casimir Stanislaus "(i/.owski, K.C.M.G., A. I ).C., etc., is descended from an ancient Polish family, 
was ennobled in the sixteenth century, and whose representatives held high positions in the State. He is the son of Count 
Stanislaus Gzowski, who was an officer in the Czar s Imperial Guard. Sir Casimir was born at St. Petersburg on the 5 th day of 
March, 1813 and as a youth was destined for a military career. In his ninth year he entered the Military Engineering ( 
at Kremenct/, and in 1830 he graduated and passed at once into the army. At this period an insurrection broke- 
Poland, in which noble and serf, civilian and soldier, rose to overthrow the tyrannical rule of Constantme. Throughout the 
futile rising the young officer of Engineers took a prominent part with his compatriots in the struggle for freedom. 
many engagements and was several times wounded, and was present at the expulsion of Constantine from \\arsaw at the close 
of the year 1830 \fter the battle of Bovemel, the division of the army to which he was attached retreated into Austrian terri 
tory, where the troops surrendered. The rank and file were permitted to depart, but the officers, to the number of about 600 
were imprisoned and afterwards exiled to the United States. Young G/.owski, with his fellow exiles, arrived at New \ o, 




.. and tour years afterwards passed inu> Canada. Though an excellent linguist, he was not familiar with the K relish 
tongue : liut his residence in the States gave him the opportunity, while teaching the continental languages, to acquire it. He 
arrived in Toronto in 1841, and at once took up his engineering profession. For some years he was attached to the Public 

Works Department of the United Canadns and speedily showed his ability in his 
official reports of works in connection with the Provincial harbours, roads and bridges. 
\Vith the opening of the railway era, Mr. Gzowski, who soon associated himself with 
his life-long partner, Mr. (now Sir) D. 1.. Macpherson, threw himself into the practical 
operations of a railway contractor and engineer. In 185,5, his firm obtained the con 
tract for building the line of the ( .rand Trunk from Toronto to Sarnia, and in this 
and other lucrative contracts he laid the foundations of his present ample fortune. In 
1857. his firm also established and operated for 12 years the Toronto Rolling Mills, 
for supplying railways with rails and other materials employed in their construction. 
His chief professional exploit is, however, the construction of the International R. R. 
bridge which spans the Niagara River between Fort Erie and Buffalo. In this enter 
prise, which cost a million and a half of dollars, the young Polish engineer showed 
his skill in overcoming great technical difficulties. Since the completion of that work, 
Colonel G/owski has practically retired from his arduous profession. He has since- 
taken an enthusiastic interest in Canadian riflemen and in the efficiency of this arm 
of their service. For many years he was President of the Dominion Rifle Association, 
and was instrumental in sending the first Canadian team to Wimbledon. In 1872, he 
was appointed a Lieut-Colonel in the Canadian Militia, and in 1879 was honoured 
by being made an aide-de-camp to Her Majesty. Last year, he was created a Knight 
Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, a distinction at the hands 
of the Crown which his public services in Canada well merited. Sir Casimir is one 
of the best known and most highly respected of Toronto s citizens. He is a man, not 

Ml; C. S. G/.OWSKI, K.C.M.G. 

" o iit j " ?p*--. -vi juio s uiuzcjia. ne is a man not 

spotless reputation, but of sterling integrity and chivalrous honour. He is a loyal Churchman of the Evangelical 

and has been a princely benefactor to Wycliffe College and to the various charities of the city. Though he has always 

d public life, his wise counsels and calm, dispassionate judgment, we suspect, have frequently been at the service of the 

lie, both ,n Canada and in the Motherland. In manners, bearing, and character, Sir Casimir Gzowski is a fine type of the 

old-time, high-souled and courtly gentleman. 

To townsmen as well as gownsmen, there are in Toronto few better known figures than that of the venerable and 
much-respected President of Univer 
sity College. To know the man is 
to love him, and large is the circle 
of those who so regard him, and 
who as his friends or his debtors 
hold him in the highest esteem. 
Nor are his admirers counted only 
among the alumni of Toronto Uni 
versity, or limited to the ranks of 
native scientists and educationists. 
He is known and esteemed among 
the savants and litterateurs of both 
hemispheres, for both hemispheres 
have profited by his services to litera 
ture and science. Nor is it the least 
of his honours to say, that he is 
known to and beloved by the To 
ronto street arab and newsboy, for 
whose welfare he has toiled long and 
spent himself in much Christian and 
philanthropic work. Sir I )aniel Wil 
son was born at Edinburgh, Scot 
land, in 1816, and from an early 
age he devoted his life to literary 
and scientific pursuits. While but 





to the rhair <>t History and English Literature in University College. Toronto. In this sphere he entered upon his arduous 

and life-long work. How faithful have been his labours and real his interest in Toronto University, with what /eal he has 

devoted himself to the subjects he has so ably and lovingly taught in the College, and how inspiring and elevating has been 

his influence upon the student life under his care, there is no need here to relate. Xor is there need to say a word, to any 

graduate of the College at any rate, of his ever-ready courtesy, of his kindness of 

heart, ot his simplicity of character, or of his high moral worth. Testimony to r-. 

these qualities is as abundant as testimony is emphatic to the learning and genius 

Of their gifted possessor. Among Sir Daniel Wilson s published works, besides a 

whole library of contributions to the proceedings and transactions of learned 

societies, are the following: Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time," (1847): 

"Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," (1851 and 1863); "Prehistoric Man: Researches 

into the Origin of Civili/ation in the Old and the New Worlds," (1863); "Chatterton : 

a Biographical Study." (1869); "Caliban: the Missing Link." ( 1873): -Spring Wild 

Flowers," (a volume of verse): " Reminiscences of Old Edinburgh," (1878) ; and 

"Memoir of Win. Nelson," Publisher, (1890). Besides this mass of literary and 

scientific work, Sir Daniel has contributed important papers to the Transactions 

of i/ic Royal Society of Canada, of which he has been President, to other Canadian 

periodicals, and to the new (ninth) edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. In 

1889, President Wilson had the honour of Knighthood conferred upon him. 

There are few men in the community who, as citizens, better deserve the 

best that eulogy could say of them than Mr. Goldwin Smith. With his political 

opinions we have here little to do, save to note the fact that even those who do not 

see eye to eye with him in the views he so fearlessly propounds, give him credit 

for the disinterestedness of his motives, and pay tribute to the literary charm, as 

well as the force and lucidity, of his writings. Yet it is not in a negative, but in 

a positive, aspect that we are compelled to view the residence of one of the greatest 

of modern Englishmen in our midst. For nearly twenty years Mr. Goldwin Smith has resided in Toronto, and to the city s 

charities he has given not a little of his substance and to the country at large much of the ripe fruit of his thought. For 

this, Canada owes him a heavy debt, for he has been one of the truest and staunchest of her friends, and perhaps the most 

helpful, as well as eminent, of her adopted sons. Mr. Goldwin Smith was born at Reading, England, on the 23rd of August, 

1823. His father was a practising physician, well-known and esteemed throughout Oxfordshire. Like many other distinguished 

Englishmen. Mr. Goldwin Smith received his early education at Eton, from which he passed to Oxford, where he conferred 

honour on both school and college by his brilliant University course. At the University he gained the Ireland and Hertford 

scholarships, the Chancellor s prixe for I,atin verse, and for English and I^itin prose essays, and graduated with first-class 

honours. Two years afterwards he accepted a Fellowship of University College, for 
a time became tutor, and, in 1858, was elected Professor of Modern History. 
While at Oxford, he served on two Royal Commissions to inquire into the general 
administration of the University, as well as to examine into the condition of both 
higher and popular education in England. Meanwhile his able advocacy of liberal 
reforms in matters educational, religious and political, won for him a world-wide 
name, and when he visited America in 1864 he was warmly welcomed and received 
from the Brown University the degree of LL.D. From his own University of 
Oxford, he subsequently had conferred on him the degree of D.C.L. In a later 
visit to the United States, his staunch advocacy of the Northern cause throughout 
the war. and his great reputation as a scholar, led to the offer of a professorship in 
Cornell Universitv. The chair, which Mr. Goldwin Smith accepted without pay. 
was that of English and Constitutional History. This post he still holds, though 
since 1872 the learned gentleman has made his abode in Toronto. Here he has 
given prestige to Canadian letters by his connection with many literary under 
takings, and at the same time has done much to elevate the tone of, and bring 
into favour independent, journalism, and win full freedom for speech. His industry 
is as marked as are his ability and independence as a thinker and writer. This is 
shown, not only in the work he has done for Canadian periodicals, but for the 
English and American press. Canadian, as he now loves to call himself, Professor 
Goldwin Smith is still an Englishman, and he retains in his heart an ardent affec 
tion for the Old Land, and a real, if restrained, enthusiasm for all that touches the pride and rouses the spirit of a Briton. 
Equally hearty is his interest in the well-being of humanity on this continent. Besides the great volume of his journalistic and 
maga/.ine work. Mr. Smith has issued at various times the following publications : " Three English Statesmen -Pym, Cromwell 
and Pitt ;" "Lectures on the Study of History :" "The Empire": Letters addressed to the London Daily News "Irish History 






and Irish Character ;" "Life of the Poet Cowper;" "Memoir of the Novelist, Jane Austen ;"" A Trip to England ;" "The 
Political Destiny of Canada:" and "Bay Leaves": Translations from the Latin Poets. In private life, Mr. Goldwin Smith is 
a fine type of the courteous and high-bred as well as accomplished English gentleman. Though a man of wealth, he is perfectly 

unostentatious in the display of it. In the library of the old English manor 
house of " The Grange," he lives a life of literary toil, brightened by pleasant 
social intercourse with his friends, and, by wide reading and an extensive 
correspondence, keeping himself in active and sympathetic touch with the 


The Hon. Edward Blake, P.C., Q.C., M.P., etc., is a Canadian by 
birth and education, and by all the ties that connect a publicist and man of 
affairs with the national life of the country. If one were to take Mr. Blake s 
name and services out of the political, the legal, and the academic world of 
Canada, there would be blotted out much that has shed lustre upon the 
nation, for as statesman, jurist, and scholar he has not only won distinction 
and honour himself, but conferred distinction and honour upon the country. 
Nor has he risen, as he might, to all the heights which were within his 
attainment as the meed of hard-working industry, devotion to the public 
service, and talents worthily used in the furtherance of a laudable ambition ; 
for Mr. Blake has refused knighthood, put from, it is understood, the Dom 
inion Premiership, and declined the highest offices which are the coveted 
prizes of the legal profession. Mr. Blake is the eldest son of the late Hon. 
Wm. Hume Blake, a distinguished jurist of Upper Canada and at one time 
Chancellor of the Province. He was born in the Township of Adelaide, 
County of Middlesex, Ont., in 1833, and received his education at Upper 
Canada College and Toronto University, where he graduated with honours 
in 1853. Afterwards he studied law, was called to the Bar of Upper Canada 
in 1856, and made a Queen s Counsel in 1864. He is a Bencher of the Law Society and Chancellor of the University of 
Toronto. He entered the political arena in 1867, being returned for South Bruce in the Ontario Assembly, and for three 
years was leader of the Opposition in that body. In 1872 he succeeded the Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald in the Premier 
ship of the Ontario Legislature, and held the office of President of the Executive Council until 1874. For a number of years- 
he also represented South Bruce in the Dominion Parliament, and at one time sat for West Durham. In Nov., 1873, he was 
made a member of the Canadian Privy Council, and joined the Mackenzie Administration, in which, for various periods, he 
held the Ministership of Justice and the Presidency of the Council. For a time ill-health withdrew him from public life, and 
the same cause partly obliged him to refuse the Chancellorship of Ontario and the Chief-Justiceship of the Supreme Court of 
the Dominion, which w-ere successively offered to him. In 1876 he visited England 
on public business, and three years later re-entered the Dominion Parliament as 
member for West Durham, which he continues to represent. Mr. Blake is an Inde 
pendent-Liberal in politics, and was until lately leader of the Opposition in the 
Dominion Parliament. Among the public men of the Dominion he holds the foremost 
place, being alike distinguished for his ability and his high character. 

Mr. William Ralph Meredith, Q.C., M.P.P. for London, Ont., and leader of the 
Opposition in the Provincial Legislature, was born in the Township of Westminster, 
Co. Middlesex, Ont., in 1840. His father, a native of Dublin and graduate of Trinity 
College, was for many years Clerk of the Division Court for Co. Middlesex. Mr. Y\ . 
R. Meredith was educated at the London Grammar School and Toronto University. 
In the latter he graduated in law, with the degree of LL.B., and was called to the Bar 
of the Province in 1861. Since then, he has practised his profession in London, Ont., 
though he is a familiar figure, and resident during the Session, in the Provincial 
Capital. In his profession Mr. Meredith occupies a prominent place among members 
of the Chancery Bar, while his knowledge of Common Law is also extensive and 
sound. In 1871 he was elected a Bencher of the Law Society, and in 1876 was 
created a Q.C. In 1872 he first entered political life, as member for London in the 
Provincial Legislature, and has continuously sat for that constituency. As a man of 
marked ability and a staunch Conservative, he naturally leads the Opposition in the 
Local House. His knowledge is large and intimate of the public affairs of the 
Province and Dominion, and high office, it may safely be predicted, will some day be 
within his reach. In the political arena, though he is master of the situation, he can hardly be said to be an adroit or suc 
cessful, because he is not a corrupt and an unscrupulous, leader. On the contrary, he is a gentleman of the highest character, 
and as an opponent, though he at times hits hard, he is more chivalrous than sometimes just to himself or his cause. In the 

MR. \\"M. K. MEREDITH, IJ.C., M.I . P. 



political game. l i* moves arc always above board, and his opposition is never factious. In the House, his following too often 
leave him to play a lone hand. Mr. Meredith is a member of the Senate of Toronto University: in religion, he is an 
Episcopalian. It is understood that the honourable Member for London is about to become a resident of Toronto. 

The Hon. Frank Smith. Privy Councillor and member of the Dominion 
Senate, \vas born at Richhill, Armagh, Ireland, in 1822. When ten years of age he 
accompanied his father to Canada, who settled near Toronto. During the Rebellion 
of 1837, Mr. Frank Smith, though only in his sixteenth year, served in the militia, 
being engaged chiefly in carrying despatches. From Sir Edmund Head s adminis 
tration his services gained him a commission as a captain. After the period of the 
Rebellion, Mr. Smith engaged in commerce and was very successful in that walk of 
life. From 1849 to 1867, he carried on a large business at London, Ont., but 
afterwards removed to Toronto, where he continues his extensive wholesale grocery 
trade. While a resident of London, Mr. Smith served that city as Alderman, and 
in 1866 was Mavor. In other ways Mr. Smith has been a useful citizen and an 
active and zealous officer in many business enterprises. He is President of the 
Home Loan Co., of the London & Ontario Investment Co., Vice-President of the 
Dominion Bank, and a Director of the Dominion Telegraph Co., of the Toronto 
Consumers (las ( o., and of the Northern & Pacific Junction R.R. ; also a Director 
of the Canadian Board of the Grand Trunk. He was President, too, during its 
existence, of the Northern Extension R. R. Co., and has still a large interest, it is 
believed, in the Toronto Street Railway Co. The Hon. gentleman, who is a Con 
servative in politics and a Roman Catholic in religion, was called to the Senate in 
1871, and in 1882 was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1852, Senator Smith 
married the daughter of Mr. John O Higgins, J.P., of Stratford, Ont. His Ottawa 
address is Rideau Club ; his home, at Toronto, is " River Mount, Bloor Street East. 

The two men in the Ontario Legislature who may be regarded as Mr. Mowat s right and left bower, are the Hon. Mr. 
Fraser and the Hon. Mr. Hardy. Both are politically well-equipped, and both are known to be men of great force of 
character. Intellectually speaking, perhaps the stronger of the two is the Hon. the Commissioner of Public Works. Notwith 
standing a somewhat weak frame, Mr. Fraser is an indefatigable worker in his exacting department, and a doughty antagonist on 
the hustings, in committee, or on the floor of the House. In the Provincial Executive, Mr. Fraser is the representative of his 
co-religionists of the Roman Catholic Communion. Mr. Fraser was born at Brockville, County Leeds, in the year 1 839, and is 
of Celtic origin. Like most men who have made their way in the world, Mr. Eraser s youthful days were days ot adversity, 
what he gained of education being the result of his own toil. At an early age, he was an employee in the printing house of the 
Brockville Recorder, and from there, in 1859, passed into the law office of the Hon. A. N. Richards, late Lieutenant-Govemor of 
British Columbia. Here he pursued his legal studies with earnest assiduity, and, in 1865, was called to the Bar. He began 

_ _^ the practice of his profession at Brockville, and was soon looked upon as a rising 

man. He had good mental abilities, and these he zealously cultivated. From 
the first, he took a marked and lively interest in politics, seeking, laudably, at once 
to advance himself and the ecclesiastical cause with which he was identified. In 
1871, a vacancy occurring in South Grenville, Mr. Fraser came out as a candidate 
and was returned a member for that constituency. On taking his seat in the Legis 
lative Assembly, he was not long in displaying those qualities which have made 
him noted in the House, and which soon gained for him the portfolio of Provincial 
Secretary and Registrar. In 1874, he exchanged this portfolio for that of the Com- 
missionership of Public Works. From 1872 to 1879 he continued to represent 
South Grenville in the Legislature, but in the latter year he was returned for 
Brockville, and has since sat as member for that city. I )uring eighteen years of 
active political life, he has served the Province with exceptional zeal and ability 
and been the hard-working and most efficient chief of his department. In the 
House he is a ready and powerful speaker, ever alert and sometimes aggressive, 
particularly when the administration is challenged, or when he, himself, or his col 
leagues have to be defended. He has initiated much and useful legislation, and in 
this has been true to the watchword, as well as to the principles, of Reform. Mr. 
Fraser is a favourite with his political friends, and though a hard hitter in debate, he 
enjoys the esteem and good-will of the House. In private, he is known to be a 
sincere, warm-hearted, genial and loyal friend. Mr. Fraser is a Director of the 

HON. C. F. FRA.SKR, Q.C., M.I .P. 

Ontario Bank, and for many years has been a Bencher of the Law Society. 

For administrative ability, political sagacity, and ready command of the weapons of Parliamentary debate, the Hon. A. S. 
Hardy is, if we except his colleague, the Hon. Mr. Fraser, without a peer in the Provincial Legislature. He is one of the ablest 
men in the House and a power in the Ontario Cabinet. Mr. Hardy was born of U. E. Loyalist parentage, at Mount Pleasant, 



HON. A. S. HARDY, O.C., M.P.I 1 , 

County Brunt, in the year 1837. There, and at the Brantford Grammar School and the Rock wood Acadeim, he was educated. 
Taking up law as a profession, he read for it at Brantford, subsequently completing his legal studies at Toronto in the office of 
Mr. (afterwards Chief Justice) Harrison and Thomas Hodgins, Q.C. In 1865, he was called to the Bar, and began practice 
in his home, at Branttord. Two vears later, he was appointed solicitor for that city, and by the force of his natural talents 

soon made his way to the head of the profession in his county. In 1875, he was 
elected a Bencher of the Law Society, and in the following year was created a Q.C. 
In 1873. Mr. Hardy first entered Parliament, succeeding the late Hon. E. 15. 
(afterwards Chief Justice) Wood in the representation of South Brant. This con 
stituency he has since continued to represent in the Ontario Legislature. In 1877, 
he was appointed Provincial Secretary and Registrar, and on the resignation, in 
1X89. of the late Hon. Mr. Pardee, he succeeded that gentleman as Commissioner 
of Crown Lands. As a legislator, Mr. Hardy has taken his full share of work. 
The Ontario Statute Book owns his hand in many important measures, while the 
Liberal Party in the Province find in him a staunch champion and a xealous and 
active worker. In 1870, Mr. Hardy married a daughter of the late Hon. |usti< e 
Morrison. In religion he is a member of the Church of England. 

The Hon. Geo. Win. Ross, LL.B., M.P.P., Minister of Education for Ontario, 
is a man of many parts, and in a distinctive sense has been the unaided architect of 
his own fortunes. Though not yet fifty years of age, he has had a wide and varied 
acquaintance with men and things, having been a school teacher and a journalist, 
and now is a lawyer, a politician, a cabinet minister and an active and hard-working 
administrator of the Provincial Educational system. In those varied spheres no 
little is required of a man in these days, and it is not little that Mr. Ross has given 
to the public service in the fulfilment of the duties that belong to them. Mr. 
Ross sits in the Ontario Legislature as member for West Middlesex, in which 
county he was born in 1841. He received his early education in his native county, 

and, later on, completed his studies at the Normal School, Toronto, at which he secured a first-class Provincial certificate. 

From Albert University, in 1883, he received the degree of LL.B. In 1871, he was appointed Inspector of Public Schools 

for the County of Lambton, and subsequently acted in a similar capacity for the towns of Petrolia and Strathroy. While a 

resident of Strathroy, Mr. Ross was interested in the editorial management of the Ontario Teacher and the Strathroy Age, and 

at a later period was part proprietor of the Reform journal, the Huron Expositor. His active interest in education led him 

to advocate warmly the establishment of county model schools, of which he was for a time inspector, and gained him an 

appointment, which he held for four years, as member of the Central Committee, an advisory body attached to the Ministership 

of Education. Mr. Ross first entered political life in the Dominion Parliament, where he sat for West Middlesex from 1872 to 

1883. Having lost his seat in the Commons in that year he was appointed Minister 

of Education for Ontario, as successor to the late Hon. Adam Crooks, Q.C., and, 

to qualify for holding the portfolio, he was returned member for West Middlesex in 

the Local Legislature. Since that period (1883) he has sat for that constituency 

and held, with much credit to himself, the important office of Minister of Education. ^S^"^ 

Mr. Ross brings to the administration of his department the powers of a vigorous 

mind, a store of practical experience as a teacher, and much enthusiasm in the 

cause of popular education. In the House and on the platform, Mr. Ross is a 

forcible and eloquent speaker. 

Lieut. -Colonel, the Hon. John Morison Gibson, M.P.P., Provincial Secretary, 

was born in 1842 in the Township of Toronto, County of Peel. He was educated 

at the Hamilton Central School and at Toronto University, of which he is a B.A., 

M.A. and LL.B. He had a distinguished University career, having won the silver 

medal in classics and modern languages, was prizeman in Oriental languages and 

also Prince of Wales pri/eman in 1863. He is also gold medallist in the Faculty 

of Law. Called to the Bar in 1867, he shortly afterwards joined Mr. Francis 

Mackelcan, Q.C.. in a law partnership in Hamilton, and with that gentleman has 

since carried on an extensive legal business. For many years Mr. Gibson has 

been a member of the Board of Education of Hamilton, and for two years was 

Chairman of the Board. He is also President of the St. Andrew s Society and of 

the Art School of that city, and is a member of the Senate of Toronto University. 

Since 1861. Mr. Gibson has been connected with the volunteer force of Canada, 

and for many yearshas been Lieutenant-Colonel of the 131)1 (Hamilton) Battalion. 

For three years, Colonel Gibson was President of the Ontario Rifle Association, has commanded the Wimbledon team, and, 

as a marksman himself, has won many trophies in rifle contests. When in command of the Wimbledon contingent he was 

HON. G. \V. Ross, M.I .P. 



II. )X ]. M. GlIiSON, M P.P. 

instrumental in the team s winning the Kolapore Cup for the year. Col. Gibson 
has held high positions in the ranks of Masonry. He is a Past District Deputy 
Grand Master, and a I ast Grand Superintendent of Royal Arch Masonry in the 
Hamilton District. He is also an active member of the Supreme Council of the 
Scottish Kite for Canada. Colonel Gibson first entered political life in 1X79. 
when he was returned member for Hamilton in the Ontario Legislature. After 
spirited contests in each case he was re-elected in 1883 and in 1886, though un 
fortunately defeated in the general election of 1890. Though temporarily without 
a seat, there is little doubt that Col. Gibson will speedily find one. for he has many 
warm personal and political friends. In the meantime he continues to hold the 
portfolio of the Provincial Secretaryship, to which he was appointed in 1889. While 
in the House, Colonel Gibson has acted as Chairman of the Private Bills Com 
mittee, and been a strong supporter and active colleague of Mr. Mowat s adminis 
tration. In religion, the Hon. Mr. Gibson is a Presbyterian. 

Lieut.-Col. the Hon. Alex. M. Ross, late M.P.P. for \\ Vst Huron and 
e\ Provincial Treasurer, was born at Dundee, Scotland, in 1829. When only five 
vears old, he came with his family to Canada, settling in the Town of Goderich. 
Here he. was educated, and in his twentieth year entered the service of the old 
Bank of Upper Canada. In 1856-7, he acted as paymaster on the Buffalo K: Lake 

Huron R.R.,and in 1858 was appointed 
Treasurer of the County of Huron, a 

post he held for five-and-twcntv vears. From 1866 to 1869, Colonel Ross was 
Manager of the Goderich branch of the late Royal Canadian Bank, and on that 
institution winding up its affairs, he received the appointment of Manager, in the 
same town, of the Canadian Bank of Commerce. The latter position he held till 
1883, when he was appointed by the Ontario Government Provincial Treasurer, 
having sat for West Huron in the Legislature since 1875. In the present year 
(1890), he resigned the Treasurership of Ontario on account of failing health, and as 
the honest reward for his long service in public life he was appointed by the Pro 
vincial Government Clerk of the County Court, Toronto. Since 1861. Colonel 
Ross has been actively identified with the Canadian Militia, having organi/ed and 
commanded an artillery company at Goderich, and, for some months in i86t>. was 
on frontier service with it during the exciting period of the Fenian Raids. In the 
latter year, the various Volunteer Companies in County Huron were organi/ed into 
a battalion (the 33rd), and Colonel Ross was appointed to its command. 

There are few Canadian politicians, and we should say still fewer alumni of 
the National University, who do not know the Liberal member, in the House of 
Commons, for North York, and the learned and popular Vice-Chancellor of the 
University of Toronto. William Mulock was born at Bond Head. County of Simcoe, 
in 1843. His father was the late Thomas 
H. Mulock, M.D., T.C.I). . a native of 
Dublin; and his mother, a daughter of 

John Cawthra. formerly of Yorkshire, England, who settled at Newmarket, and was 
"in 1829 Reform member for the County of Simcoe, in the Legislative Assembly of 
U.C. Vice-Chancellor Mulock was educated at the Newmarket High School and 
Toronto University, where he graduated, winning the gold medal in modern 
languages, in 1863. After graduating, he took up law as a profession, and was 
called to the liar in 1868, having passed a highly creditable examination. His legal 
attainments led to his appointment as an Examiner for four years in the Law- 
Society of U.C. and as one of the Lecturers upon Fquity. From 1873 to 1878. he 
served his University as a Senator, and in ,88,. was elected Vice-Chancellor. The 
latter office he still holds and admirably performs its high duties. In 1882 he 
entered political life, for which he has much aptitude, by accepting the nomination, 
in the Reform interest, of North York, and continues to sit for that constituency 
in the Dominion Parliament. In the House of Commons he brings to the service 
of his party loyal adherence to Reform principles, much political sagacity, abound- 
nergy, and ready powers in debate. He is a clear, logical and convincing 
reasoner, and while he delights those of his own political views, he always compels 
the attention, and not unfrequently wins the applause, of his opponents. In religion. 

HON. A. M. Ross, Kx.-M.P.P. 

MR. Y. M. ML-I.OCK. M.A., M.I . 



HON. C. A. DRUKV, Ex-M.P. I . 

Mr. Mulock is a member of the Church of England. His legal firm is Messrs. Mulock, Miller, Crowther & Montgomery. He 
is prominently connected with several financial and other enterprises, being a Director of the Toronto General Trusts Com 
pany, and President of the Farmers Loan and Savings Company of this city. 

The Hon. Charles Alfred Drury, Ex-M.P. P., late Minister of Agriculture and 
Registrar-General for the Province of Ontario, was born September 4, 1844, at 
Crown Hill, County of Simcoe, Ont. He was educated at the Public School and 
at the Barrie High School. Has followed farming successfully as a business, and 
very naturally was called to a seat in the Ontario Cabinet, as a representative 
farmer, on the creation of a Ministership of Agriculture in the year 1 888. Mr. 1 )rury, 
in 1877, was elected Reeve of the Township of Oro, and held that office continu 
ously for twelve years. He has been a member of the Council of the Agriculture 
and Arts Association of Ontario from 1876 to the present time, and also has been 
for four years a Director of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association. In October, 
1882, Mr. Drury was elected to represent East Simcoe in the Legislative Assembly 
of Ontario, and on May ist, 1888, entered the Ontario Government as Minister of 
Agriculture. He has since retired from public life. In religion, Mr. Drury is a 
Methodist, a Prohibitionist and a member of the Order of Good Templars. 

The executive ability of Ex-Deputy Attorney-General Johnston has, in recent 
years, at least, contributed in no small measure to the success of the Mowat admin 
istration. Born at Old Cambus, Scotland, in 1850, Ebenezer F orsyth Blackie 
Johnston received the rudiments of his 
education before he came to Canada. He 
was in Guelph when called to the Bar of 
Upper Canada and practiced in that city- 
long enough to attain a leading position in the profession. While in Guelph he held 
the offices of Chief of the Caledonian Society ; Secretary of Masonic Lodge, No. 258 ; 
Secretary of the South Wellington Reform Association, and President of the Liberal 
Club. In 1885 he was appointed Deputy Attorney-General for Ontario. Resigning 
this important office in 1889, he re-entered his profession and also accepted the position 
of Inspector of Registry Offices. Mr. Johnston has successfully conducted a number 
of important criminal cases. He represented the Crown in the prosecution of Harvey 

-, in the celebrated triple murder case at 
Guelph. F or personal reasons, Mr. John 
ston declined the Liberal nomination for 
South Wellington, which was offered him 
in 1886. He was appointed Queen s Coun 
sel in 1889. Mr. Johnston is a Presby 
terian, and prior to his appointment as a 
Government officer was an advanced 

Mr. Archibald Blue, Deputy Minis 
ter of Agriculture and the efficient and 

industrious chief of the Ontario Bureau of Statistics, was born of Highland Scotch 
parents on a farm in the Township of Orford, County Kent, Ont., February 3rd, 
1840. He received a good elementary education in a school in his native village, 
and was afterwards for some time a teacher in the same seminary. For fourteen 
years he pursued the profession of a journalist at St. Thomas and Toronto, during 
eleven years of which he edited the St. Thomas Journal. In 1881. he was ap 
pointed Secretary of the Bureau of Industries, which he ably organized, and in 
i 884 succeeded the late Prof. Buckland as deputy head of the Department of Agri 
culture, and still holds and faithfully fulfils the duties of the two positions. Mr. 
Blue marshals and correlates facts as a general marshals and strategically moves 
his army. Nothing could well be more useful to the publicist than the mass of 
well-classified and carefully compiled facts to be found in the statistical literature 
issued by his Department. Everyone interested in agricultural operations, in 
financial, industrial and commercial interests in the Province, must be Mr. Blue s 
debtor for the service he renders in the various periodical issues of the Bureau, as well as in the more ambitious annual reports 
and occasional compilations which appear from his hand under the authority of Royal Commissions. He has a special talent 
for the work he performs, and his gifts are those best known and appreciated by journalists and public men who are 


MR. ARC miiAi.D BLUE. 




accustomed to quarry in the literature of the Bureau. Mr. Blue was a member and Secretary of the Royal Commission 
appointed by the C.overnment of Ontario to inquire into the Mineral Resources of the Province in 1888. He is a Fellow of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the American Economic Association, of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, and of the American Association of Mining Engineers. In religion, Mr 
Blue is a Baptist : in politics, he is a Liberal. 

Mr. Charles Lindsey, F.R.S.C., the Nestor of Canadian journalism, and son- 
in-law of William Lyon Mackenzie, was born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1820. 
When he had passed his twenty-first year, he emigrated to Canada, and in 1846 
joined the staff of the Toronto Examiner, a newspaper which had been founded 
about the Rebellion period by the late Sir Francis Hincks, to advocate Responsible 
Government. In 1853, Mr. Lindsey became editor of the Toronto Leader, the 
then chief Provincial organ of the Tory party in Canada. This journal he edited 
with conspicuous ability, rendering important service to the country, as well as to 
his party, at a formative period in their common history. In 1867 he relinquished 
active journalism on being appointed, by the late Hon. J. Sandfield Macdonald, 
Registrar of the City of Toronto, a position he still holds. In 1862, Mr. Lindsey 
published the " Life and Times of Win. Lyon Mackenzie, with an Account of the 
Rebellion of 1837," a work which is recognized as the chief and authentic repository 
of facts connected with that distracted era. Another valuable and well-known 
work from Mr. Lindsey s pen is entitled " Rome in Canada : the Ultramontane 
Struggle for Supremacy over the Civil Power." This, too, is a great repository of 
facts respecting the aggression of the Romish Church in Quebec and its menace 
to civil liberty. Other published writings of Mr. Lindsey s are, a " Statement of 
the Clergy Reserves Question;" "The Prairies and the Western States;" and a 
historical review of matters connected with the long-disputed "Northern and 
Western Boundaries of Ontario." Mr. Lindsey is understood to be one of the 
chief writers on our great journal of commerce, the Moneiwy Times, and his able pen is recognized in other influential 
journalistic quarters, chiefly dealing with financial and Canadian historical topics, on which he is a high authority. Mr. Lindsey 
is a member of the Royal Society of Canada. 

Among the chiefs of commerce in Toronto no one has stood higher in public esteem than the late Senator John Mac 
donald. For forty years his name has been a synonym for business integrity and high personal worth. His lamented death 
removed from the ranks of industry one of the most honourable and upright men who have been connected with the commerce 
of Canada. He was one of the few enterprising and successful men who, if their modesty would permit, could claim with the 
best right to the appellation the honourable designation of merchant prince. Among his many benefactions, one of the latest, 
before he was taken hence, was the donation of $40,000 towards the erection of a new city hospital, as a memorial of a deceased 

daughter. Mr. Macdonald was born in Perthshire. Scotland, in 1824, and when but 
a lad came to Canada. His father served in the XCTII (Sutherland) Highlanders, 
and in the school of the regiment the son received his early education, extending it, 
later on, at Halifax, N.S., and at Toronto. At an early age he entered mercantile 
life, though he had always a leaning towards the ministry, and in the Methodist 
Church, to which he belonged, he was wont to act as a lay preacher. In his youth he 
filled several positions of trust in business houses, and in 1849 commenced business 
for himself. From the first, his wish was to prosecute an exclusively dry-goods 
business, and to conduct it in complete and distinct departments, each under its indi 
vidual head. In this, his energy and fine business habits, coupled with his high moral 
worth, made him successful ; and from step to step he went on, ever building up a 
large and more lucrative trade. Soon his firm grew to be one of the largest wholesale- 
importing houses in the Dominion. After he had well established his business, he 
gave leisure to public claims upon him, and sat in the old Legislative Assembly of 
Canada for West Toronto, up to the period of Confederation. For three years 
(1875-8), he sat also in the Dominion Parliament for Centre Toronto. In politics, 
Mr. Macdonald was an Independent Liberal, discarding the Party vote when it 
traversed his personal convictions. He took a deep interest in all public question.^ 
and his voice, his purse, and his pen were always at the service of a good cause. He 
was an active member of the Board of Trade, a Senator of Toronto University, a 
visitor of Victoria College, interested in the Bible Society, the Evangelical Alliance. 
the Temperance organization, and the Young Men s Christian Association. In 1887 he was appointed a Senator of the 
Dominion. In February of the present year (1890), he died, much and keenly regretted. 







THAT there is no State Church in Canada, and no State aid given to any denomination is, if we except the peculiar 
privileges guaranteed to Roman Catholics in Quebec, hardly the fault of the early French rulers of the country, or 
even of those, lay and cleric, of British origin who laid the foundations of the Province. It is unnecessary here to 
refer to that hone of contention, the Clergy Reserves, and to the attitude of the early Provincial Executive, who sought 
to exclude all denominations hut the Church of England from participating in the provision made by the State for the main 
tenance in Upper Canada of the Protestant religion. This action, it is well-known, was long and bitterly contested by the other 


bulk of the lands, chiefly for the purposes of education. 

denominational bodies, who were actively pursuing, in the tace of 
grievous obstacles, their evangelizing work in what was then a wilder- 
I ness, and had indisputable claims to share in the land grants of the 
Crown. The matter was, in 1840, happily laid at rest by admitting 
the claims of the Church of Scotland, the Methodist body, and one 
or two other denominations, and by the later secularization of the 
By right of first occupancy in the field, there was. however, some 
justification for the claim advanced by the Anglican Church in the Province, for the denomination had a church in York 
(Toronto) as early a. 1803, which by process of evolution, subject to the set-backs of fire, has come to be the Cathedral 
Church of St. James of to-day. Of this church, the Rev. Geo. Okill Stuart was the incumbent, and among Episcopalians he 
is know as first Rector of Toronto, as well as Archdeacon of Kingston. Mr. Stuart was shortly afterwards succeeded by that 
doughty champion of the long dominant church, the Rev. John Strachan, 1 ).!)., who in 1839 became first Bishop of the Diocese 
of Toronto. \Vhen this Diocese was constituted, its area was the whole Province of Upper Canada. Portions of the territory 
were subsequently broken off into other Diocesan organizations, vi/. : Huron in 1857, Ontario in 1862, Algoma in 1873, and 
Niagara in 1875. To-day, the five bishops of these several dioceses administer the affairs of what was originally one See. In 
1867, the Venerable, the first Bishop of Toronto died, and was succeeded by P.ishop Bethune, and he, in turn, was followed, in 


" S t weat an the Pf> B ^OP of the I Kocese. To-day, the position of the Episcopal Church within the hounds of 
tlK 7 " T h S gratifyil ; g - " T- th n hurches -d congregations of tL denomination than S 
parishes at the original creation of the bishopric. When Dr. Strachan first became Rector of York, there were hut five 

Episcopal clergyman in the whole of Upper 
Canada. When he became Bishop, their 
number had risen to seventy-one. To-day 
though five dioceses have been carved out of 
the Province, there are one hundred and sixty 
clergymen labouring in the Toronto Diocese 
alone; and of this number nearly one-half 
hold pastorates or college professorships, etc., 
in the city. The mother church of the Eccle 
siastical Province is the Cathedral Church of 
St. James. It has had an unusually eventful 
history. From the unobtrusive wooden build 
ing, erected as a Parish Church in York at 
the opening of the century, it has with many 
vicissitudes developed into the stately build 
ing we know to-day. In a crypt, under the 
chancel, is the dust of him who through a 
long and stormy life watched over its every 
interest, as well as the interest of that noble 
adjunct of the Church, the University of 
Trinity College, which he founded and tended 
with loving care. To other faithful hands in 
the Episcopate has been handed down the 
trust to which he did justice, with the incen 
tives of fervent zeal and loyal devotion to 

The Roman Catholic Church, though not a large or very influential body in Toronto, possesses a good deal of wealth, 
and within the sphere of its operations does much for religion and not less for charity. In another Province it has a much larger 
hold, and its ecclesiastical operations extend over the whole I lominion. Nearly two millions of the Canadian people are of this 
fold, and the Church counts among its clerical workers a Cardinal, eighteen Bishops, and about twelve hundred clergy. In 
Toronto it owns ten churches and three chapels, besides the mother church, the Cathedral of St. Michael, 
a college, and a number of schools, charities and convents. A fourth of the century had passed away 
before the Roman Catholics possessed a church in the city. Their first sacred edifice was St. Paul s, on 
Power Street, which was built in 1826. The street on which it is erected recalls the first prelate of the 
diocese, Bishop Power, who in 1847 fell a victim to the cholera, when St. Michael s Cathedral was Hearing 
completion. His successors in the See have been Bishop Charbonnel, Archbishop Lynch, and the present 
worthy prelate, Archbishop Walsh. As an indication of the phenomenal growth of Toronto, it is worth 
reminding the reader that when St. Michael s Cathedral was being erected, Bishop Power was taken to task 
for planting a church in what was then a dense bush, far from the centre of the city. Fifty years, after, we 
have seen a Bishop of another communion rear a Cathedral fully three miles further into the bush, and 
even then far within the Corporation limits. 

Prom an early period Presbyterianism obtained a foothold in 
loronto, and has grown marvellously with the march of the years. 
The first minister of this body to settle permanently in the city, was the 
Rev. lames Harris, who came to Canada from Belfast as a Minister of 
the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. By the 
munificence of the late Mr. Jesse Ketchum. 
the site was donated, in 1821, for the "York 
Presbyterian Church," which was erected in 
the following year, and did duty for the 
denomination until 1847, when Knox Church 
was reared in its place. Before this happened, 
however, those who clung to the traditions 
of the Scotch Establishment had separated 


T;Y I 1- K i AN I 11 




themselves from those who sympathized with the Disruption, and formed the old Church of St. Andrew s, with Dr. Barclay as 
their pastor. From 1844 to 1858, Knox s had the benefit of the ministrations of the Rev. Dr. Burns. From the latter period 




to 1879, the Rev. Dr. Topp ministered to the congregation in sacred things. In 1880, a new regime was begun with the 
induction into the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Parsons. With the years have grown the Church s membership. Since 1858, the 
roll has increased three-fold. Into the records of the other city church organizations, which have come into union under the 
comprehensive fold of Presbyterianism, we have not space here to enter. The edifice built 
in 1831 on Church Street, near the corner of Adelaide, and long known as "The Kirk" of 
Toronto, has passed from the ken of the modern citizen. Its traditions are, however, trea 
sured by two strong and influential congregations, known as "Old" and "New" St. Andrew s. 
Both churches are notable adornments of the city, and their pastors Rev. G. M. Milligan, 
M.A., and Rev. D. J. Macdonnell, B.D. are men finely equipped for their work. Cooke s 
Church, on Queen Street East, represents, traditionally at least, Irish Presbyterianism. It 
was erected in 1858, and was long under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Wm. Gregg, 1 >.!>., 
the learned historian of Presbyterianism in 
Canada. In 1886, the Rev. Wm. Patter 
son, a native of County Deny, succeeded 
to the pastorate. Presbyterianism is now 
well-grown in Canada. The denomination 
has over 900 clergy, nearly 1,900 churches 
and stations, with close upon 160,000 
communicants. In Toronto, there are 
now twenty-five churches connected with 
the body, and two well-established weekly 

Methodism can point to great suc 
cesses in the city, where it has thirty-four 
congregations, and, architecturally, some of 

the most beautiful churches. Far down in its Canadian history, Methodism in the Province was an outpost of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the United States. From the earliest period its itinerant preachers travelled over the rough and sparsely 
settled circuits in Upper Canada. Not till about 1818, however, was there any church organization in York. In that year a. 
frame building was erected on King Street, where the Bank of Commerce now stands. Before this, York was served by 
preachers and exhorters, who were assigned to duty in the Home District, or Yonge Street Circuit. At the Conference of 1827, 
York was made a separate " station," and six years later, when a union had been consummated with the British Conference and 
the main Methodist body, the denomination took the name of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. Some twenty years later, were 
erected the Adelaide Street, Richmond Street, and Queen Street churches, and the New Connection Methodists also founded a 

church on Temperance Street. The Primitive Methodists also began about 
this period their labours in the city. Union in time followed, and the progress 
of the Church was henceforth gratifying and rapid. With the coming of 
Dr. Morley Punshon, Methodism in Toronto started into new life, and the 
noble edifice, the Metropolitan Church, with many other structures, were part 
of the fruit. To-day, the churches of the denomination overspread and 
beautify the city, and testify to the devotion of both pastors and people. 
In the denominational organ, the Christian Guardian, Methodism has an old 
but vigorous ally. 

Phenomenal in Toronto has been the growth, and that within a few 
years, of the Baptist Communion. The body has now sixteen churches in 
the city, with the important and vigorous auxiliaries of a well-equipped I. ni- 
versity and an able organ in the Press. One of its earliest churches was the 
Bond Street Church, near Queen, long associated with that zealous worker, 
the Rev. Dr. Fyfe, afterwards Principal of the denominational Seminary in 
Woodstock. By the late Senator McMaster s liberality, the fortunes of the 
liaptist Communion brightened when he made the bequest for the erection and 
endowment of the theological college, known as McMaster Hall. With the 
growth of the denomination, this University has lately had strong additions 
made to its teaching faculty, and it is now well set on its career of useful work. 
Throughout the city, the denomination now owns sixteen handsome and well- 
filled churches. 

The early memories of Congregationalism in Toronto, in the main, 
cluster round three churches, one old /ion Church, at the corner of Bay and Adelaide Streets, associated with the names of the 
Rev. John Roaf and Rev. T. S. Ellerby; two, Bond Street Church, associated with the name of the Rev. F. H. Marling: and three, 
the Northern Congregational Church, associated, if we mistake not, with the name of the Rev. Dr. Adam Lillie, and latterly with 
that of the Rev. Mr. Burton, lie-sides these, four other churches have since been erected by the active zeal of the denomination. 





\Vc have left ourselves no space to enumerate the churches, or to speak of the ecclesiastical work, of other religious bodies 
\vln> have homes and a sphere of activity in Toronto. Each of the following have one or more churches, chapels or meeting 
houses in the city : Plymouth Brethren, Reformed Episcopal, Catholic Apostolic, German Lutheran, Unitarian, Xew Jerusalem, 
Disciples. Society of Friends. Bible Christians, Christadelphians, and Jews. Besides these, there is the Temple, with numerous 
branch barracks, of the Salvation Army. The members and adherents of these fragmentary bodies, we may well believe, have 
reason for the faith that is in them, and, doubtless, in their own humble way are doing something for the Master s cause and 
are as "wells in a dry land." It is the fashion now-a-days to speak hopefully of the churches drawing more closely together, 
and -we should like to think that such a thing was possible, and that denominational barriers will some day fall before the fervid 
on>laught of brotherly love and the wand of union. But. as we have elsewhere asked, is church union, though it may be largely, 

-^n^^ and fr m the ^ est motivcs earnestly, discussed at the present day, really a practical or 

essential thing, save among those denominations that are akin in doctrine and in mode of 
church government ? We think not. Xor do we see the desirability of any fusion which 
shall appear forced and discordant. For ourselves, while we do not fail to appreciate 
the spirit which prompts to unity, we are content to see some division of labour amongst 
the churches, and deem diversity itself not only a natural thing but one of the best factors 
in keeping the denominations from contracting rust. It is true that there is much in 
common among all Protestant communions : there is the same enemy to fight and the 
same heaven to be won. But foes have been conquered with a variety of weapons, and 
the abode of the blest has many mansions. 

The Right Rev. Arthur Sweatman. M.A.. D.I)., though still in the prime of life, 
has already spent a most active and zealous career in many spheres of usefulness. Born 
in London, England, in 1834, we find him as early as his sixteenth year teaching in the 
Christ Church Sunday School, Marylebone. Seven years later he was Superintendent of 
Jesus Lane Sunday School in the British metropolis. In 1859, he was ordained deacon, 
in the following year, priest. Meanwhile he had taken his degree at Cambridge, with 
honours in mathematics, and gained a scholarship during his course. He was entered at 
Christ s College. After ordination as priest, he accepted the position of master at Islington 
College, being connected at the same time as curate, first, at Holy Trinity, Islington, then 
at St. Stephen s, Canonbury. In 1865, through the instrumentality of the then Bishop of 

Huron, he was induced to cross the Atlantic and accept the headmastership of Hellmuth College, London, a post he held for 
seven years. At the end of this period, the rectorship of Grace Church, Brantford, was offered him. This he took, but at the 
end of two years left it for the position of mathematical master at Upper Canada College, Toronto, but soon resigned to take 
once again the charge of Hellmuth College. The year 1875 saw him Canon of the Cathedral at London, Ontario. He was 
appointed Archdeacon of Brant, and subsequently acting-rector of Woodstock. In 1879, n s Lordship was elected to the vacant 
Bishopric of Toronto, a post, it need scarcely be said, at once high, important, arduous and delicate. The Bishop of Toronto 
ha.s excicised. in the various duties connected with his See, that activity and zeal 
which, as we have seen, characterized him in earlier life, and in it his learning, 
urbanity, tact and skill in organization have full scope. 

The Most Rev. John Walsh, D.I)., the present occupant of the Roman 
Catholic archi-episcopal chair in Toronto, was born in 1830 in the Parish of Moon- 
coin, County Kilkenny, Ireland. He received his education first at St. John s 
College, Waterford, then at the Seminary of the Sulpicians at Montreal. He was 
ordained at twenty-four years of age. Soon after this ceremony the young priest 
was appointed to a mission known as the Brock Mission. His next step in what 
has been a singularly successful and brilliant path of life, was to the Parish of St. 
Mary s in the Toronto Diocese. His next charge was perhaps equally as great an 
advance upon the preceding, that, namely, of rector of St. Michael s Cathedral, 
Toronto. Here he remained two years. At the close of. this period, his Grace 
returned to St. Mary s, being at the same time vicar-general of the diocese. In 
1867, when in his thirty-eighth year, Dr. Walsh was unanimously nominated by the 
hierarchy of the Ecclesiastical Province of Quebec to the Bishopric of Sandwich, 
his consecration taking place in St. Michael s, Toronto. In this See, the newly- 
appointed bishop had full scope for the utmost activity. With the co-operation of his 
flock, that he succeeded in making his episcopate memorable, not a few things 
testify. Not only were large and pressing debts entirely removed, but the Cathedral 
of London. Out., begun in 1880 and opened for service in 1885, became a sub 
stantial and lasting monument of progress made. It was during his episcopate 

in London that his Grace attended the Plenary Council held at Baltimore. Upon the death of Archbishop Lynch, in 1888, 
the Bishop of London was called to the Archi-episcopate of Toronto, the high position which he still occupies. Archbishop 


AucHBisHOi 1 \YAI.MI, D.I). 

REV. Piu.Ncii Ai. CAVF.X. D.I). 


Walsh is a man of fine education and scholarly attainments. To these gifts he adds the attractions of a very genial disposition 
and a broad and liberal mind. He has also great oratorical power, and an impressive manner in the pulpit. As an 
administrator he has many excellent qualities, and is much beloved as well as respected by his people. 

The Rev. Wm. Caven, D.D., now for more than twenty years Principal of Knox College, Toronto, was born in the year 
i8;,o in the Parish of Kirkcolm. Wigtonshire, Scotland. His lather, a descendant of the sturdy upholders of the Solemn 
League and Covenant, brought the family to Canada, settling in North Dumfries, 
Ont.. but afterwards removing to the vicinity of St. Mary s. The subject of this 
sketch received his first education under his father s hands, and subsequently 
studied for the ministry in the Seminary of the United Presbyterian Church at Lon 
don, Ont. In 1852, he was licensed to preach, and in the same year took over the 
parish of St. Mary s and Downie. In 1870, the Principalship of Knox College 
became vacant by the resignation of Dr. Willis, and Dr. Caven was appointed to 
fill the high office. Four years previous to this he was appointed by the Synod, 
Professor of Exegetical Theology and Biblical Criticism. He was Moderator of 
the Canada Presbyterian Church at the time of its union with the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland. Dr. Caven has also 
been President of the Ontario Teachers Association. For years he has been 
regarded as one of the foremost exponents and wise leaders of the Presbyterian 
( hurch in the Dominion, and the number of young ministers who, during the last 
score of years, have come under the influence of his academical and theological 
training, as head of Knox College, must be very large. Mention must also be made 
of the prominent part taken by Principal Caven in the recent agitation against the 

passing of the Jesuit Estates Bill in Quebec. 
Active and earnest as have been his efforts in 
this direction, he has never exceeded the 

bounds of justice and toleration. Principal Caven married, in 1856, Miss Goldie, of 
Greenfields, near Ayr, in the County of Waterloo, Ont.; by her he has had a family of 
seven children. 

The Rev. Charles W. E. Body, D.I)., D.C.L., Provost and Yice-Chancellor of the 
University of Trinity College, was born at Clapham, Surrey, England, in 1851. After 
receiving a preliminary education, he entered St. John s College, Cambridge, in 1871, 
was Bell University Scholar in 1872, and graduated three years later with mathematical 
honours, being sixth wrangler. In 1876, he gained a second-class in the Theological 
Tripos; was also Carus Greek Testament prizeman: and in 1878 became Tyrwhitt 
Hebrew Scholar. After this brilliant university career, Provost Body was elected Fellow 
and Lecturer in Theology of his College, and also Divinity Lecturer in Pembroke College, 
Cambridge. In these positions the reverend 
gentleman did admirable work and was 
deservedly popular. His influence over 
young men at college was very great, and, 
considering the fluctuations of belief among 
the youth of the time, extremely beneficial. 

In 1881, Dr. Body was offered and accepted the Provostship of Trinity College, 
Toronto. In this responsible post he has done most useful work for the Anglican 
Church in Canada, and at the same time has imparted new life and vigour to the 
great University of which he is the head. In his ten years labour at Trinity, the 
College has greatly increased its influence and become an important centre of 
learning. Dr. Body brings to his work great y.eal, intense earnestness, scholarly 
attainments and the powers of a highly cultivated mind. The Reverend, the 
Provost is Canon and Chancellor of the Cathedral of the Diocese. 

The Rev. Professor William ( lark, M.A., I.L.D., who fills the chair of 
Mental and Moral Philosophy, in the University of Trinity College, Toronto, is one 
of the ablest and most accomplished of Canada s adopted sons, a learned divine, 
an eloquent preacher, and a highly-equipped instructor of youth. The son of 
the Rev. James Clark, M.A.. Daviot, Scotland, he was born at Inverury, Aberdeen- 
shire, March 26th, 1829. Prof, ( lark was educated at King s College, Aberdeen, 
and Hertford College, Oxford, at both of which universities he graduated. In 1857, he was ordained deacon, and in the 
following year priest, by the Bishop of Worcester. He has held several parochial charges in England, and has frequently been 
selected to preach in St. Paul s, Westminster Abbey, and other cathedrals. Besides publishing several volumes of sermons, 


REV. PROF. \V. C I.AKK, 1. 1,. I). 


Prof. Clark has translated from the German, Hefele s "History of the Councils." and has also translated and edited Hagenbarhs 
well-known " History of Christian Doctrine." Coming to Canada in 1882, Prof. Clark was for a short time assistant at St. 
George s, Toronto, and while taking this duty was simultaneously invited to work with the Rev. Dr. Rainsford, at Xew York, 
and to take the chair of Philosophy at Trinity College, Toronto. Dr. Clark elected to accept the latter post and was thereafter 
at once installed. Since then, he has had many calls to undertake clerical and professional work in the United States, all of 
which he has declined, though he is no stranger in American pulpits and at many of the universities and church congresses in 
the neighbouring Republic. In .887, Prof. Clark was appointed, by Bishop Harris, Baldwin Lecturer at the University of 
Michigan. Ann Arbor. The fulfilment of this duty appeared in the form of an able and thoughtful series of lectures, entitled, 
"Witnesses to Christ; a Contribution to Christian Apologetics," published at Chicago in the following year. In 1888, the 

reverend gentleman was chosen Orator at Hobart College, Geneva. X.V.. on which occasion he had the degree of \.\..\). 

conferred upon him. and was at the same time appointed to an honorary lectureship and given a position on the college staff. 

^ Besides performing the arduous work of his chair at Trinity University, Dr. Clark 

finds leisure to edit the Canadian Churchman, to meet the many demands upon him 
for popular lectures on literary and religious topics of the time, and to take pulpit 
duty in many Toronto, and not a few outside, churches in the diocese, to whose 
congregations he is always a most welcome visitant. In addition to this, the Pro 
fessor is not infrequently to be met with on the platform in connection with 
charitable or other public and patriotic work. Into his pulpit ministrations and 
week-day lectures, Prof. Clark imports an amount of instruction and interest which 
greatly profit as well as delight his audience. On the platform, while he is always 
the scholar, he is never the pedant, but broad-minded, alert and entertaining ; in 
the pulpit he possesses a genius for preaching. He has read widely and studied 
deeply. Having seen much of men and the world, he is a charming conversation 
alist and has the manners and high characteristic qualities of a gentleman. 

The Rev. John R. Teefy, H.A., Father Superior of St. Michael s (R.C.) 
College, Toronto, was born at Richmond Hill, County York, Ont., August 2ist. 
1848. He was educated at the University of Toronto, from which he graduated in 
1871. After graduating, Father Teefy taught in the Hamilton Collegiate Institute 
and other of the secondary schools of the Province for a period of three years. 
He then entered the Grand Seminary at Montreal, where he studied theology. In 
June, 1878, he was ordained a priest, and was immediately thereafter attached to 
St. Michael s College, Toronto, as Professor of Mathematics. Prof. Teefy s 

scholarly attainments, fine teaching ability, and general high character led, in 1889, to his appointment as F ather Superior of 

St. Michael s College. This institution, as is known, is affiliated with the National University, and by virtue of his office the 

Rev. Father Teefy is a member of the Senate of Toronto University. The Father Superior of St. Michael s holds a high place- 
in the regard of those of his own communion, and he is also highly esteemed by many 

Protestants, and especially by the educationists of the Province, who have the pleasure of 

knowing him. 

The Rev. William Reid, D.I.)., long and favourably known as one of the clerks of 

the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, and agent for the Schemes 

of the body, was born in 1816 in the Parish of Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. 

He was educated at King s College, Aberdeen, where he took his M.A. degree. After 

taking his theological course, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Fordyce, of 

the Church of Scotland, in 1839, and shortly thereafter left for Canada under an appoint 
ment as missionary for the Glasgow Colonial Society. Early in 1840 he was ordained 

and inducted to the pastoral charge of Grafton and Colborne, at that period attached to 

the Presbytery of Kingston. In 1849 he was called to Picton, Prince Edward Co., where 

he remained until 1853, when he removed to Toronto, to become general agent of the 

Schemes of the Presbyterian Church and Editor of the Ecclesiastical and Missionary 

Record. In 1850, Dr. Reid was Moderator of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church ; in 

1873 he was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Canada Presbyterian Church 

the designation of the body after union (in 1861) with the United Presbyterian Church ; 

and in 1879 he was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 

Canada, the union of the various branches of the Presbyterian Church having taken place 

in 1875. During this long interval, the now venerable divine has laboured earnestly for 

his denomination, and been a trusted and faithful servant in administering the financial and general affairs of the Presbyterian 

Church in Canada. The reverend gentleman has also been actively connected, for a long series of years, with the Upper 

Canada Bible Society, and the Religious Book and Tract Society of the Province. In 1876, Dr. Reid received the honorary 

degree of D.I), from Queen s University, Kingston. 





The Rev. Dr. Potts, the stalwart General Secretary of the Educational Society of the Methodist Church in Canada, was 
horn in County Fermanagh, Ireland, 1838, and was only seventeen when he left the land of his birth for the New World. 
Originally an F.pix-opnlian, he afterwards joined the Methodist Communion, and, after a short period passed in mercantile 

pursuits in Kingston and Hamilton, commenced to study for the ministry, attending 
Victoria College, Cobourg. At the age of twenty-three, he was ordained, having prior 
to this undertaken ministerial work in Markham, Aurora, Newmarket, and Thorold. 
Alter ordination, he assisted the Rev. Richard Jones, at London, from which place he 
was removed to Vorkville. His next charge was the pastorate of the new Centenary 
Church at Hamilton, and in it he was eminently successful. From Hamilton Dr. I otts 
passed to the St. James Street Church, Montreal, where he added success to success. 
Toronto again claimed him, and he took first the Metropolitan Church, then the Elm 
Street, then again the Metropolitan, after which he once again visited Montreal, taking the 
St. James Street Church, for a second term. This concluded, we find him once more at 
the Elm Street Church, Toronto. These charges are noteworthy, showing, as they do, 
by the responsible positions the subject of this sketch successively filled, in how high an 
estimation he was and is held by the body to which he belongs. Ever since his twenty- 
eighth year, Dr. Potts has been called to undertake the duties appertaining to some of the 
most influential and important centres of Methodism in the Dominion. Nor is it in the 
pastorate alone that Dr. Potts has shone. In 
1887, he was President of the Methodist Con 
ference, and he now holds the General Secre 
taryship of the Educational Society of the 
Church. He is a member of the International 

Sunday School Committee, of the Board and Senate of Victoria College, and also of 
the Board of the Montreal Theological College. On the platform, Dr. Potts fervid 
eloquence attracts large audiences and delights them. 

The Rev. Henry M. Parsons, D.I)., Pastor of Knox Church, was born in 
1828 at East Haddam, Connecticut, U. S., where for fifty years his father (the Rev. 
Isaac Parsons) was Pastor of the ist Congregational Church. He received his pre 
liminary education at Williston Seminary, East Hampton, Mass., and thereafter 
proceeded to Yale College, New Haven, Conn., where he graduated in 1848. After 
teaching for some years, he entered the Connecticut Theological Institute, East 

Windsor, to take a course in Divinity, and 
then accepted the pastorate of the ist 
Congregational Church at Springfield, 
Mass. Here Dr. Parsons laboured for 
sixteen years, after which we find him in 
charge successively of the Union Church, 

and Olivet Church, Boston, and of the Lafayette Presbyterian Church, Buffalo, 
N. Y. While in charge of the latter, he received, in 1880, a call to the pastorate 
of Knox Church, Toronto, which had become vacant, owing to the lamented death, 
in the preceding year, of the Rev. Dr. Topp. This call Dr. Parsons accepted, and 
has since laboured faithfully in this old historic Presbyterian charge. Under his 
able ministrations Knox Church has grown rapidly in wealth and membership. Dr. 
Parsons received his honorary degree of D.I), in 1888 from Knox College, Toronto. 
The reverend gentleman is a devoted and learned Bible student, and is an enthusi 
astic worker at the Believers Meeting for Bible Study held annually at Niagara. 
He also takes a keen interest in many of the religious movements of the day, and 
in the pulpit and on the platform is an instructive as well as a fervent and impressive 

The Rev. Daniel James Macdonnell, M.A., B.D., Pastor of St. Andrew s 
(Presbyterian) Church, was born at Bathurst, New Brunswick, in 1843. He is the 
son of the late Rev. George Macdonnell, some time minister of St. Luke s (Kirk of 
Scotland), Bathurst, but later of Fergus and Milton, Ont. The subject of this 

sketch was educated at Bathurst, N.B., at Gait, Ont., and at Edinburgh, Scotland. He graduated in Arts at Queen s College, 
Kingston, taking thereafter a theological course at the I )ivinity Hall in that city, and finishing his studies for the ministry at 
Glasgow, Edinburgh and Berlin. In 1866, he was ordained in the Scotch Establishment by the Presbytery of Edinburgh, and, 
returning to Canada, was called to St. Andrew s Church, Peterborough. Four years afterwards, he accepted the pastorate of 
St. Andrew s Church, Toronto, in which charge he has since laboured with great zeal and devotion. Here, his success as a 
preacher incited his congregation to erect the very handsome edifice which adorns King Street West, and which cost, in all, over 


REV. 1). ). MACKO.NXEU., M.A., B.D. 




$100,000. His gifts as a preacher are intense earnestness, coupled with great nervous force, an impressive manner, and a 

telling power ot interesting his audience. Another ingredient in his popularity is his known liberalism in theology, together with 

a blunt but acceptable way of saying fearlessly what he thinks. The reverend gentleman 

was one of the most cordial advocates of Presbyterian union in Canada, and contributed 

in no little degree to its consummation in 1875. Mr. Macdonnell takes a large interest in 

the city s charities and other good works. He is a member of the Senate of Toronto 

University, and. we believe, one of the Trustees of Queen s College, Kingston. 

The Rev. Samuel H. Kellogg, I >.]>., Pastor of St. James Square Presbyterian 

Church, was born in 1839 at Quiogue, Sussex County, Long Island, his father being then 

in the ministry of the Presbyterian Church of the United States. He graduated at the 

College of Xew Jersey. Princeton, in 1861, and three years later completed his divinity 

course at the Princeton Theological Seminary, of which he was also tutor in mathematics. 

In 1864. he was ordained by the Old School Presbytery of Hudson, and at the close of 

that year sailed for India, to undertake missionary work in the North- West provinces of 

Hindostan. For ten years the reverend gentleman devoted himself to evangelistic work, 

first at Futtehpur, and afterwards at Allahabad, when the death of his wife, in 1876, 

compelled him to return to America for the education and care of his children. For a time 

he accepted a charge at Pittsburgh, Pa., but in 1878 was appointed successor to the late 

Rev. Dr. A. A. Hodge, as Professor of Systematic Theology in the Western Theological 

Seminaix. Alleghany. In this important chair he laboured for the next eight years, at 

the same time doing much in the way of literary work. In 1886, Dr. Kellogg accepted 

a call to the St. James" Square Presbyterian Church, Toronto, the pulpit of which had 

been rendered vacant by the appointment of the Rev. Dr. John M. King to the Principalship of Manitoba College. Under 

Dr. Kellogg s pastorate, the membership of the church has almost doubled. Dr. Kellogg has been an industrious, life-long 

student and a learned contributor to the literary magazines and theological reviews. He is the author of a grammar of the 

Hindu Language and Dialects, the official text-book for the Indian Civil Service. A revised and enlarged edition of this work 

is shortly to be brought out in London, Eng., under the patronage of Her Majesty s Council for India. Dr. Kellogg s other 

works are "The Jews: or Prediction and Fulfilment;" "The Light of Asia and the Light of the World," a comparison of 

Buddhism and Christianity; "From Death to Resurrection," a scriptural study of the intermediate state ; and a critical and 

exegetical work on the Book of Leviticus, now passing through the press, to form one of the issues of " The Expositor s Bible." 

The reverend gentleman, in 1877, received the degree of D.D. from Princeton College, New Jersey ; he is a member of the 

Senate of Knox College, Toronto, and of the Foreign Missions Committee of the General Assembly ; also an associate of the 

Victoria Institute, or Royal Philosophical Society of Great Britain; and member of the American Oriental Society. In 1889, Dr. 

Kellogg was present as a member of the International Congress of Orientalists, which met at Stockholm, Sweden, under the 

presidency of King Oscar II. 

The well-known Methodist divine, the Rev. Hugh Johnston, M.A., D.D., was born in the Township of Southwold, Out., 

in the year 1840. Before his eighteenth birthday, he had obtained a first-class teacher s certificate, a license to teach, and a 

position in the Arkona High School, in the County of Lambton. He soon abandoned 
school-teaching, however, for the ministry, and with this object entered Victoria College, 
graduating in 1864, and receiving ordination in the following year. His first ministerial 
charge was in Toronto, his next at Montreal, where he assisted the venerable Dr. Douglas. 
From thence he was sent to Windsor, returning from that town to Toronto. At the end 
of three years in this city, he spent six in Hamilton, first at the Centenary Church, then 
at the Wesley, this latter undergoing notable architectural improvements while under his 
pastorate. In 1878, Dr. Johnston was in requisition by the St. James Street Church, 
Montreal. Returning to Toronto in 1882, he took charge first of the Metropolitan 
Church, then of the Carlton Street Church, and subsequently of the new and handsome 
Trinity Methodist Church. Dr. Johnston s activity has manifested itself in other spheres 
besides that of the pulpit. He has written much in denominational organs, and still often 
contributes descriptions of travel, etc., to the secular press. His letters written when 
correspondent on an expedition through British Columbia will be remembered by many. 
He has also travelled far and wide. 

The late Rev. Dr. Alexander Topp, for over twenty years Pastor of Knox Church, 
Toronto, will long be remembered as a faithful servant of the Master, in ministering in 
sacred things to an influential body of the Presbyterian Church in this city. He was 
born near the old historic town of Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland, in 1815, and was educated 
at the Elgin Academy, and at King s College, Aberdeen, winning at the latter a high 


scholarship, which he held throughout his undergraduate course. In 1836, he was licensed to preach, and was at once called 
to a charge in Elgin, his native town. Here he laboured till the era of the Disruption, when the reverend gentleman seceded, 




with large numbers of his clerical brethren, from the Scotch Establishment, carrying 
with him nearly his whole congregation to a new church in Elgin. In this charge he 
remained till 1852, when he removed to Edinburgh to accept the pastorate of the Rox 
burgh Church in the famed city. In 1858, Dr. Topi) received a call from Knox Church, 
Toronto, then recently under the charge of the Rev. Dr. Robert Burns. This Dr. Topp 
accepted, and he arrived in Toronto in the autumn of 1858. For twenty-one years he 
laboured with great earnestness and devotion in this important charge, until death over 
took him and withdrew him from the sight, but not from the hearts, of his people. He- 
was a wise, faithful and kindly minister to the flock he served, and few pastors have been 
more deservedly honoured and beloved. Dr. Topp died on the 6th of October, 1879. 

The Rev. Dr. Edward Hartley Dewart, a native of the County of Cavan, Ireland, 
left the land of his birth at the early age of six years, his parents settling in the County 
of Peterborough, Ont, in 1834. What little schooling he was able to obtain in this 
district, in those early years, was supplemented by a brief term at the Normal School, 
Toronto, after which he for a short time alternately taught and studied. In 1851, having 
joined the Wesleyan Methodist Church, he commenced his true life-work as junior preacher 
on the St. Thomas Circuit. From thence he went to the Thorold and Port Hope Circuits, 
after which he received his ordination. Dr. Dewart s labours have extended over a wide 

area of the Dominion. We find him, after having been ordained, first at Dundas, then 
as superintendent of the St. Andrew s Circuit, then on the Odelltown Circuit, and lastly 
in Montreal. Over-work now began to tell upon his health, and Dr. Dewart was com 
pelled to relinquish his duties to enable him to recuperate. Soon, however, he re 
commenced his labours, first at St. John s, then at Collingwood, these being followed by 
charges at Toronto and Ingersoll. Hut Dr. Dewart is as well-known through the influ 
ence of his literary zeal as through that of his pastoral. As early as the year 1869, he- 
was elected to the editorial chair of the Christian Guardian, a post he has worthily filled 
and still fills at the present time. He has excellent literary tastes, and has published an 
anthology of Canadian verse, besides himself contributing many fine poems to the store 
of our young native literature. He has also been chosen for many responsible and 
delicate positions in the gift of his Church, and in 1873 was appointed delegate to the 
British Conference during the discussion of the important problem of Union. He was 
also a member of the CEcumenical Conference of 1881, which met in London, England. 
In the Christian Guardian he has warmly advocated College Federation, and been a 
staunch supporter of the measure at the denominational gatherings and on the public 

The Rev. Henry Scadding, I ).!)., Cantab., the venerable historiographer of Toronto, 
and for nearly thirty years Rector of the Church of Holy Trinity and classical master in 

Upper Canada College, 


was born in Devonshire, 

England, in 1813. Coming at an early age to Canada, he made 
Toronto his home, and in the first year (1830) of the existence 
of Upper Canada College, he was head-boy of that now re 
nowned school. He then proceeded to England and entered 
St. John s College, Cambridge, from which he graduated in 
1837, and three years later took his M.A. degree. After 
graduating he entered Holy Orders, and in 1838, was ordained 
a priest. In the same year he returned to Toronto and be 
came classical master in Upper Canada College. For a quarter 
of a century the reverend gentleman was identified with the 
College, and for over half a century has he known Toronto and 
been one of its most worthy and loyal sons. Throughout this 
long period he has been an intimate and loving student of its 
local history, and in his Toronto of Old has gathered a mine 
of the richest material relating to its civic life. The value of 
this work must increase with the passing years, and ages to 
come after will treasure with increasing respect the labour of its 
loving historian. In the Semi-Centennial Memorial Volume 
of Toronto (1884), Dr. Scadding has enhanced his gift to the 
citi/ens by the valuable monograph which appears in that work, 
entitled " Memoirs of the Four Decades of York (preceding 




the incorporation of Toronto). Ik-sides these important works. Dr. Scadding has published a sheaf of exceedingly interesting 
brochures, chiefly relating to historical and biographical matters connected with the early city. He has also been a constant 
contributor to the native periodicals on cognate subjects. For many years he has taken a warm interest in the Canadian 
Institute, and in the proceedings of the York Pioneers organization, of both societies of which he has been President. Rarely 
has a town in the New World had a more industrious and enthusiastic son than Toronto has in the interesting historic figure 
of Doctor Henry Scadding. 

The Rev. Dr. Stafford was born in Elgin County, Ont., in 1839. For three 
and a half years he was a teacher in his native county, after which he became a pro 
bationer for the ministry. He took successively at Victoria University the degrees of 
1!..\.. M.A.. 1.I..1!.. and I.1..1 ).. and was ordained in Kim Street, Toronto, in 1864 
After ministerial work in Western Ontario, Dr. Stafford was sent for three years to 
the Dominion Square Church, Montreal. From thence he went to Ottawa fora like 
period, after which he was, by unanimous vote, recalled to Montreal, his ministrations 
at Ottawa being meanwhile so successful that an attempt was made to secure his return 
to that city. This being inadmissible, his next move was to Winnipeg, thence to the 
Metropolitan. Toronto, and then to Sherbourne Street. Dr. Stafford has been placed 
at the head of every district in which he has laboured since 1877, and has been elected 
President of every Conference to which he has belonged. In 1886, he was elected 
Fraternal Delegate to the United States M. E. Church, and was highly eulogised on 

the ability with which he performed his 
arduous and delicate duties. He is an 
ardent advocate of the Union of all Metho 
dist bodies in Canada, and took perhaps 
the most prominent part in formulating 
and perfecting the basis of Union. 

Dr. Thomas, Pastor of the (ar\ (> 

Street Baptist Church, was born near Xarberth, Wales, in 1843. his father being the 
pastor of the Baptist Church in that town. Karly intended for the ministry, his 
studies were directed to that end. He graduated at Haverford West, and began 
preaching in his sixteenth year. His first pastorate was the English Ilaptist Church 
at Neath, South Wales. Coming to the United States in 1868, he took charge of 
the First Baptist Church at Pittston, Pa. From thence, in 1871, he was called to 
one of the most important pulpits in Philadelphia, and this he continued to fill till 
he succeeded Dr. Castle in the Jarvis Street pastorate, in July, 1882. Dr. Thomas 
sermons frequently appear in the leading denominational organs, and his published 
writings on religious subjects have had exten 
sive circulation. 

The Rev. William John Hunter, D.D., 
at present Pastor of Carlton Street Methodist 
Church, was born at Phillipsburg, Province 

of Quebec, in 1835. His parents emigrated to Canada in 1821, from County Tyrone, 
Ireland, and at first settled in Lower Canada, but subsequently removed to the Upper 
Province. Though both born in Ireland, they were proud to own their descent from the 
Scotch Covenanters. After receiving a good public school education, Dr. Hunter in 
1856 entered Victoria College with a view to the ministry, and pursued a course in classics 
and metaphysics. Although prevented from completing his University career, he has ever 
been a diligent student, and has taken diplomas for special courses in literary and 
scientific subjects. Twenty-five out of thirty-four years of his ministerial career have been 
spent in London, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Toronto. His brethren have honoured him 
with many positions of trust and responsibility : he has served on all the important con- 
nexional committees, been Chairman of District, Secretary, and President of Conference. 
I )r. Hunter, besides being an able and popular preacher, is a strong temperance man, 
and an earnest and fearless advocate of every moral reform. The reverend gentleman is 
also a staunch ally of Kqual Rights, and was one of the first publicly to protest against 
the passing of the [esuits Estates Bill. 

The Rev. John Burton, M.A., B.D., is a native of England, where he spent his boyhood and received an English 
education. In 18^0. he came to Canada, accompanied by his brother, who is a wholesale merchant in Toronto, and settled in 
Brockville. While in that city, he was induced to study for the ministry, and with that end in view took an Arts course in 
Mi ( .ill College, Montreal, and a theological course in Knox College, Toronto. While at McGill, in 1860, he won the prize for 






a poem on the occasion of the visit of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales. Four years later, he was ordained by the Presbytery of 
Brockvilie, and successively held charges in I.yn, Prescott and Belleville. In 1877, he was elected by the Presbyterian Genera] 
Assembly a delegate to the first Pan-Presbyterian Council which met in Edinburgh in that year. Two years afterwards, Mr. 
Burton accepted a call to the Northern Congregational Church of this city, of which he is still the earnest and hard-working 

pastor. He has been chairman of the Congregational Union, and President of the 
Toronto Ministerial Association. While connected with the former body, Mr. Burton 
attended, as a delegate, the (ubilee of the Congregational Union of England, which met 
in Manchester in 1882, taking an active part therein. 

The Rev. Father Joseph J. McCann is one of the Deans in the Toronto (R. C.) 
Diocese, and Rector of St. Helen s Roman Catholic Church, a religious outpost of the 
denomination in the suburbs of Toronto. St. Helen s Church is situated at the inter 
section of Dundas Street and Lansdowne Avenue. There it fills a useful and holds an 
important position ; and with its school and presbytery, and its pleasant surroundings of 
tall graceful trees, presents a very attractive appearance. The Church dates back about 
twenty years, and was built for the accommodation of those living in the western limits 
of St. Mary s Parish. In 1875, it became the centre of a separate parish, with the 
Rev. Father Shea as first pastor. The present incumbent, the Very Rev. Dean McCann 
took charge of St. Helen s in 1882. The congregation has since been steadily in 
creasing, and in 1888, through the activity of Father McCann, the seating capacity of the 
church was doubled. 

? ^t^ > The late Prof - Daniel Arthur McGregor, 

B.A., Ex-Principal of McMaster (Baptist) Hall, To 
ronto, was born of Scottish parentage in Osgoode, 
Lower Canada, in the year 1847. He entered the 

University of Toronto, paying particular attention to the subject of Mental and Moral 
Science, and took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in i88r. He also took the theological 
course at the Baptist College, Woodstock, Ont. From 1879 to 1881 he was pastor of 
Whitby Baptist Church, and in the latter year left Whitby for Stratford, where he held a 
pastorate until 1886. From Stratford, he was called to the chair of Homiletics in 
McMaster Hall, Toronto, and on the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Castle in 1889, Prof. 
McGregor was appointed Principal and also filled the chair of Theology. While holding 
the responsible position of head of the College, ill-health made inroads on his vitality, 
and failing to recover strength he sought medical advice abroad, but the grim enemy 
overtook him at New York, and he died in St. Luke s Hospital on the 25th of April, 
1890, at the early age of forty-three. 

The Rev. Thomas Wesley Jeffery, at 
present Pastor of Berkeley Street Methodist 
Church, was born on the Island of St. Mar 
tins, West Indies, and educated at Woodhouse 
Grove Academy, in Yorkshire, England. After a six years course of study there, 
he entered different institutions, scholastic and commercial, to gain the equipment 
necessary for practical teaching. In 1857, at the request of the Rev. Dr. Anson 
Green (the Canadian representative that year to the British Conference), he came 
to Canada to enter the ministry of the Methodist Church. For a time he laboured 
in Paris, and in 1861, was received into full connection and ordained by the Rev. 
I )r. Joseph Stinson at Brantford. Mr. Jeffery has laboured at Paris, at Melbourne ; 
in the F^astern Townships (twice) ; at Richmond St. Circuit (twice) ; Kingston ; 
Xapanee ; Elm Street, Toronto (twice) ; Queen Street (three times) ; Sherbourne 
Street ; Brampton ; Bloor Street West (now called Trinity), and at present ministers 
in Berkeley Street Church. He has also laboured at Cobourg and Port Hope. 

x s. \ ^fl Mr. Jeffery has the faculty of commanding large congregations of interested and 

^^./y intelligent hearers who differ widely in their theological creeds. He has succeeded 

in leaving his church appointments numerically, financially, and spiritually better 
than he found them. His address is original and striking, often is it poetical and 
not infrequently eloquent. He prepares thoroughly, but as an extempore speaker 
is easy, graceful and graphic. 

Rev. John Ellis Lanceley, Pastor of the New Richmond Methodist Church, 

McCaul Street, was born at Birkenhead, Cheshire, England, January roth, 1848. His father was a Wesleyan local preacher of 
unusual vigour of mind, and the son seems to have inherited the mental strength of this most exemplary Christian man. The 






family came to Canada in 1855 and settled in Cobourg, where young Lanceley availed himself of the advantages of Victoria 

University and laid the foundations of a classical and literary education. Leaving College, he spent a few years in railway and 

banking work. In 1870, he entered the Methodist ministry, and served at Aurora, Chatham. Dundas, Guelph and London, 

till in 1878 he was united in marriage to Miss Lizzie Ward, of Niagara Falls, when he 

was transferred to Niagara Conference. In 1888, at the request of the Quarterly Official 

Board of Richmond Church, he was removed to Toronto Conference, and assumed his 

present charge. Mr. Lanceley was a member of the General Conference of 1886, and 

one of the youngest ministers appointed to attend that venerable court. He wields the 

pen of a ready writer, and is very popular as a lecturer. 

The Rev. William Macl-aren, D.I)., Professor of Systematic Theology in Knox 

College, was horn of Scottish parentage in the Township of Tarbolton, Count} Carleton, 

1828. He was educated at the Grammar School, Ottawa, and at the Toronto Academy, 

and took his theological course at Knox College, attending classes also at Toronto 

University. In 1853, I rof. MacLaren was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church 

of ( anada. and first settled at Ainherstburg. Thereafter, for a while, he undertook a 

charge at Boston, Mass., but shortly returned to Canada, where he accepted a call to 

the John Street Church, Belleville, and in 1870 removed to Ottawa to undertake the 

pastorate of Knox Church, in that city. In 1872, he became lecturer on Apologetics 

in the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and in the following year the General Assembly 
^_^___^___ .. f tne Church appointed him to the chair of Sys 
tematic Theology in Knox College, Toronto, which 
i position he still ably fills. In 1883, Queen s 
jCollege, Kingston, conferred on him the degree 

of D.D. For sixteen years Dr. MacLaren has been Convener of the Foreign Mission 
Committee of the Canada Presbyterian Church, and in 1884 was elected to the high 
office of Moderator of the General Assembly. 

The Rev. J. Philip DuMoulin, M.A., D.C.L., Rector of St. James Cathedral, also 
Canon Residentiary and Sub-Dean of St. Alban s Cathedral, Toronto, was born in 
I Hiblin. of an old Huguenot family, and came to Canada in 1860. The reverend gentle- 
^A man has held successively the rectories of St. Thomas , Hamilton; St. Martin s, Montreal; 

^-*. .^^fl^^. a "d St. James Cathedral, Toronto, to the latter of which he was appointed in 1882. 

H^ ^J ^^. These several charges he has filled with much acceptance, devoting himself with zeal and 

^F^fl ardour to the service of the flock among whom he has been called to labour, and doing 

IT^V good work for the Master s cause. In 1873, when the Diocese of Algoma was founded, 

Dr. DuMoulin had proof of the esteem in which he is held by the Church at large. 
Being then Rector of St. Thomas , Hamil 
ton, he was chosen by the Synod of the whole 
Church as the first Bishop of Algoma, but, 
however, declined the high office. When in 

St. Martin s. Montreal, he acted as Examining Chaplain to Bishop Oxenham ; and 

here, in the Toronto Diocese, he has had honorary preferment in the Church, 

besides fulfilling the duties of his own historic charge. Canon DuMoulin is one 

of the first pulpit orators, and perhaps the most impressive as well as instructive of 

preachers, in the English Church in Canada. He is splendidly equipped for his 

work, for he is not only a fine literary student and a learned theologian, but pos 
sesses the gifts of manner and voice which revive the best traditions of the Old 

World pulpit. His style is picturesque and his manner earnest and often thrilling. 

On the platform he is always an acquisition, for he is invariably interesting as well 

as instructive, and the cause is fortunate that enlists the aid of the reverend 


The Rev. I )r. William Jones, I >ean of Trinity College and Professor of 

Mathematics in that institution, is a member of a well-known U. E. Loyalist family 

in Toronto, and seventh son of the late Mr. Justice Jonas Jones. He was born 

October 131!!, 1838, and was educated at Upper Canada College, then at Trinity 

College, where he was Wellington Scholar. Proceeding to England, he entered St. 

John s College, Cambridge, of which he is a scholar; took his B.A. degree in 1862 

(being twentieth wrangler), and his M.A. in 1865. In 1862-63, he was assistant master in Jedburgh Grammar School, Yorkshire, 

but in the following year returned to Canada, and took Holy Orders in 1864, and was ordained priest four years later by the 

Bishop of Toronto. In 1863, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics in Trinity College, Toronto, a post he has held for 






twenty-seven years. In 1875, he was made Dean of the College. Professor Jones received, in 1889, the honorary degree of 
D.C.I,, from Trinity, and the previous year, on the termination of a quarter of a century s connection with the College, he 
was made the recipient of an illuminated address from the Corporation of Trinity, in recognition of the value of his long and 
devoted services to the College. 

The late Rev. Algernon Hoys, M.A., Classical Professor in Trinity College, 
Toronto, and Public Orator in that University, was born at Simla, India, where his 
l;ither held a Government chaplaincy, in 1847. In 1865, after receiving his school 
education at Shrewsbury, he entered Jesus College, Cambridge, England, obtaining a 
foundation scholarship, and graduated in 1869, taking the first place in the second- 
class of the Classical Tripos. In the following year, he won second-class theological 
honours and the Otter Divinity prize. In 1870, he was ordained deacon by the Bishop 
of Winchester, and in 1872, priest, by the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the latter 
year, he took duty as curate of Faversham, Kent, but resigned it to come to Canada, 
where he had received the appointment of Professor of Classics and Public Orator in 
the University of Trinity College. This position he held until his lamented death in 
April, 1890, at the early age of forty-four. He was a man of fine culture, liberal 
views, kindly heart, and deservedly popular within and without the walls of Trinity. In 
the pulpit, as well as in the professorial chair, his prelections were thoughtful, earnest 
and scholarly. His versatility was great. Not only was he a ripe and accomplished 
classical scholar, and a brilliant public orator in the Latin tongue at University Con 
vocation, he was also a clever and sprightly writer of English verse, his themes moving 
the reader or the listener at times to laughter 
and at times to tears. Despite some cynicism 
of speech and an occasional eccentricity of man 
ner, none knew him but to respect and love 
him. Professor Hoys loss to Trinity is as real as it will be lasting. 

The Rev. Herbert Symonds, M.A., Professor of Divinity, Trinity College, Toronto, 
was born in the County of Suffolk, England, December 2 8th, 1860. He was educated 
at Albert Memorial College, Framlington, England, and at Trinity University, in this 
city. He graduated at the latter institution in 1885, with first-class theological honours, 
was prize essayist in 1884 and 1885, and wrote the prize sermon for the latter year. 
After graduating, Mr. Symonds was appointed Fellow of Trinity and Lecturer in Divinity. 
On the retirement of Prof. Roper, to take the incumbency of St. Thomas , Toronto, 
Prof. Symonds was appointed his successor in the Professorship of Divinity; he was at 
the same time appointed Librarian of the University, both of which positions he still 

acceptably fills. The reverend gentleman is 
a favourite of both graduates and under 
graduates at Trinity. 

The Rev. Arthur Lloyd, M.A., Pro 
fessor of Classics, Trinity College, Toronto, 
was born at Simla, India, in 1852. He was 

educated partly in Germany, but mainly at Brewood Grammar School, Staffordshire, 
England ; after which he won an open scholarship to St. John s College, Cambridge, 
but migrating to Peterhouse, was elected scholar in 1872 and Fellow and Dean of 
Peterhouse in 1878. At Peterhouse, he graduated B.A. in 1874, and took his M.A. 
in 1877 (First-Class, Classical Tripos, unAproxime accessit for Chancellor s medals). 
He was ordained deacon in 1875 and priest in 1876, by the Bishop of Chester, and 
during these years was curate of St. Barnabas, Liverpool, and for three years fol 
lowing was curate of Great St. Mary s, Cambridge. From 1879 to 1884, Rev. Mr. 
Lloyd was Rector of Norton, Suffolk, and from 1881 to 1884, Vicar of Hunston. 
In the latter year he went out to Japan as missionary for the S. P. G. Here he 
took up educational work at one of the leading native schools in Tokyo, being for 
some time Professor of History and Latin in the University department of the 
Keiogijiku. He also held various other posts under the Japanese Government, and 
founded a native church at Tokyo. In 1890 the reverend gentleman came to Can 
ada, having received the appointment of Professor of Classics at Trinity University. 
The Rev. John Pearson, Rector of Holy Trinity Church, is a native of Nottingham, England, and was educated at St. 
Augustine s College, Canterbury. Coming to Nova Scotia, he was for three years curate of St. Margaret s Hay. In 1857, he 
was appointed curate of St. John s Cathedral, St. John s, Newfoundland. Seven years later, Mr. Pearson became sub-dean of 


KF.V. I KOI . A. Li.(ivi), M.A. 





the cathedral at Fredericton, Xew Brunswick, and there he remained until 1875. when 

he removed to Toronto. Here lie became assistant-minister at the Church of the Holy 

Trinity, then under the charge of the Rev. Dr. Scadding and the Rev. \V. S. Darling, 

subsequently himself succeeding to the rectorship. The Church of the Holy Trinity is 

one of the oldest Episcopal churches in the city, having been built about the year 1846 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ by a lady in England, who anonymously donated 

,,5,000 sterling towards its erection and endow 
ment. Formerly the services at Holy Trinity were 
wont to be highly ornate, and of the extreme 
Anglo-Catholic type. Under the present estimable 
rector, however, a more moderate ritual prevails, 
consonant with the general views of Canadian 
Anglicanism. For many years Rev. Mr. Pearson 
filled the onerous office of Honorary Secretary of 
the Toronto Diocesan Synod. 

The Rev. Arthur Henry Baldwin, .NLA- 
Rector of All Saints, was born on Christmas day. 
1840, in the first brick house erected in Toronto, 

now the office of the Canada Company, situate on the X. E. corner of King and Frederick 
Streets. His father, Mr. John Spread Baldwin, was an uncle of the Hon. Robert Baldwin: 
and, on his mother s side, General Shaw was his grandfather. The reverend gentleman 
was educated at Upper Canada College, and afterwards won two scholarships at Trinity 
University. Subsequently he went to Oxford, and there entered Oucen s College, from 
which he graduated in 1863. He then took Holy Orders, being ordained deacon in York 
and priest in Ely Cathedrals, and served two years in I Alton Beds, where a memorial 

window in Christ Church testifies to his ministry. After returning to Canada, he accepted, in 1868, the curacy of St. Thomas , 

Belleville, where he remained four years, when he took the pastoral charge of All Saints . Toronto, with which parish he has 

since been identified. Here he ministers to a full church and a flourishing congregation. In the election of a Bishop of 

Toronto, in 1878, Mr. Baldwin received the majority of votes from the laity, but not sufficient from the clergy, for election. 

He is a member of the Executive Committee, and Chairman of the Widows and Orphans Committee, of the Diocese. He 

is also on the Executive of the House of Industry, in this city, was instrumental in building its Casual Poor Ward, and has taken 

a deep interest in that and other 


The Rev. Charles Edward 

Thomson, M. A.. Rector of St. 

Mark s Church, West Toronto Junc 
tion, comes of U. E. Loyalist stock. 

He was born at Kingston, Novem 
ber roth, 1832, his father being 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, formerly 

M.P.P. for Fronteiiac. and publisher 

of the Upper Canada Heiald. Mr. 

Thomson s grandfather on the ma 
ternal side was William Ruttan, who 

landed at Adolphustown in 1784, 

after the Revolutionary War. The 

subject of this sketch was educated 

by private tuition and afterwards at 

the Upper Canada College and 

Trinity University, receiving the de 
gree of M.A. from the latter in 1857. 

He was ordained a deacon in 1856 

and the following year was ordained 

a priest of the Canadian branch of 

the Anglican Church. For twenty 

years. Rev. M r. Thomson was rector 

at Elora, Ontario, and for the last ten 

years has been actively engaged in 

the interesting field of St. Mark s 

parish in Western Toronto. 

RESIDENCE 01- j 111 K i . . < 



RKV. \V. R. I ARKEK, D.D. 


The Rev. William K. I arkcr, M.A., D.I)., who has recently severed his relations with the Broadway Tabernacle in 
this cit), to accept a charge in Barrie, was born in West Gwillimbury, County Simcoe, in 1831. His father was one of 
tiie sturdy band of pioneers who have done so much to reclaim the Province from the wilderness. The subject of this 

sketch was educated at Victoria University, Co- p 
bourg, where he graduated in 1858. From this 
institution he, five years later, received his M.A. 
degree, and in 1885 the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity. In 1856, Dr. Parker was accepted as 
a probationer by the Methodist body, and four 
years afterwards was received into full connec 
tion and ordained. He has been stationed 
successively at Toronto, Montreal, Odelltown, 
Stanstead, Brantford, St. Catharines, London, 
Woodstock, Thorold, Chatham, St. Thomas, and 
until lately has had pastoral charge of the 
Spadina Avenue Methodist Church (now the 
Broadway Tabernacle). He has been chairman 
of many important districts of his Church, and 
a member of the General Conferences held in 
Toronto, Montreal, Hamilton and Belleville. 
He is a member of the Board of Regents of 
Victoria University, and is in favour of univer 
sity federation. He is a Prohibitionist, and in 
politics, a Liberal. Dr. Parker has travelled 
widely, and is a man of large and broad views, an eminently practical and forceful preacher, and a bold and zealous advocate of 
all moral reforms. 

The Rev. Manly Benson, Pastor of the Central Methodist Church, Bloor Street, was born of U. E. Loyalist parentage, 
in Prince Edward County, Ont., in 1842. He received his early education at Newburgh, and thereafter taught himself, and 
took duty as a local preacher. In 1867 he was ordained by the Hamilton Conference and took pastorates successively at 
Hamilton, Stratford, St. Thomas, and Brantford. In 1885, he became Pastor of the Central Methodist Church, Toronto, and 
has also had charge of the Berkeley Street Methodist Church. Mr. Benson has travelled largely throughout the Dominion and 
in foreign countries, and has a large repertory of popular lectures illustrative of his travels. His ministerial career has been an 
active and useful one and full of earnest zeal. The reverend gentleman is one of the Directors of the Grimsby Park Company, 
and for the past four or five years has had charge of the religious services in that favourite summer resort. In 1867, Mr. Benson 
married Julia, daughter of Judge McCrea, of Algoma Co., Ontario. 

The Rev. Stuart S. Bates, B.A., Pastor of the College Street Baptist Church, was born in Iowa, U. S., in 1851 and 
removed to Canada in 1864. Choosing the ministry as a profession, Mr. Bates entered Woodstock College, and there prepared 

__ himself for matriculation at Toronto Uni 
versity. From this national institution he 
graduated in 1878, taking honours in Clas 
sics and Mathematics. He then pro 
ceeded with his theological course at 
Woodstock, and at the Baptist Theological 
Seminary, Rochester, N. Y., from which 
he graduated in 1881. His first pastorate 
was at Goble s, County Oxford, within a 
fe\v miles of his old home, and here he 
laboured for five years. Early in 1886, 
Mr. Bates was invited to become pastor 
of the College Street Baptist Church, To 
ronto. This he accepted, though the 
outlook was at the time rather discourag 
ing. Soon, however, a brighter day dawned. 
The congregation increased until it became 
necessary to erect a new home. This 
was done, on the fine site at the corner of 
College Street and Palmerston Avenue, 

and, two years ago, the large and beautiful KKV J EmvAK " STAKK - 

edifice was opened for public worship. Under Mr. Bates pastorate the church continues to grow and thrive, and the 
denomination has on College Street an active and beneficent centre of church work. Mr. Bates is a member of the Senate of 
McMaster University, and he is also an active worker on the Foreign Mission Hoard. 





The Rev. |. I-:. St.irr is the present Pastor of Kim Street Methodist Church. He is a native of Nova Scotia, having been 

born at Cape P.rcton in 1850. He was educated at the Grimsby Grammar School, and his first intention was to enter the 

profession of the 1 .aw. in which branch he for some time prosecuted his studies. On attaining his majority, however, he entered 

the Toronto Conference as a Methodist minister, being stationed at Scarboro , and 

at Peterborough. Leaving the latter place, he was sent to Grace Church, Winni 
peg, as an associate of the late Dr. S. I). Rice. Here Mr. Starr remained for two 

years, at the end of which period he was transferred to Victoria, B. (".. and in May, 
i8i)o. was recalled to Ontario and assigned to the well-known and influential church 

the pulpit of which he now ably tills. 

The Rev. Canon Langtry, M.A., ]>.!)., Rector of St. Luke s, is a Canadian 

by birth, though of Irish extraction. After receiving his preliminary education, and 

having a desire to enter the ministry, lie became a student of Trinity College, Tor 
onto, and was the first graduate of that institution admitted to Holy Orders. After 

his ordination he passed some years on a travelling mission in West Sinicoe and 

East Grey, the mission stations being far apart and the country about almost a 

wilderness. Mr. 1 .angtry then settled in a charge at Collingwood, where he remained 

ten years, when he removed to York Mills, then to St. Paul s, Vorkville, at the time 

under the incumbency of the late Rev. Saltern Givins. Of recent years he formed 

the new parish of St. Luke s, of which he is now rector, as well as one of the ablest 
_^_^^ theologians and best read men in the Church. 

( Besides his pastoral work, Dr. Langtry has 
taken an enthusiastic interest in education, 
and has been instrumental in founding Bishop 
Strachan School for girls, and the Church 
School for boys both of which institutions 

have been highly successful. Dr. I^ingtry is a noted controversalist and has been 
engaged in many encounters in the public press with those who have attacked the 
Church s doctrine and discipline, or who have taken issue with the learned divine s 
interpretation thereof. He is a warm advocate of Christian Union, and has brought the 
matter forward in the Provincial Synod with ability and earnest force. He is Prolocutor 
of the Lower House of the Provincial Synod, and has held this position since 1866. 

The Rev. A. T. Bowser, B.D., of the Jarvis Street Unitarian Church, is a native 
of New Brunswick, having been born at Sackville in 1848, the sixth child of a family of 
twelve. His father and mother were respectively of Knglish and of Scotch descent. 
At the age of fifteen he commenced life in a store 
at Moncton, but soon afterwards went to Boston, 
being ambitious to obtain a more complete edu 
cation. Here he attended the Latin High 
School, and in 1873 matriculated at Harvard 

University. At Harvard he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and three years later 

that of Bachelor of Divinity. Mr. Bowser originally belonged to the Methodist Church, 

but while pursuing his studies preparatory to entering Harvard, he became interested in 

and finally accepted Unitarianism. In 1881 he was ordained, and St. Louis, Mo., was 

the scene of his first ministerial labours. He then spent two years in Evansville, 

Indiana, as the representative of the American Unitarian Association. In 1884, Mr. 

Bowser was called to the pastorate of the Third Congregational (L T nitarian) Church of 

Hingham. Mass., an important position which he held for three years. From Hingham 

he was called to Toronto, where he took charge of the First Unitarian congregation, and 

in this pastorate he still successfully labours. 

The Rev. William Patterson is the Pastor of Cooke s Presbyterian Church in 

this city. He was born in Maghera, County Derry, Ireland, in 1858, and in his twenty- 
third year emigrated to Canada. He entered Knox College, where he devoted six 

years to the study of Arts and theology, receiving his diploma in 1886. During his- 

College course, he engaged zealously in mission work, two summers finding him in the 

Turtle Mountain District of Manitoba, and three in the Lindsay Presbytery. A month after he received his College diploma 

Mr. Patterson was licensed by the Toronto Presbytery, and within a week received a unanimous call from Cooke s Church, 

Toronto, and in 1886 was inducted into that charge. Of the prosperity of Cooke s Church, under Mr. Patterson s pastorate, 

evidence is seen in the fact that in the year 1889 the total amount raised by the congregation was over $8,000 a sum nearly 

four times that contributed when the reverend gentleman first took charge of the church. 





The Rev. Elmore Harris, H.A., is a Canadian by birth and a graduate of the University of Toronto. In the year T 876, he 
succeeded Dr. Hurd in the pastorate of the First Baptist Church of St. Thomas, Ont. Here he remained some six years and 
during that period he had the satisfaction of seeing the membership of the church more than trebled and in possession of a new 

and handsome building. Mr. Harris then left St. Thomas to take charge of the Yorkville 

Baptist Church, Toronto, now known as the Bloor Street Church. Here his period of 
ministry extended over eight years, within which time the congregation increased from 
about seventy to nearly five hundred. In the spring of 1889, the Bloor Street pastorate 
was resigned and Mr. Harris was placed in charge of the Walmer Road Baptist Church, 
the position he occupies to-day. The Walmer Road Baptist Church is as yet young, hav 
ing been organi/ed in a comparatively new district as late as October, 1889 ; but great 
hopes are entertained of its rapid growth, of which indeed it has already given evidence. 
The Rev. John F. German, M.A., of the Parkdale Methodist Church, was born in 
the County of Brant, Out., in 1842. He is a graduate of Victoria College, having taken 
his B.A. degree in 1864, and three years later the degree of M.A. While pursuing his 
College course, Mr. German entered the ministry as a probationer, and in 1866 was 
admitted into full connection with the Methodist body. On being ordained, he was 
stationed for a time at Napanee, but, in 1876, he was transferred to Grace Church, Win 
nipeg, and for four years laboured in that charge. While in Winnipeg, he was elected 
Chairman of the District, which at that time included all of Manitoba and the Indian 
missions on, as well as north of, Lake Win 
nipeg. During his residence in the Prairie 
City, he was a member of the School Board 
and for three years an inspector of the public 

schools. In 1880, Mr. German returned to Ontario, and for a few years was sta 
tioned at Picton, and afterwards at Brampton. While at Brampton he was elected 
Secretary of the Toronto Conference, and in 1886 was made President of that 
body. In June of the latter year, he was called to the charge of the new Parkdale 
Church, of which he is at present the respected pastor. In the best sense of 
the word. Mr. German is a representative minister of his denomination, having been 
called to fill the position of Chairman of the four districts in Ontario Picton, 
Brampton, Barrie and Whitby. It may be added that Mr. German is the son of 
the Rev. Peter German, of Brantford, one of the pioneer ministers of the Metho 
dist Church, who did so much excellent service for the Master s cause in the early 
days of the Province. 

Rev. A. M. Phillips, B.D., is a Cana 
dian, the son of a United Empire Loyalist, 
and was born in Prince Edward County, Ont., 
in 1846. He began life as a school-teacher, 
subsequently entering Victoria College, 
where he graduated in Divinity in 1878, in 

which year he was ordained. His ministerial work has been spread over a wide area, 
including Sombra, Sarnia, Oil Springs, Chatham, St. Thomas, Gait, St. Mary s, and at 
present Toronto. His activity in various spheres has been marked. He was the first 
Secretary of the Theological Union (now in affiliation with the American Institute of 
Sacred Literature) from which has sprung the Canadian Methodist Quaitei/y, under the 
managership of Mr. Phillips. In temperance work also Mr. Phillips is well-known as 
Dominion Past Councillor and as filling other important posts in Temperance organi/a- 
tions. At the Guelph Conference, Mr. Phillips was Chairman of the St. Mary s District and 
Secretary of the Conference Board of Examiners. He is also College Examiner in Hebrew 
and Old Testament Exegesis. His present pastoral charge is St. Paul s. Avenue Road. 

The Rev. Daniel McTavish, M.A., D.Sc., Pa.*or of the Central Presbyterian 
Church, was born at Carleton Place, Ont., April 2 2nd, 1858. He was educated at the 
Gait Collegiate Institute. In 1877, he entered Queen s University, Kingston, from 
which he graduated as B.A. in 1881, M.A. in 1882, and as D.Sc. in 1885. In 1881, Mr 

McTavish took the theological course in Queen s College and graduated in Divinity in 1884. In the same year he was licensed 
to preach, and was called to the pastorate of St. Andrew s Church, Lindsay. Four years afterwards, on the removal to 
British Columbia of the Rev. Dr. Macleod, Mr. McTavish accepted the call of the congregation of the Central Presbyterian 
Church. Toronto, as his successor. Here the reverend gentleman acceptably fulfils the responsible duties of the pastorate. 
Under his ministry the Church continues to grow and, within its sphere, to increase its influence. 


REV. A. M, Pim.Lii S, B. D. 


REV. I). ML-TAYIMI, M.A., D.Sc. 



The Rev. ( ieorge H. Sandwell, Pastor of /.ion Church, College Avenue, was horn in England in 1850 He was educated 
at Clifton College, and took a theological course at the Pastors College, London, during the years ,870-73 After completing 
his tor the ministry, he took charge of congregations at Ipswich. London, and Southsea. Coming to Canada in 1889, 

he was called to the pastorate of Zion Church, 
Toronto, in connection with the Congregational 
body, and has since laboured faithfully and suc 
cessfully in this important city charge. 

Rev. \V. G. Wallace, Pastor of Bloor 
Street Presbyterian Church, was born in 1858, 
at Gait. The reverend gentleman is of Scotch 
parentage. After being under the tutelage of the 
late I )r. Tassie for some years, he entered Toronto 
University, where he matriculated in 1874. 
Two years later he graduated and devoted him 
self to the study of theology at Knox College. 
In 1883 Mr. Wallace completed his divinity 
^fcy course, and the following year received the 
degree of H.I), from Knox College. He was 
ordained on May 3151, 1883, at Georgetown, 
where he assumed his first pastoral charge. 
In September, 1888, on the formation of Hloor 
Street Presbyterian Church, Toronto, he was 
called to take charge of the congregation, and 

has since that time been pastor. Here he has a fine field of usefulness, of which Mr. 
Wallace is sure to take advantage. 

The Rev. Prof. I). M. Welton, Ph.D., D.I)., of McMaster University, was born at Aylesford, Nova Scotia, in 1831, and 
graduated in Arts, in 1855, at Acadia College, Halifax, N.S. He subsequently studied theology at Newton, Mass., and after 
wing ordained was inducted into the pastorate of the Baptist Church, Windsor, N. S. In this charge he laboured for seventeen 
years. In 1874 he was appointed to the chair of Divinity in the theological department of Acadia College, and here he 
remained for seven years. In 1881 and 1882, he visited Germany and devoted these years to Semitic studies at the University 
ot Leips.c, from which he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In ,883 he was called to the chair of Oriental 
Languages and Old Testament Interpretation in the theological department of McMaster University, a position he now fills. 
Dr. \\ elton, in 1885, received from his alma mater, Acadia College, the honorary degree of Doctor of "Divinity. 

The Rev. Calvin Goodspeed. M.A.. 
D.D., Professor of Apologetics and System 
atic Theology, in McMaster University, was 
born in 1842 at Xashwaack, N.B., and in 
1866 graduated in Arts at the University 
of New Brunswick. For a time he taught 
in the Baptist Seminary. Fredericton, N.B., 
and afterwards studied theology at Regent s 
Park College, London, Lng. In 1868 he 
was ordained, and after devoting a year to 
missionary work, he accepted the Principal- 
ship of the Fredericton Seminary and filled 
the position for three years. He then pur 
sued a fuller theological course at Newton, 
Mass., on the completion of which he was 
called to Woodstock, Ont, as pastor of the 
Baptist Church. In 1878 he accepted the 
Professorship of Church History, etc., at the 
Woodstock Baptist College, resigning this to 
study for a year in Germany, after which he 

filled the pastorate of the First Baptist Church, Yarmouth. X.S. Four years later, 
he conducted for a time the denominational newspaper of the Maritime Provinces, 

the Messenger and Visitor, and while serving the Church in journalism was called to the chair of Systematic Theology 
and Apologetics in McMaster Hall, Toronto. Dr. Goodspeed took the degree of M.A. in course from his alma mater, and 
received an honorary M.A. and the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Acadia College, Nova Scotia. 

The Rev. John Mutch, M.A.. Pastor of Chalmers Presbyterian Church in this city, was born at Montrose, Scotland, 
December i6th, 1852. Coming at an early age to Canada, he was educated at Hamilton Collegiate Institute, from which he 

KKV. W. (J. WALLACE, M.A., B.D. 




passed to Toronto L"ni\ erMtv. subsequently taking a theological course at Knox College. After being ordained, he was called 
to the pastorate of Chalmers Presbyterian Church, Dundas Street, where he ministers zealously and devotedly to a large 
congregation in the we>tern section of the city. During the seven years of his pastorate, Chalmers Church has grown from a 

very small mission to an important and influential congregation. Mr. Mutch is deservedly 
popular in this fold of Presbyterianism, and is untiring in his relief of the poor, in advancing 
temperance work, and generally in promoting the high interests of his calling in this part 
of the Lord s vineyard. He is a member of the Equal Rights Association. 

Dovercourt Road Baptist Church was founded in 1879 as a mission of Alexander 
Street Church of the same denomination. Services were held in an unfinished house 
on Dovercourt Road until increased numbers compelled removal to Essery Hall, corner 
of Queen and Lisgar Streets. In 1881 the rear of the present church was built on the 
lot at the corner of Dovercourt Road and Argyle Street, which had been presented to the 
congregation by Mr. Thomas Laily. In 1888 the present edifice was built and opened for 
public worship. The church is of Romanesque style, built of pressed red brick, with 
terra cotta and red stone trimmings. The exterior is plain, chaste and well-proportioned. 
The interior has a light, airy and cosy appearance and the acoustic properties are perfect. 
The church is seated for 800, but can comfortably hold 1,200. The cost was about 
$28,000. Rev. John Alexander, the present pastor, was born of Scotch parents in the 
City of Quebec in 1828. He studied theology in Knox College, from which he graduated 
in 1851, and for several years filled pulpits in connection with the Presbyterian Church. In 
1862, a change in his views on baptism resulted in 

D r 3MH^^H|^BHH| 

his severance from the Presbyterian Church. He 
Church of Brantford, and in 1863 removed to 


the First Baptist 


accepted a call to 

Montreal to take charge of the First Baptist Church of that city. He returned to 
Brantford in 1870 and removed to Brockville in 1880 to work up a church which was 
in financial distress. In 1884 this congregation was so strengthened that he devoted him 
self to building up Dovercourt Church. During his six years ministration there the 
membership has grown from 50 to 275, various branches of work have been developed, 
and the church placed on a sound footing. 

The Rev. Alexander Sutherland, D.D., an able divine of the Methodist body, and 
the powerful leader of what is known as the "Third Party" in Canadian politics, seeking 

moral renovation in all matters of national adminis 
tration, was born of Scottish parentage in the Town 
ship of Guelph, Ontario, Sept. i3th, 1833. Like 
most successful and self-made men, Dr. Suther 
land s early years were years of toil and adversity, 
f through which he struggled nobly to educate him- 

^ self for the ministry and the high positions in the 

Church to which he has since attained. After a 
j *-t brief course in Victoria College, Cobourg, he was 

received into full connection with the Conference of his Church and ordained. He then 
filled pastoral charges successively in Niagara, Thorold, Drummondville, Hamilton, Tor 
onto and Montreal; and in 1874 was elected General Secretary and Clerical Treasurer of 
the Missionary Society of the Church. In this responsible position he has travelled over 
the whole Dominion, superintending missionary work and stimulating the zeal of 
denomination, and at the same time doing much for the cause of temperance and othe 
moral reforms. He has been a mighty worker for union in the Conferences of his Church, 
in which he has held the highest positions, and repeatedly been its delegated representative 
abroad. He is a man of immense energy and unflagging zeal, and done much to mould 
the thought and guide the work of his Church. In 1879, Victoria University conferrec 
upon Dr. Sutherland the degree of Doctor in 1 )ivinity. 
The Rev. Ira Smith, Pastor of Beverley Street Baptist Church, was born in the Township of Saltfleet, Ont, June 7th, 1849. 
Mr. Smith comes of sturdy British stock, and inherits from both father and mother the memories of the War of 1812, and from 
their forebears the memories of the Revolutionary War and of loyal service on the side of the Crown. Mr. Ira Smith was 
educated at Woodstock College, and at Toronto University, of which he is an undergraduate. Like his father, the Rev. Thos. 
Holland Smith, he studied for the ministry of the Baptist denomination, and in 1877 was ordained and inducted into the pastorate 
of the Baptist Church in Dundas. In 1880 he accepted a pastorate in Barrie, and two years later one in Waterford ; and in 1885 
came to Toronto to take the pastoral oversight of his present charge. His labours here have been instrumental in building up a 
large and still growing congregation, which erected, three years ago, a very commodious house of worship. Mr. Smith has held 
the Secretaryship of the Home Mission Board of the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec since 1888. 





The Rev. Allvrt Henrv Newman, D.I)., I.I..D., Professor of History in the Arts department of McMaster University. 
w;i^ born in Edgefield County. South Carolina, in 1852. He graduated from Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, in 1871 : 
and also from the Rochester (N.V.) Theological Seminary in 1875 ; and studied Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic and Patristic 
Greek in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, in 1875-76. For nearly four years 
(1877-81) Dr. Newman was Professor of Church History, in the Rochester Theological 
Seminary, and then removed to Toronto to accept a similar chair in the Baptist College 
here. I-ast year (1889), when the Arts department of McMaster University was reorgan- 
i/ed, Dr. Newman became Professor of History, which position the learned gentleman 
still holds. Professor Newman has led a life of literary toil and industry: he has translated 
and edited a number of theological works and been a contributor to the Baptist Quarterly 
AVr/tW, the Examiner, and the .} fanzine of Christian Literature, New York; to Cathcart s 
Baptist Fin vclopredia, Philadelphia ; and to Jenkins Baptist Doctrines, St. Louis. Pro 
fessor Newman is the translator (from the German) and editor of Immer s " Hermenentics 
of the New Testament" (Andover, 1877), and translator and editor of the " Anti-Mani- 
chcean Treatises, of St. Augustin, for the Nice and Post-Nicene Fathers, under the general 
editorship of I >r. P. Schaff. 

Rev. George M. Milligan, B.A., Pastor of Old St. Andrew s Presbyterian Church, 
was born at Wick. ( aithness-shire, Scotland, in 1841, and came with his parents at an earls- 
age to Canada, where they made their home at 
Kingston, Ontario. Intending to devote himself 
to the work of the ministry, he entered Queen s 

University and at once took a high place in the RFV p KOl .. A [r XEWMAN . D . D , L L.I). 
College class-list. In 1862, he took his B.A. 

degree, graduating with honours. Six years afterwards he was ordained, and laboured 
for a year in the County of Middlesex. Here he received a call to Detroit, and in a 
pastoral charge in that city he remained for nearly seven years, meeting with a large 
measure of success. In 1876, Mr. Milligan was invited by the congregation known as 
Old St. Andrew s, Toronto, to fill the pulpit of this historic church, and, accepting the 
call, he was at once inducted to the charge. The success of his work soon appeared 
in the erection, in 1878, of the fine building at the corner of Jarvis and Carlton Streets, 
and in the gratifying extension of the church s membership. During the past twelve 
years, the church has continued to grow and has become a sphere of influential and 
useful work. It has now a membership of over five hundred, with a large annual 
revenue. Untiring as well as able, Mr. Milligan is a force in Presbyterianism, and is 
to be found serving every good and useful cause. He is President of the Ministerial 
Association of the city, and has taken an 
active interest in educational and temper 
ance work, as well as much labour on the 

Executive of the Foreign Mission Board of his Church. Against the incorporation 
of the Tesuits and their endowment by the State, he entered a vigourous protest, 
and last year took a prominent part in platform discussion of the subject. For 
some years he was one of the examiners in the Departmental Intermediate Exami 
nations at the Education Office ; has been a lecturer on Church History at Queen s 
College, Kingston : and is a member of the Senate and an examiner in Knox Col 
lege. Mr. Milligan has travelled widely and read much, and is a graphic and 
instructive lecturer. He has been a considerable contributor to the religious and 
secular press. 

The Rev. John M. Cameron, Pastor of the new Fast Presbyterian Church, 
was born in Strathmore, Perthshire, Scotland. He received his early education in 
his native country, where for a while he served in the Royal Engineers and was 
enua-ed in Ordnance Survey work. He came to Canada in 1854, and after taking 
a first-class certificate at the Normal School, Toronto, he taught school for several 
years. He then took an Arts course at Toronto University, and studied for the 
ministry, first at the United Presbyterian Divinity Hall, under the late Rev. Dr. 
John Taylor, and subsequently at Knox College. For a time Mr. Cameron received 
tempting offers to enter mercantile life, and, on one occasion, after taking active 
work on the public platform in the advocacy of temperance, he was offered the nomination to a seat m Parhament. 
ments, though they might naturally have led him to waiver in the choke of a calling, were rejected, and Mr. Cameron proceeded wuh 
his mission work at East Toronto. The mission in time grew into a church, and in the meantime Mr. Cameron was licensed 
preach by the Presbytery of Toronto. In 1871, he received a call from the congregation of his present charge, and, accepting 






it, was inducted Nov. 23rd of the same year. Soon, increased accommodation was needed, and in the spring of 1889 the 
present commodious church was erected. Under his pastoral care, the success of the East Presbyterian Church has been 
remarkable, and Presbyterianism in the city has no more xealous and devoted worker than Mr. Cameron. The reverend gentle 
man filled for sixteen years the position of Secretary to the Upper Canada Bible 
Society, and has also been Mission Secretary of the Presbyterian Church. 

Among the figures of well-known clergymen of the city, once familiar to the 
citi/ens, was that of the Rev. Dr. John Jennings, for many years pastor of the Bay 
Street United Presbyterian Church. This excellent minister has long since gone to 
his rest, though his memory survives to-day in many breasts, and his faithful work 
in the ministry has, we are sure, borne no small fruit. The Bay Street U. P. Church, 
which was erected in 1848, has, in the march of improvements, also passed from 
the scene, and its congregation has become merged in other gatherings of the Pres 
byterian Church. We are glad to preserve in these pages the likeness of an old and 
worthy pioneer in the Christian ministry in this city, who in his day was faithful to 
his sacred calling, and also took a warm interest in the cause of education. Two 
of his sons worthily represent his name in Toronto. 

The Rev. Donald G. Sutherland, D.D., IJ,.P>., late Pastor of the Elm 
Street Methodist Church, is a native of Toronto, having been born in the city in 
1839. He is the son of Captain James Sutherland, a well-known owner of steam 
boats on Lake Ontario, who was killed in the Desjardins Canal accident in 1857. The 
subject of this sketch was educated at Hamilton Collegiate Institute and at Victoria 
University, where he took in course the 
degrees of B.A., M.A. and B.I). For a 
time Mr. Sutherland inclined to the pur 
suit of law as a profession, and with that 

view he studied in the office of Judge O Reilly, Hamilton, took the law course at 
Toronto University, and obtained the degree of I,I,.B. He afterwards, however, 
took a theological course, entered the Methodist Church as a probationer, and in 
1868 was ordained a minister by the late Rev. Dr. Morley Punshon. His chief 
appointments have been in Kingston, Gait, Simcoe, St. Thomas, London, and Tor 
onto. He has held positions in the Church as Chairman of District, Secretary of 
Conference, Conference and University Examiner ; and from Victoria University has 
had the degree conferred upon him of Doctor of I )ivinity. The reverend gentleman 
has also been a member of three Conferences. Dr. Sutherland has travelled con 
siderably in Eastern countries, and has published in the denominational magazine 
interesting accounts of these excursions. The accounts are graphic and entertaining. 
The General Secretary of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of 
the Church of England in Canada, the Rev. C. H. Mockridge, I). I)., Assistant 
Minister in the Church of the Holy Trinity, who is also editor of the Canadian 
Church Missionary Magazine, is a resident of Toronto, so that in a sense Toronto 
is now the headquarters of that Society. It was formed in 1883 by the Provincial 
Synod assembled in Montreal, and has for its Board of Management the Bishops 

of Ontario, Quebec and the Lower Provinces, together with two clergymen and two laymen from each Diocese of the Eccle 
siastical Province of Canada, with the General Secretary and General Treasurer, who are members ex officio. 

The Church of St. Stephen, the Proto-Martyr, on the corner of College Street and Bellevue Avenue, is one of the inter 
esting old landmarks of the city, where for many years it stood alone in fields that are now entirely built on and densely peopled. 
It was erected in 1857, by a member of the well-known Denison family, and has been considered one of the prettiest specimens 
we have in the city of Early English architecture. The church is now being enlarged to meet the increasing wants of the parish. 
Its rector is the Rev. A. J. Broughall, M.A., who has for over a quarter of a century faithfully ministered to the congregation 
and been a true and loyal servant of the Church in this section of the Lord s vineyard. Mr. Broughall is Examining Chaplain 
to the Lord Bishop of the Diocese and an active member of the Executive Committee of the Diocesan Synod. 

KKV. UK. CALVIN Gooi).si i.i:n. 





THE nation-builders of the Province, at the laying of its foundation, made provision for the administration of law. and, 
following British tradition, enacted that in all matters of controversy relative to property and civil rights in Upper 
Canada resort should be had to the Laws of England as the rule for the decision of the same. These early legislators, 
imbued with the spirit of the British Constitution, which they desired as freemen to follow as a model, then passed an 
Act u, establish trial by jury; and in the second session of the First Parliament of Upper Canada (held at Newark [Niagara] in 
the summer of 1793), they abolished slavery in the Province. Other measures of the time made provision for the erection of 
court-houses, jails, and such other public buildings, with the necessary legal machinery, as were required in the various districts 
into which the Province was then divided. Prior to the constituting of the Province, the government of any settlements there 
were in the \Vest partook of the military character which was introduced at the Conquest. If offences were committed, the 
military commandant went through regular forms of law, and tried, and sometimes himself executed, those whom he deemed 
deserving of the death penalty. The law proceedings were usually summary, and not infrequently irregular, the officer, as it 
more than once happened, being judge, gaoler, sheriff and executioner. At the founding of the Province, there seems to have 
been a Court in existence, designated the Court of Common Pleas, being part, no doubt, of the legal machinery of Lower 
Canada. This Court, however, was abolished in 1794, and was not re-established in Upper Canada until 1849. What took its 
place was the Court, of King s Bench, which was created by an Act of the Provincial Assembly (34 Geo. III., ch. 2); and to 
preside over the Court a Chief Justice and two Puisne judges were appointed. By the same Act a Court of Appeal was estab 
lished. The first Chief Justice of Upper Canada was the Hon. Wm. Osgoode, after whom Osgoode Hall is named, and his 
appointment dates from 1792, though he seems to have served in the newly-constituted Province for only a little over a year. 
The first Puisne judges were the Hon. Wm. Dummer Powell and the Hon. John Elmsley, both of whom were appointed in 
1794, the latter succeeding to the Chief Justiceship two years later. Judge Powell did not reach the Chief Justiceship until 
1816. The Hon. John White, the first Attorney-General of Upper Canada, who, by the way, was killed in a duel, was 
appointed when the Puisne judges received their patents from the Crown. The Law Society was first established in 1797 by 
the Act 37 Geo. III., ch. 13, which enabled the then legal practitioners in the Province to form themselves into a society and 
make rules for its government. In 1822, this Act was in part repealed and amended by 2 Geo. IV., ch. 5, by which it was 
enacted that "the treasurer and benchers of the Law Society, for the time being, and their successors, are declared to be a body 
corporate and politic by the name of the Law Society of Upper Canada." Under the by-laws and regulations of the Society, 
its affairs are governed by a Board of Bench 
ers, of which there are at present thirty elective 
members (exclusive of ex flfficio members), 
consisting for the most part of gentlemen of 
high legal attainments and long standing in 
the profession. The Benchers sit in Con 
vocation every term for the call of barristers, 
the admission of attorneys and solicitors to 
practice, and of students to enter the Society, 
the tees paid by whom form part of its revenue. 
When, by the Act of 1822, the Law 
Society was formally incorporated, a site was 
sought in the city for the Canadian "Inns of 
Court." In 1828 the present site of Osgoode 
Hall was purchased from Sir |ohn Beverley 
Robinson, and the Society proceeded to the 
erection and occupancy of its new quarters. 
As yet (1832), however, only the east wing 
was completed, and not till 1845 was the 
west wing erected, having a connecting hall 
or corridor between the two, with a large RESIDENCE OF MR. HENRY O BRIEN, Q.C., SHERBOURNE STREET. 



surmounting dome. Some twelve years later, the central structure was remodelled, and in the course of a few years the whole 
was completed, with a handsome facade of cut stone. Of recent years, considerable additions have been made to the buildings, 
including a fine Convocation Hall and a series of new Court rooms. Within and without, Osgoode Hall is now, architecturally, 
an ornament to the city. Here law has its chief home, and justice is doled out to the suitor in the various High Courts of the 
Province. These now consist of the Supreme Court of Judicature, composed of the Chief Justice of Ontario and three Justices 
of Appeal, and the High Court of Justice, of which there are three branches or divisions, having concurrent jurisdiction. The 
latter are known as the Queen s Bench and Common Pleas Divisions, each presided over by a Chief Justice and two judges, 
and the Chancery Division, presided over by a Chancellor and three judges. 

It may be said of law, not only in the Province but in the Dominion as a whole, that it has drawn into the profession 
more of the brain and energies of the country than have gone into any other pursuit or calling. From this source, mainly, have 
the Parliaments and Legislatures of the 
country drawn to a preponderating extent. 
This is partly accounted for by the neces 
sity for lawyers for expounding the Con 
stitution, for drafting Bills, and for giving 
form and shape to the national and pro 
vincial legislation. Another reason may 
be found in the fact that the profession 
are generally good and ready speakers. 
Above all, they are usually practical men, 
not theorizers, and know how to econo 
mize time and expedite business. Com 
monly, also, their reputation is high and 
their personal character unblemished. 
This is most truly maintained when one 
speaks of the leading men who practice at 
the Bar, and of those, especially, who sit 
on the Bench. The high character and 
independence of the judiciary of Canada 
is the proud boast of the people. Doubt 
less, no little of this is due to the fact 
that the judges are not dependent on the 
appointing power, nor is their retention in 
office subject to the will of the people. 
They hold their positions during good 
behaviour, and can be removed only by 
petition of both Houses of Parliament. 
Their tenure of office is thus assured, and 
in this respect the principle is allied to 
that in England, but unlike that in vogue 
in many of the neighbouring States. Most 
of them, in their day, have fought in the 
political arena, but of no one has it been 
said that he has carried Party with him to 
the Bench. Almost without exception 
have they been honourable men, and have 
been specially distinguished for their judi 
cial and dispassionate character. High, 
particularly, has been the reputation, alike 
for honour and ability, of the Chief Justices 
and Chancellors of the Upper Canada and 
Ontario Bench. Their names shed lustre 
on a noble profession. Here is the roll 
of the later ones, who have been personally known to many of the citizens of to-day : Robinson, Macaulay, McLean, 
Richards, Draper, Harrison, Moss, Cameron, and Hagarty, Chief Justices ; Hume Blake, Spragge, Vankoughnet, and Boyd, 
Chancellors. High, also, has been the repute and the juridical status of their brethren on the Bench who have not attained 
to the chief prizes of the judiciary. There is hardly a name in the roll of the Provincial Bench that will fail to be remembered 
not only in the legal records, but in the general annals, of the country. The Bar, also, has known many eminent men. whose 
gifts would do honour to the Law in the Motherland or indeed to the highest professional circles of any country. These pages 
preserve the record of a few of them. 




01 those learned in the law in Canada there is perhaps no higher name, or one more worthily held in respect by Bench 
and liar alike, than that of Mr. Christopher Robinson, Q.C. Mr. Robinson admittedly stands at the head of his profession in 
Ontario, if. indeed, we may not say at the head of his profession in the Dominion. He inherits a name revered in the legal 
and administrative annals of the Province, and he possesses those rare personal and professional qualities which have made 
that and his own name revered. Born in Toronto in 1828, Mr. Robinson was educated 
at Upper Canada College, and later on graduated at King s College (now Toronto 
University). After graduating, he took up the study of law, and soon mastering its 
principles was in 1850 called to the Bar, thereafter proceeding to practice. His present 
legal firm is that of Messrs. Robinson, O Brien & Gibson. In 1863, Mr. Robinson 
was appointed Queen s Counsel by the Government of the old Province of Canada, 
thus early in his career winning preferment in the profession which his talents and 
high personal character adorn. For a number of years, Mr. Robinson acted as chief 
reporter of the decisions of the courts for the Law Society, and has been an almost 
life-long Bencher of our Canadian Inns of Court. Of late years he has devoted himself 
almost exclusively to counsel work, taking a leading position at the Bar, and been 
entrusted with the conduct of many of the most important cases which have come 
before the Canadian courts, and with not a few that have been carried to the English 
Privy Council. He has repeatedly held weighty briefs for the Dominion Government, 
among which was that for the Crown prosecution of Riel and the Saskatchewan half- 
breeds, in the Rebellion of 1885, and that for the Department of Railways, in the 

arbitration proceedings now pending between 
the Government and the C. P. R., in the 
matter of the British Columbia section of 
that transcontinental highway. 

Mr. Britton Bath Osier, Q.C., one of 
the most eminent men at the Ontario Bar, 
was born at Tecumseh, County of Simcoe, 
June ujth, 1839. He was educated at the 

Barrie Grammar School and at Toronto University, of which he is an LL.IS. Making 
choice of law as a calling, he passed his preliminary studies for that arduous profession 
and was duly called to the Bar. For a number of years Mr ( )sler practised at I Hmdas, 
Out., and from 1876 to 1881 was County Crown Attorney for Wentworth. Of recent 
years he has made Toronto his home, and is at present one of the chief partners 
in the legal firm of Messrs. McCarthy, Osier, Hoskin \- Creelman. Mr. Osier is a 
Bencher of the Law Society and a Queen s Counsel. In his profession the learned 
gentleman is one of the ablest and best 
known of counsel and has conducted many 
important cases for the Crown. He took 
part with Mr. Christopher Robinson, Q.C., 
in the North-West prosecutions in 1885, in 
connection with the second Riel Rebellion, 
and has just added to his laurels by con 
ducting with great ability the Crown s case at Woodstock in re the Queen v. Birchall. 

Mr. Charles Moss, Q.C., brother of the lamented Chief Justice Moss, and him 
self one of the ablest and best known men at the Provincial Bar, was born at Cobourg, 
Out., March 8th, 1840. While quite a youth he removed with his father to Toronto, 
and here received his preliminary education, resolving, like his eminent brother, to 
take to law as a profession. Mr. Moss articled himself to his brother s firm and 
entered the Law Society. During his student career, he won a scholarship, and gave 
promise of the talents which have since raised him to his high position in the pro- 
fession. He was called to the Bar in 1869. Upon his admission to practice, he joined 
the legal firm of Messrs. Osier & Moss, of which the present Mr. Justice Osier was 
the senior member. This firm was subsequently strengthened by the admission of 
Mr, R. A. (afterwards Chief Justice) Harrison; upon the elevation to the Bench of 
Messrs. Harrison and Thomas Moss, the firm was joined for a time by the late James 
Bethune, Q.C. Later still, Mr. Osier retired to accept a Judgeship, when the firm 
became Bethune, Moss, Falconbridge & Hoyles. Upon Mr. Bethune s retirement, Mr. Charles Moss became head of the 
firms known as Moss, Falconbridge & Barwick and Moss, Hoyles & Aylesworth. More recently, the firm has had in some- 
degree to be reorganized, in consequence of its having given another member (Mr. Justice Falconbridge) to the Bench. 

Mu. I!. I .. USI.KK, Q.C. 





Moss was for some time lecturer and examiner of the Law Society, and in 1880 was elected a Bencher, and in 1884 was chosen 
a representative of the Law Society on the Senate of Toronto University. In 1881, the Dominion Government created Mr. 
Moss a Q.C. In religion he is an Episcopalian ; in politics a Liberal. Mr. Moss, however, eschews political life, for on the 

elevation of Chief Justice Cameron to the 
Bench, Mr. Moss was offered but declined 
the nomination for East Toronto in the Local 
Legislature. During his professional career, 
Mr. Moss has been engaged in many im 
portant suits before the Canadian and English 
Courts. Amongst other cases, he has been 
interested as counsel in the contested Escheat 
case of Attorney-General v. Mercer ; in the 
notorious Streams case, McLaren v. Cald- 
well ; and in the vexed St. James Rectory 
case, Langtry v. DuMoulin. In 1871, Mr. 
Moss married Emily, second daughter of the 
late Mr. Justice Sullivan. 

Mr. John Hoskin, Q.C., LL.D., ot 
the firm of Messrs. McCarthy, Osier, Hoskin 
& Creelman, was born in Devonshire, Eng 
land, in 1836. He studied in Canada for the 
profession in which he has risen to eminence 
under the late Mr. Robert Armour, of Bow- 
manville, and the present Mr. Justice Strong 
and Mr. Justice Burton. He was called to 
the Bar of Upper Canada in 1863, and created 
a Queen s Counsel ten years later. In 1874, 
he was appointed by the Court of Chancery, 
Guardian ad lilem of Infants, and subse 
quently made Official Guardian by statute. 
This important trust he fulfils with ability and 
rare discretion. He has been a Bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada for fifteen years, and enjoys in a large measure 
the confidence of the community and the esteem of the members of his profession. In 1890, he was elected President of the 
County of York Law Association ; is President of the National Investment Company ; Vice-President of the Toronto General 
Trusts Company, and a Director of the Canadian Bank of Commerce. He is one of the Trustees of the University of Toronto, 
and in 1889 had the honorary degree of LL.D. conferred upon him by that national institution. In 1866 he married the 
eldest daughter of the late Mr. Walter McKenzie, of Castle Frank, near by which, in the picturesque region of Rosedale, he has 
his beautiful home, " The Dale." For beauty of situation, no less than for its fine sylvan setting and the rare attractions of its 
conservatories, " The Dale " is well-nigh unsurpassed among Toronto homes. 

Mr. William Lount, Q.C., of the law firm of Messrs. Lount & Marsh, was born at Newmarket, York County, Ontario, 

on the 3rd of March, 1840. He was 
educated at the Barrie Grammar School, 
and then devoted himself to the pursuit of 
law. He was called to the Bar in 1861, 
and shortly after began to practice his 
profession in Barrie, removing later on to 
Toronto, where he and his firm have for 
many years been engaged in a large and 
important practice. Mr. Lount was 
returned in 1867 Reform member for the 
North Riding of Simcoe, in the Ontario 
Legislature. Engrossed with his profes. 
sion, Mr. Lount, however, did not pursue 
political life. In 1876, he was created 
Q.C. by the Provincial Government, and 
five years later received the like honour 
from the Dominion Government. He has 
acted as Crown Counsel for the Ontario 
Government on several important cases. 
DR. JOHN HOSKIN, Q.C. In religion, Mr. Lount is an Episcopalian. MR. WIM.IAM LOUNT, Q.C. 




MK. J. K. KEUK, Q.C. 


The dever defence of Reginald Birchall when on trial for murdering Frederick C. Benwell has made the name of Mr. 
George [ ate lilackstoek, Q.C., known in two hemispheres. Ineffectual as was the effort made to extricate the criminal from the 
hopeless entanglement of evidence with which he was surrounded l>y the Crown, the address of the counsel for the defence was 
of such importance that it was cabled across the Atlantic and published verbatim in the London Times. Mr. Blackstock comes 

from the County of Durham, where he 

was born April yth, 1856. Like many 

other prominent Canadians, he is an 

Upper Canada College boy. Immediately 

upon commencing the practice of law he 

took a leading place. His special qualifi 
cations as a public speaker caused many 

of his friends to urge him to seek the field 

of politics. Mr. Blackstock, being a strong 

Conservative, determined to attack the lion 

in his lair and made his first political cam 
paign in West Durham, where he was 

defeated by the Hon. Edward Blake. At 

the following election he made a good run 

in Lennox in the Conservative interest, 

but was also unsuccessful. Mr. Blackstock 

in 1889 was made a Queen s Counsel by 

the Dominion Government. The learned 

gentleman is an adherent of the Methodist 


Mr. James Kirkpatrick Kerr, Q.C., 

of the firm of Messrs. Kerr, Macdonald, 

Davidson & Paterson, and well-known for his active and enthusiastic interest in Freemasonry, was born near Guelph, in the 
Township of Puslinch, in 1841. His father, a civil engineer by profession, came to Canada from Ireland in 1832, and was for 
many years Chamberlain of the City of Hamilton. The subject of this sketch received his early education at Hamilton, and 
later on at Gait, under the able educationist, the late Dr. Tassie. He afterwards studied law, and in 1862 was called to the 
Ontario Bar. For twenty years, Mr. Kerr was a partner in the well-known firm of Messrs. Blake, Kerr & Wells, retiring from 
it, in 1885, to his present firm, of which he is the head. In 1879, 1881, and 1886, he was successively elected a Bencher ot 
the Law Society. In 1876 he was created Q.C. by the Ontario Government, and in 1881 had the same honour conferred on 
him by the Dominion Government. Mr. Kerr has been retained in many important cases, civil and criminal, and argued the 
great license case, the Queen v. Hodge, for the respondent before the Privy Council in England. In 1861, he was initiated 
a Freemason in the Ionic Lodge, Toronto, and has served the craft in all the important offices up to the Grand Mastership of 
the Grand Lodge of Canada. He has held 
the rank of Past Grand Principal J. in the 
Grand Chapter of Canada, and in the Grand 
Chapter of Scotland. He has also held the 
rank of Past Provincial Prior of the Sovereign 
( Ireat Priory of Knights Templars of Canada, 
and, in 1883, received at the hands of 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, Grand Master 
of Knights Templars, the distinguished order 
of the Grand Cross of the Temple. In 
politics, Mr. Kerr is a Liberal ; in religion, 
he is a member of the Church of England. 
F or many years he has been a member of 
the Diocesan and Provincial Synod, and for 
fifteen years Churchwarden of St. James 

Mr. Alfred Henry Marsh, Q.C.,LL.B., 
was born at Smithfield, Northumberland 
County, May 3oth, 1851. He was educated 
at Brighton High School and the University 
of Toronto, receiving from the latter the 
degree of B.A. in 1874, and LL.I5 in 1882. 
He was called to the Ontario Bar in 1877. "THE DALE, "RESIDENCE OF DR. HOSKIN, Q.C. 




and appointed Queen s Counsel by the Dominion Government in 1889. Mr. Marsh entered in 1877 the firm of Messrs. 
Macdonald & Fatton, of which Sir John A. Macdonald was the head. He has since remained a partner of that firm and its 
successors, who are now Macdonald, Marsh & O Meara. In 1883, Mr. Marsh also entered into partnership with the late 
James Betlume, O.C.. and on the death of Mr. Bethunc in 1884, he formed a partnership with William Lount, Q.C., under the 

firm style of Lount & Marsh. He has since continued a member of that firm as 
well as of the one of which Sir John Macdonald is a partner. Mr. Marsh was 
lecturer and examiner in Equity for the Law Society of Upper Canada from 1883 
to 1886. On the formation of the new Law School in connection with the Law 
Society, in 1889, he was appointed lecturer in Equity and has written a work on 
its doctrines. Last year the graduates in law of the University of Toronto elected 
Mr. Marsh as their representative to the Senate of that institution. 

Mr. James Henry Morris, Q.C., is the eldest son of the late Hon. James 
Morris. He was born at Brockville, February i6th, 1831. After receiving his 
education at the Brockville Grammar School, the -High School of Montreal, and 
Upper Canada College, Toronto, he entered King s College, and three years later 
received the degree of B.A. from Toronto University, the outcome of King s. 
Mr. Morris served till 1853 in the office of John Wilson, Q.C., and for one year 
subsequently in the office of the Hon. John Crawford, afterwards Lieut-Governor 
of Ontario. He was called to the Bar in 1854, and for a few months practised in 
partnership with Mr. Larratt W. Smith, D.C.L. In 1855 he visited the Indian 
Archipelago and China, and on returning to Canada in the following year 
practised law with Mr. Patrick Freeland and Mr. J. F. Smith, Q.C., now editor-in- 
chief of the Ontario Law Reports. In 1860, on the occasion of the visit of the 
Prince of Wales to the city, Mr. Morris 
took an active part in organizing a large 
muster of native Canadians to give His 
Royal Highness a loyal and hearty wel 
come. For some years Mr. Morris was 

Registrar of Toronto University, and on his resignation was appointed a member of 
the Senate by the Governor-General, which position he held till 1873. The first 
summer residence on Toronto Island was built by Mr. Morris in 1871. He served 
the city as aldermanic representative of St. Andrew s Ward in 1880, and subse 
quently as a member and chairman of the Collegiate Institute Board. Mr. Morris, 
who has always taken an intelligent and patriotic interest in Canadian affairs, was a 
member of the Advisory Board which distributed relief to the sufferers by the 
Humber railway calamity in 1884. He was appointed Queen s Counsel in 1885, 
and in 1886 was elected a Bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada. He is a 
member of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club, Albany Club, and St. Andrew s Society. 

Mr. Morris in his professional practice has 
a wealthy and influential clientele. His 
present law partner is Mr. Allan McNab, 
formerly of Owen Sound. In religion, 
Mr. Morris is an Episcopalian ; in politics 
he is a Conservative of the ideal type and 
at the same time an ardent and public- 
spirited Canadian. 

Mr. John Bain, Q.C., is a native of Scotland, where he was born in the year 
1839, being the youngest son of Rev. James Bain. His education, commenced in 
Scotland, was continued at Queen s College, Kingston. Mr. Bain studied law in the 
office of Messrs. Paterson & Harrison, composed of the late James Paterson and the 
late Chief Justice Harrison. Subsequently he was received into the firm and the 
name was changed to Paterson, Harrison & Bain. In 1871, Mr. Harrison withdrew 
from the firm and it became Paterson, Bain & Paterson. The senior partner, Mr. 
James Paterson, died in 1873. The firm was in 1874 then reorganized under the 
name of Ferguson, Bain iV Myers. On the elevation of Mr. Justice Ferguson to the 
Bench, Mr. Bain became the head of the firm, and the name changed to Bain, Laidlaw 
S: Co. Few men have had associated with them in the practice of law so main- 
partners who have been elevated to the Bench. Mr. Bain was created a Q.C. in 
MR. JOHN BAIN, Q.C. 1883. His firm carries on a large and general legal business. 





Mr. George Washington Badgerow, Barrister, Crown Attorney for the County of York, is a native of this county, having 
been horn at Markham, May 28th, 1841. After studying in the Markham High School, he entered the office of the late Chief 
Justice Harrison, and was shortly afterwards called to the Bar. Mr. Badgerow is the head of the legal firm of Messrs, (i. \\ . 
Badgerow & Co., and enjoys a high reputation in the community. He has been closely associated with the Liberal party in 
Ontario, to support which he was elected a member of the Local Legislature by 
the East Riding of York in 1879. This constituency re-elected him until he 
resigned in 1887 to accept the office he now fills, that of Crown Attorney for the 
City of Toronto and County of York. Mr. Badgerow is Past Supreme Master 
Workman of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, embracing all North America. 
He is a worthy member of the Church of England. 

Mr. Allen Bristol Aylesworth, M.A., Q. C., of the eminent law firm of 
Messrs. Moss, Hoyles &: Aylesworth, was born at the Yillage of Newburgh, County 
Lennox and Addington, November 27th, 1854. He was educated at the Newburgh 
HJL h School and at University College, Toronto, where throughout his under- 
uraduate course he took high standing in the class lists. In 1874, he graduated 
with silver medal in mathematics, also with high honours in metaphysics. He was 
also sueee>sful in winning the Prince of AVales prize, which is awarded to the 
graduate attaining the highest aggregate standing of the year. After graduating. 
Mr. Aylesworth took up law as a profession, studying in the office of Messrs. 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ __ Harrison, Osier & Moss, and in 1878 

was called to the Bar. He shortly 
afterwards connected himself with the 
firm of solicitors of which he is now a 
partner, and is one of the most capable 
and hard-working professional men of 

his calling. Mr. Aylesworth is a representative on the Senate of Toronto University, 
and an active member, also, of Ionic Lodge A. F. & A. M., No. 25 C}. R. C. In 
October, 1889. Mr. Aylesworth was appointed Queen s Counsel by the Dominion 
Government, and in December of the same year he had the honour of receiving 
silk from the Ontario Government. He was Counsel in the Haldimand Election 
cases and also in the St. George Railway case. 

The late Mr. James Tilt, Q.C., of the once well-known firm of Messrs. Bell, 
Crowther & Tilt, Solicitors, was born in the County of Peel, Ontario, in 1831. He 
was educated at the Streetsville Grammar School and at Upper Canada College, 
and thereafter studied law and was in due course called to the Bar of the Province. 
In 1862, he entered into partnership 
with John Bell, Q.C., and Mr. James 
( Crowther ; and on the death of the 
latter, Mr. Wm. Mulock became head 
of the firm. Mr. Tilt was a sound lawyer 

and a man of probity and. honour. He was highly esteemed by his brethren at the 
Bar, and had the confidence of his clients and the esteem of many warm and sincere 
friends. He was a man of fine taste and excellent judgment. He was generous to 
a fault, and his numberless acts of liberality endeared him to a wide and appreci 
ative circle. His death. December 31, 1889, was sincerely mourned. In politics 
Mr. Tilt was a staunch Conservative and a true son of Canada. He was a member 
of Grace Church (Episcopal) in this city, and for a number of years acted as the 
Rector s Churchwarden. Among his fellow-worshippers he led a useful, kindly, and 
blameless life, and the memory of his generous deeds will not be soon forgotten. 

Mr. George Hughes Watson. O.C., LL.B., was born near Schomberg, York 
County, September 28th, 1849. He was educated at Newmarket Grammar School 
and Yictoria University, receiving from the latter the degree of B.A. in 1871. and 
LL.B. in 1873. After graduating Mr. Watson entered the office at Belleville of 
the late Hon. Lewis Wallbridge, afterwards Chief Justice of Manitoba. Subse 
quently he became a student with Messrs. Blake. Kerr & Boyd, of Toronto. On 
being called to the Bar, Mr. Watson practiced alone for a short time till he formed 
the firm of Messrs. Watson, Thome, Smoke & Masten, which does an extensive legal business. Mr. Watson is a worthy 
member of the Society of Friends. 






.Mr. William Nicholas Miller, Q.C., 
LL.B., was horn at Dundas, Ontario, in 1838. 
His father, Judge Miller, practised law in 
Dundas prior to 1853, in which year he was 
appointed Judge of the newly organized 
County of Waterloo, and in this judicial 
office he remained until 1887, when he 
received his well-earned superannuation. 
Since then, Judge Miller, who is in his 
eightieth year and in the full enjoyment of 
all his mental faculties, has made his home 
in Gait. Mr. W. N. Miller, after obtaining 
his primary English education, graduated in 
law at the University of Toronto, with the 
degree of LL.B., and in 1861 was called to 
the Bar of Upper Canada. For some years, 
Mr. Miller practised his profession in Gait, 
and afterwards in Brampton, in partnership 
with the late Thomas B. McMahon, brother 
of the present Mr. Justice McMahon. In 
1874, he removed to Toronto and entered 
the firm of Messrs. Beatty, Miller & Lash 
as a partner, subsequently transferring his 
services to, and forming a partnership with, 
Messrs. Mulock, Tilt, Miller & Crowther, 
of which he is still an active member. In 
these firms, Mr. Miller has had a large 
experience in Commercial law, as well as 
of general counsel work in this and other 
branches of his arduous profession. In 
1885, the learned gentleman was created a 
Queen s Counsel, a distinction in his calling 
which he has well earned. 

Mr. James J. Foy, Q.C., is a native of 
Toronto, having been born here February 
22nd, 1847. He was educated at St. 

-"f / . as cuuciucu ill OL. 

Michael s College, Toronto, and at St. Cuthbert s College, Ushaw, England. Choosing law as a profession, Mr. Foy pursued 
his studies to fit himself for that calling, and in 1871 was duly called to the Bar. Ten years later, he was selected by the 
Junior Bar as one of the four candidates for the position of Bencher of the Law Society and was elected by a large vote. 

He has held the office till the present _ 

time, having been again elected in 1886. 

Mr. Foy has a large and lucrative law 

practice, numbering among his clients 

several land companies and wealthy finan 
cial institutions. In the early years of 

The Mail, Mr. Foy was one of the directors 

of the Company organized to own and 

publish it. He is Vice- President of "The 

Albany" Conservative Club; President of 

the Edmonton & Saskatchewan Land 

Company; Director of the Toronto Gen 
eral Trusts Company ; and of the North 

American Land Company. Mr. Foy is 

the senior member of the firm of Messrs. 

Foy iV Kelly. In 1883, he was made a 

(,).( . by the Dominion Government. In 

politics, Mr. Foy is a Conservative, and 

takes a prominent part in the councils of 

his party in Toronto ; in religion, he is 

Mk. GEOR -K II. \VAIMIN, n.C. 


MR. JAS. J. FOY, o.C. 


a Roman Catholic, and a leading member 
of the congregation of St. Michael s 

Mr. Nelson Gordon Bigelow, Q.C., 
I.I..B., head of the well-known legal firm 
of Messrs. Bigelow, Morson & Smyth, and 
one of the leading practitioners at the 
Provincial Bar, was born in the County of 
Simcoe, April 22nd, 1840. After receiving 
his preliminary education, he entered Vic 
toria University. Cobourg, where he took 
a high standing and in due course, gradu 
ated with honours. He has taken a lead 
ing part in the discussions with reference 
to the Federation question. In 1866, he 
proceeded to his M.A. degree, and in the 
following year took the degree of LL.B. 
Mr. Bigelow pursued his legal studies 
first under the late Mr. John McNabli. 
formerly County Crown Attorney, and 
afterwards under the late Judge Kenneth 



In 1867, he was called to the Bar, and for over a score of years has had a large and varied practice. He is now 
one of the most prominent and successful of criminal lawyers. In 1889, he was appointed Queen s Counsel by the Dominion 
Government. Mr. Bigelow is a member of the Senate of Victoria University, where he represents the graduates in law. In 
politics. Mr. Bigelow is a Liberal ; in religion, he is a" Methodist. 

Mr. Alfred Hoskin, Q.C, of the law firm of Messrs. Hoskin & Ogden, is a native of Devonshire, England, and was born 
March -ist. 1843. He received his primary education in London, England, and completed his studies at a private school in 
Bowmanville, Ont. Choosing law as a profession, Mr. Hoskin commenced his legal education in the office of Donald Bethune, 
Jr., Bowmanville. He afterwards came to Toronto and completed his course in the firm of Cameron, Mi-Michael & Fitzgerald. 
Mr. Hoskin was admitted as a Solicitor in May, 1865, in November of the same year was called to the Bar, and in 1880 was 
created a Queen s Counsel. He has been connected successively with the firms of Cameron, Mi-Michael. Fitzgerald & Hoskin, 
of Cameron, McMichael & Hoskin, and McMichael, Hoskin & Ogden, and is now the senior member of the firm of Hoskin 
it Ogden. Mr. Hoskin is Vice- President of the Manitoba and North-West Loan Company and a Director of the Ontario 
Mutual Life Assurance Co. He is also chairman of the Board of School Trustees for Deer Park. In religion, Mr. Hoskin is 
an Episcopalian, and for many years has been a member of the Toronto Diocesan Synod. 

Mr. Henry () Brien, Q.C ., a partner in the well-known legal firm of Robinson, O Brien it Gibson, is a son of the late 
Col. L. G. O Brien, of "The Woods," Shanty Bay, Lake Simcoe, and was born in 1836. Having chosen law as a profession, he 
took up its study and was duly called to the Bar in 1861. Mr. O Brien is the author of several legal works of high repute in 

the profession. He has also, for upwards 

of twenty years, ably edited the Canada 

Law Journal, which was originated in 

1855, by Mr. Justice (now Senator) Gowan 

and the Hon. James Patton, Q.C., and 

subsequently conducted for a time by the 

late Chief Justice Harrison. This was the 

pioneer legal periodical of the Dominion, 

and is the organ of the Law Society of ( 

Upper Canada. Mr. O Brien was also 

law reporter at Osgoode Hall from 1866 

to 1876. He is noted for his interest in 

athletic sports. He founded the Argonaut 

Rowing Club in 1872 and was its first 

President. He was also first President of 

the Canadian Association of Amateur 

Oarsmen. In politics, also, Mr. O Brien 

has shown great activity, taking a promi 
nent part, with his brother Col. O Brien, 

M.P., and others, in the movement against 
MK. ALFRED HOSKIX, Q.C. the passing of the Jesuits Estates Bill. MR. HENRY O BRIEN, o.C. 





Though formerly a Conservative in politics, he has latterly disengaged himself from party alliances, and connected himself with 
the Equal Rights advocates. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Equal Rights Association. In 1885, he 
took a leading part in the candidature of Mr. W. H. Howland for the city mayoralty, and was a zealous ally of that gentleman in 

his efforts on behalf of municipal reform. 
Mr. O Brien belongs to the Church of Eng 
land communion, though he takes an active 
part in all undenominational Christian work, 
and has done much practical good amongst 
the poor and sick, chiefly of the eastern por 
tion of the city. To his philanthrophic work 
he has made many sacrifices and gives it a 
large amount of his time. 

Mr. Henry James Scott, Q.C., was 
born at Port Hope, August 25th, 1852. He 
is the second son of the late Mr. James Scott, 
barrister. He was educated at Port Hope 
Grammar School, Trinity College School, 
and Toronto University. He graduated in 
Arts in 1872, of which year he was gold 
medalist in metaphysics. In 1876 he entered 
upon the practice of law, and his ability was 
recognized by his appointment as Queen s 
Counsel in 1883. Mr. Scott is a member 
of the Church of England. 

Mr. Daniel Edmund Thomson, Q.C., of the firm of Messrs. Thomson, Hen 
derson & Bell, and a member of the Board of Governors of McMaster University, was 
born in the Village of Erin, County Wellington, Ontario, January 2oth, 1851. Having received his preliminary education, he 
was subsequently instructed by private tutors, and in 1872, began at Guelph the study of the law. Two years later he 
removed to Toronto, where he entered the office of Messrs. Beatty, Chadwick & Lash, and pursued his studies at the 1 ,aw 
School, carrying off in succession first, second and fourth year scholarships his third year course having been allowed him 
in consideration of his high standing in the class lists. In 1876, he was called to the Bar, and in 1889 was created a Q.C. by 
the Ontario Government. In his profession, Mr. Thomson has made a specialty of commercial law and had a large practice in 
insolvency cases prior to the repeal of the Insolvent Act. He was counsel in the celebrated stock-broking case of Sutherland 
v. Cox, which arose out of the complications of the Federal Bank stock. The case was carried through all the courts and 
resulted in a judgment for the plaintiff. Mr. Thomson was also counsel for the defendants in the case of Macdonald v. Crombie, 

which was carried to the Supreme 
Court and decided in favour of the 
defendants. This case is a ruling 
one on questions of preferential 
security. Mr. Thomson for the past 
four years has been President of 
the Baptist Convention for Ontario 
and Quebec, and he takes an active 
and enthusiastic interest in the Uni 
versity of his denomination, of which 
he is a Governor. A view of Mr. 
Thomson s home, 57 Queen s Park, 
is here shown. 

The name of Mr. Oliver Aiken 
Howland is connected with two im 
portant legal cases in Ontario the 
great patent right contest of Smith 
? . Goldie, and the celebrated church 
litigation which arose out of the divi 
sion of St. James Rectory lands. 
Born at Lambton Mills, April :8th, 
1847, Mr. Howland came to Toronto 
for his education and passed through 


Upper Canada College, the Model 




MR. \V. H. P. CLF.MFM. K.A. 

Grammar School, and Trinity University. 

In 1875 he was railed to the Bar, and 

to-day is senior member of the well-known 

law firms of Rowland, Arnold! & Bristol, 

and Rowland, Arnold! cS: Mackenzie. Mr. 

Rowland is also a patent agent, a solicitor 

to the Supreme Court, and a foreign mem 
ber of the English Institute. In connec 
tion with various municipal and national 

movements he has evinced a deep interest 

in public affairs. Since 1884 he has been 

one of the Churchwardens of St. James 

Cathedral. He is chairman of the On 
tario Public Places Association and a 

member of the York Pioneers and of St. 

George s Society. In the case of Smith 

v. Goldie, which he successfully contested 

in the highest Courts of the realm, Mr. 

Rowland obtained the first judgment of 

the Commissioner of Patents on the ap 
plication of the famous forfeiture clause which is still the governing decision on that subject. In the long and involved case 
arising out of the St. James Cathedral Rectory funds Mr. Rowland represented the defendants and ably contested every point 
until the withdrawal of the rector of St. James Cathedral from the suit brought the litigation to an end. Mr. Rowland takes 
a hearty interest in the native literature and is a frequent contributor to The Week. He is the author of a thoughtful work, 
dealing with "The Irish Problem, as Viewed _. ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

by a Citizen of the Empire," which was favour 
ably received by the British public on its 
appearance in London in 1887, and was 
praised by the London Spectator. 

Mr. \V. H. P. Clement, B.A., was born 
May 1 3th, 1858. He made good use of the 
national system of education of which the 
Province of Ontario is justly proud. After 
acquiring all the knowledge that the High 
Schools could impart, he took an Arts course 
in the University of Toronto ; from this in 
stitution he received the degree of B.A. He 
then devoted himself to the study of law, and 
in due time was called to the Bar. The firm 
of Messrs. Clement, McCulloch & Clement, 
of which he is a member, is well and favour 
ably known. Mr. Clement interests himself 
in the Methodist Church, the Liberal party, 
and the Order of Ancient, Eree and Accepted 
Masons. He is moreover an active minded, 
enlightened and useful citizen. 

Mr. Columbus Hopkins Greene was 
born May i2th, 1830, in the historic village 
of Drummondville. One whose early envi 
ronments were so pregnant with the memories 
of British heroism, of British loyalty and of 
British daring which cluster round the glori 
ous battleground of Lundy s Lane could not 
but absorb the sterling characteristics of the 
U. E. Loyalists by whom this locality was 
settled. Mr. Greene at an early age chose 
the profession of law for his life-work. His 
many excellent qualities commended him to 

the mercantile public of Toronto and he soon 




obtained a lucrative practice. He is the senior member of the firm of Messrs. Greene & Greene. A consistent member of 
the Church of England, Mr. Greene has always taken a deep interest in its welfare. Largely through his efforts All Saints has 

become one of the most prosperous Epis- , .. 

copalian churches in Toronto. 

Mr. Joseph Heighington is the 
principal partner in the legal firm of 
Messrs. Heighington, Urquhart & Boyd. 
He was born in Yorkshire, England, in 
1849, and was educated up to the age of 
sixteen at ordinary day schools and then 
by private tuition. He thoroughly mas 
tered the duties of accountant and held 
responsible posts till, in 1877, his health 
failing, Mr. Heighington was advised to try 
a drier climate. He came to Toronto 
and first kept books, but soon entered 
upon the study of law, commencing prac 
tice in this city in the year 1884. Mr. 
Heighington to a large extent confined 
himself primarily to that part of his profes 
sion which comes under the business of 
solicitor, believing that it is disadvan 
tageous to attempt counsel work too early 


MR. J. \Y. ST. JOHN. 

in one s legal career. His business consisted largely in the management of estates, the investment of moneys, and general 
commercial matters-subjects which his previous training admirably fitted him to deal with. The claims of Ins business have 
been too exacting to allow of Mr. Heighington s taking any very active part in politics, but he holds Liberal views and has 
attended Reform meetings. In religion, he is a Baptist of a broad and charitable type. 

The celebrated trial of a well-known clergyman of Toronto, by a tribunal of the Methodist Church and his acquittal , 
the charges made, brought into prominence the name of Mr. J. W. St. John, by whom the defence was conducted. Mr. St. John 
was born in the County of Ontario, on the . 7 th of July, 1854. After attending the Collegiate Institute at Cobourg, he graduated 
in Arts from Victoria University in 1881. Three years later he was called to the Ontario Bar, and began the successful an, 
lucrative practice of law. His name is connected with the firm of Messrs. Haverson & St. John. In religion, Mr. St. John 
gives allegiance to the Methodist Church. 

Mr. Horace Thorne, barrister, was born at Thornhill, Ontario, on the 2oth of November, 1844. His father, Benjamin 
Thorne, was at one time a leading merchant both in Montreal and Toronto, carrying on one of the largest milling and gram 
businesses in the country. After receiving a good training in Upper Canada College, young Thorne studied law in the offices 
of the late Hon. fames Pattern, Q.C., Mr. Justice Osier, and the late Chief Justice Moss. In 1869, he was called to the liar 

and commenced practice in partnership 
with the late Thomas K. Morgan, who 
came to an untimely end by being drowned 
off the yacht Sphinx, in 1873. Shortly 
afterwards, Mr. Thorne formed a partner 
ship with Mr. James J. Foy, Q.C. This 
firm lasted five years, when Mr. Thorne 
became a member of the present firm of 
Watson, Thorne, Smoke & Masten. For 
the past few years he has devoted a great 
deal of attention to financial matters, and 
has been Vice-President of the Toronto 
1 .and and Investment Company. 

Mr. Elgin Schoff, of the firm of 
Schorl c\: Eastwood, barristers, is a native 
of Ontario. He was born in Clandeboye, 
Middlesex, Ont., February lyth, 1852. 
Mr. Schoff is a graduate of Toronto Nor 
mal School, from which he holds a first- 
class certificate. After teaching school for 
two years he was articled in 1875 to 
KKSIDENX-K 01 MK. HOKACK THUKXR, OTKK.N S PARK. Messrs. Bigelow, Hagel & Fitzgerald and 


subsequently became managing clerk in the office of X. F. Hagel. Q.C., now of Winnipeg. In 1879 Mr. Schoff was called to 
the Bar. having taken honours ,n the Law School three years in succession, and being second on a long list of barristers He 
has twice in 1888 and 1889 been elected 

as Public School Trustee tor St. Matthew s ^^^^KB 

Ward. Mr. Schoff j s a charter member 

anil 1 ast Regent of the Dominion Council 
of the Royal Arcanum. He is Yicc-1 rcsident 
of St. Matthew s \Vard Reform Association 
and the Kast Knd Woman s Enfranchisement 
Association. He has always taken an active 
interest in temperance reform and is a mem 
ber of the Executive of the Young Men s 
Prohibition ( lub and a RoyalTemplar. Mr. 
Schofi is also an active member of the 
Methodist ( hurch. 

In 1889. a LAW SCHOOL at Osgoode 

Hall was established by the I,aw Society of 

Upper Canada, under the supervision of a 

Legal Lducation Committee, with the design 
of affording instruction in law and legal sub 
jects to all students entering the I,aw Society, 
and of holding examinations which shall 
entitle the student to be called to the Bar or 
admitted to practice as a solicitor. The Law 
School course, which is three years in extent, 
is compulsory on all students-at-law and 
articled clerks, subject also to the payment 
of certain fees, unless they have been admit- 

ted prior to Hilary Term, 1889. Honours, RKSM.KNCK OF MR. ELG, SCHOFF, VICTOR AVENDE. 

scholarships, and medals are awarded by the 

ety in connection with the examinations at the Law School. Privileges are granted to graduates in Arts of the universities 

recognised by the Law Society, and attendance at the School is allowed as part of the term of attendance in a barrister s 

chambers or service under articles. The 
Law School course embraces lectures, 
recitations, discussions, and other oral 
methods of instruction, and the holding 
of moot courts under the supervision of 
the Principal and the Lecturers. The 
Principal of the School is Mr. W. A. 
Reeve. M.A.. O.C.. and the Lecturers. 
four in number, are Messrs. E. 1). 
Armour, O.C.. A. H. Marsh. B.A., 
LL.l!.. Q.C., R. 1C. Kingsford, M.A., 
LL.B., and P. H. Drayton. The Legal 
Lducation Committee of the Law So 
ciety, under whose auspices the Law 
School is conducted, is composed of the 
following Benchers: Messrs. Charles 
Moss, O.( . (Chairman), Christopher 
Robinson, Q.C., John Hoskin, LL.l)., 
Q.C., F. MacKelcan, Q.C., W. R. 
Meredith, Q.C., Z. A. Lash, Q.C., J. 
H. Morris, Q.C..J. H. l-erguson, Q.C., 
and Xicol Kingsmill. Q.C. It is said 
that the Law Society intend at an early 
day to erect a separate building for the 
RESIDENCE 01 MR. \V.\i. P. ATKINSOX, JAMESON AVENUE. uses of the Law School. 






JUDGING from the number and the general opulence of the medical profession in Toronto, the city would seem to be a 
paradise of Physicians. If there is a vacant corner on any of the fine residential streets of the city, the real estate 
agent and the house-builder seize upon it for the erection of a doctor s handsome residence. Even the apothecary shops, 
which are legion, denote a thriving trade in the healing or the killing art. In the old days there was no such activity or 
enterprise in the drug trade, nor was the medical profession thronged not to say glutted as it appears to be now. Yet men 

lived then to a good old age, and barring periods 
of pestilence, few were wont to be gathered to 
their fathers until they were full ripe for the 
sickle. The good people of the time did not 
live in such a whirl as we do, and they took 
more real enjoyment out of mundane existence. 
There was therefore not so much need of the 
health officer, or of beneficiary societies and 
mortality statistics. The doctor was but rarely 
in requisition, for the domestic pharmacopoeia 
was usually at hand and the old wife could be 
depended upon with her potent restoratives, 
drawn from the primitive herbs and simples. 
What pimpernel, liverwort, rue and rosemary 
could not cure, must have been smitten of the 
Evil One and was past the chirurgeon s art. 
Even for the most persistent ailments, a posset 
brewed by the family herbalist was counted a 
more sovereign remedy than the quassia of a 
whole faculty of physicians. From an early 
period in the Provincial history we find mention 
made, however, of doctors and licensed practi 
tioners. Commonly these were old army sur 
geons who had emigrated to the colony, or had 
come to it on the staff of the first governors. 
These early physicians, we read, carried medi 
cines and a pair of tiny scales, weighing out 
their prescriptions at the houses of their patients, 
and their long queues, powdered hair, and ruffled 

shirt-fronts enforced the respect which their 

profession commanded. 

In the absence of any work, of an historical or biographical character, dealing with the Medical Profession in the early 
days of the Province, we have found it difficult to say much as an introduction to this chapter. Of a few of the first practitioners, 
Dr. Scaddin;, . in hi- Toronto of Old, gives us some account, and this we have been able to supplement through the courtesy of 
Dr. Canniff, late City Health Officer, and like the venerable historian of Toronto, an enthusiastic student of the civic and 
Provincial annals. This gentleman is at present, we are glad to know, preparing for the press an historical account, with 
interesting original documents, of the Medical Profession in Upper Canada, from the founding of the Province to the year 
1850. Its appearance, we venture to think, will be eagerly looked for. Chiefly from this source we learn some facts with 
reference to the pioneers of the profession and of the establishing of the Medical Schools. We are also indebted to Dr. Pyne 
for some statistical information regarding the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

The three most notable of the first practitioners in the city, were I )rs. Win. Warren Baldwin, James Macaulay, and 
Christopher Widmer. Dr. Baldwin came to York (Toronto) towards the close of the last century, and was the first civilian in 
the embryo capital to practice medicine. He also entered upon the study of law and was duly legalized to practice that pro 
fession as well as that of a doctor. His name is well-known in early Canadian history, and our readers need hardly be told that 



he was the father of that patriot-politician, the Hon. Robert Baldwin. Dr. Baldwin was the founder of Spadina House, on 

the hill over-looking Davenport Road and the spacious avenue that bears the name of his residence. Drs. Macaulay and 
Widmer were originally surgeons in the army. Dr. Macaulay, who was the father of Sir James Macaulay, a distinguished 
occupant of the I pper Canada Bench, was attached to the 33rd Regiment and the Queen s Rangers, of which Governor Simcoe 
was ( olonel during the Revolutionary War. He removed from Niagara to Toronto about the year 1796, and long practised his 
profession in the city. Dr. Widmer, who was a Surgeon on the Cavalry Staff, began his medical career in Toronto in 1815 or 
iSif>. undwas for many years a familiar figure in the professional and social circles of the Capital Associated with Dr. 
Widmer for a time was Dr. Peter Deihl, who came to the city from Montreal, and died so recently as the year 1868. In their 
early careers, they monopolized almost the whole medical practice of the town and vicinity. Another of the pioneer 
medicos. \\a* Dr. Thomas D. Morrison, who com 
menced practice in York, in 1824, when Wm. Lyon 
Mackenzie came to the place, and was a participant 
with that "rebel" in the troubles of 1837. Dr. Mor 
rison was one of the first aldermen, after the 
Incorporation of the city, and its third Mayor. Dr. 
John Rolph is another of the notable names of the 
profession in the city, and he also, as we have seen, 
was a sharer in the storm which disaffected Reform 
at the time brewed. Among other pre-rebellion 
practitioners were Drs. Daily, Rees, King, Gwynne, 

in, Crawford, Hornby, and Mcllmurray. Of 
the later men, who have passed from the scene, a few- 
names deserve to be chronicled here. These are Drs. 
Bovell, Beaumont, Hodder, Hall, Philbrick, Barrett, 
Herrick. Xicol, Berryman, Fulton, Russell, Campbell, 
Badgley, and Hallowell. A few are still with us, such 
as Dr. Joseph Workman, as connecting links with 
the past. The later-day men the Ogdens, Aikins, 
Wrights. Richardsons, Thorburns, Temples, Bethunes, 
Cirasetts. Spragges, etc., worthily maintain the high 
repute of the profession and do honour to the memory 
of the distinguished men of their humane art who have 

led them. 

From an early period there seems to have been 
a Medical Board in Upper Canada, for the licensing 
of Practitioners, but of its organization and any legis 
lation passed in it* behalf, it is difficult now to obtain 
information. From Dr. Canniff we learn that the first 
Medical School in the Province was the Medical 
Department of King s College, which early in "the 
fifties " became by Act of Parliament the University 
of Toronto. The professors of that school were I >rs. 
Ciwynne, King, Beaumont, Herrick, Nicol, Sullivan 
and ( t Brien. The school seems, however, not to have 
been long in existence, the Legislature depriving the 
University of its early Medical and Law faculties. 
Rolph s School of Medicine, which for a time formed 
the Medical I >epartment of Victoria College, Cobourg. 
was founded by the Hon. Dr. Rolph in 1843, and was 
incorporated by Act of Parliament eight years later. 

In 1853. it became the Toronto School of Medicine and was affiliated with both Toronto and Victoria Universities. Besides 
Dr. Rolph, it had on its teaching staff for a time, Dr. Joseph Workman, Dr. C.eikie, Dr. Canniff, Dr. Berryman, Dr. Aikins, and 
Dr. Wright. The two latter gentlemen are still on the faculty, with some sixteen other medical men and over a dozen lecturers, 
demonstrators and instructors. Dr. W. T. Aikins is at present Dean of the Faculty. 

In 1850 Trinity Medical School was founded by Drs. Hodder, Bovell, Badgley, and Bethune, and then became a Faculty 
of Trinity University. In 1855-6 it however ceased to be a Faculty of the University, though in 1871 it was reorganized under 
a Faculty differently constituted but with many of the original professors. In 1877 the School was affiliated with Trinity 
University and to-day has a teaching Faculty, with Dr. Geikie as Dean, composed of ten doctors of the city and twelve 
lecturers and demonstrators. 

In 1883, the Women s Medical College was founded, and is doing good work under Dr. Nevitt, Dean of the Faculty, 
and a teaching staff of over twenty professional men of the city. Toronto has also the following schools: the Ontario College 




of Pharmacy, designed for the education of Chemists and Druggists, and incorporated by Act of Parliament; a School of 
Dentistry of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons for Ontario, incorporated since 1868 ; and the Ontario Veterinary College, 
possessing the power by Act of Parliament to grant diplomas to Veterinary Surgeons. 

Besides these teaching schools in medicine and its allied branches, the medical profession in the Province have a College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, whose headquarters are in Toronto. This is a Provincial Licensing body, and was first 
incorporated by an Act of Parliament in 1866. It is governed by a Council composed of territorial representatives, annually 
elected, with representatives from the various Medical Schools and Universities, Allopathic and Homeopathic, and a Board of 
well-qualified Examiners. The pro 
fession has also in the city two 
medical journals, The Canada Lan 
cet, and The Canadian Practitioner, 
under able management, besides 
the periodic issues of The Ontario 
Medical Register. 

\\. T. Aikins, M.D., LL.D., 

was born in the County of Peel, 

Ontario, in 1827. His preliminary 
education was received at Victoria 

College, Cobourg, and his medical 

education at the Toronto School of 

Medicine and Jefferson Medical 

College, Philadelphia. After prac 
ticing in Toronto for a time, Dr. 

Aikins became teacher of Anatomy 

in Rolph s School of Medicine in 

1850, now affiliated with Trinity 

University. Six years later he was 

appointed lecturer and surgeon in 

the Toronto School of Medicine, 

which position he has held with 

marked success until the present 

time. Dr. Aikins was largely instru 
mental in forming the Ontario 

Medical College, and has been 

Treasurer of that body since its 

inception in 1866. From 1850 till 

1880 he was surgeon to the Toronto 

General Hospital, and is now on the 

consulting staff. For many years 

I )r. Aikins was President of the 

Toronto School of Medicine. He 

has been Dean of the Institution 

since 1887. The degree of LL.D. 

was conferred upon him in 1881 by 

the University of Victoria College, 

and in 1890 the University of Tor 
onto similarly honoured him. Dr. 

Aikins is regarded as one of the 


most careful antisepticists in the world. 

Walter B. Geikie, M.D., CM., D.C.L., Dean of Trinity Medical College, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in May. 
1830. Coming to this country in 1843 with his father he studied in the Medical School founded by the Hon. Dr. Rolph, and in 
1851, after examination by the Medical Board of Upper Canada, was licensed to practice medicine. He went to Philadelphia 
and took the degree of M.D. at Jefferson College in the following year. After practising a few years at Bond Head and Aurora 
he accepted in 1856 a professorship in the medical department of Victoria College. In 1867 Dr. Geikie revisited his native 
land and passed the examinations of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and of the Royal College of Physicians, 
London. In 1871 he, with the aid of friends, induced Trinity University to reorgani/e the medical department, which had 
been instituted in 1850 and discontinued. He was appointed to the Professorship of Medicine and Clinical Medicine, and on 
the death of Dr. Hodder he became the Dean of the College. Dr. Geikie represents Trinity College in the Medical Council ot 
Ontario, and last year received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from Trinity University. 

at Upper Cannd;i 

DK. \V. T. AIKIN- 

DR. Yv. 


The President of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, for 1888, was fames Hepburn Burns M I) a 
>sh,n.,. ( fcjtario. Born in December, ,845. Dr. Hums, after laying the foundation of his cducatioi 

( ollege, graduated in medicine at Toronto 
University in 1866, at the age of twenty- 
one. When the Fenian disturbance broke 
out, Dr. Burns was at Saginaw. Michigan, 
whither he had gone to join Dr. Reynolds 
in his practice. He immediately returned 
to Toronto and attached himself to his 
University ( ompany. He was appointed 
Assistant-Surgeon of Col. Denison s pro 
visional regiment, and at St. Catharines 
had under treatment a larye number of 
the wounded. After the rebellion, 1 >r. 
Burns practised medicine at Collingwood 
till 1876, when he removed to Toronto. 
In 1880 and in 1885 he was elected to the 
Medical Council of Ontario, of which he 
was Vice-President in 1887 and President 
in 1888. Dr. Burns is senior consulting 
physician at the Infants Home, a member 
of the consulting staff of St. John s Hospi 
tal, Obstetrician at the Toronto General 
Hospital, Ontario Referee for the New 
York Life Insurance Company, and medical examiner for several other prominent 
Lite Insurance Companies. He is a Past Master of Ashlar Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 247, Toronto. 

Frederick Wm. Strange, M.D., M.R.C.S., Surgeon of "C" Company, Infantry School, and Ex-M.P. for North York, is one of 
the most distinguished physicians in the city. He is an able pathologist and a clever and successful surgeon. As a consulting 
physician few men in his profession have risen to greater eminence. Dr. Strange, who is the son of the late Mr. Thomas 
Strange, of Sulhamskead Abbotts, Berkshire, England, was educated at Bath and Winchester, studied medicine in Liverpool, 
and at University College, London, and is a Fellow of the Obstetrical Society of 
the British metropolis. From 1866 to 1869, he was Assistant-Surgeon of the Lon 
don Surgical Home and the Hospital for Women, resigning these posts in the latter 
year to come to Canada. 1 )r. Strange has a large and lucrative practice in Toronto, 
is a Coroner for the County of York, was at one time President of the North York 

Liberal-Conservative Association, and from 
1878 to 1882 sat for North York in the 
Dominion Parliament. He has been for 
many years identified with the Canadian 
Militia, is an Ex-Captain of the 1 2th (York) 
Battalion and of the Queen s Own Rifles, 
and is now Surgeon of " C " Company, 
Infantry School, Toronto. In that capa- 
eitv he served with his corps in the North- 
West Expeditionary Force, during the 
-ccond Riel Rebellion, and was a favourite 
as well as a skilled and humane surgeon 
on the Brigade Staff. 

Dr. lames Ross, a well-known city 
practitioner and member of the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, 
was born in 1832 in the Township of 
York. York Co.. Upper Canada. A pub 
lic school in his native county supplied 
him with the rudiments of education, 
which he afterwards continued at Toronto, 


DR. JAMES Ross. 

entering the Toronto School of Medicine and obtaining a license to practice in 1851. Before settling down, however, Dr. Ross 
proceeded to Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, where further study was rewarded by the degree of M.D. In the spring 
of 1852 he commenced the practice of medicine, surgery and midwifery in Toronto, and here he has held various positions. 



such as Physician to St. Andrew s Society for nearly thirty years: Physician to the (lids Home and Public Nursery for twent 
anil also represented St. Lawrence \Vard as Public SehoolTrustee from 1866101873. Dr. Ross was also a meml 

jMfafc" "" t 



of the Council of the College of Physician 
and Surgeons of Ontario from 1874 to iSSc 
In 1881) he was elected President of th 
Canadian Medical Association, which helc 
its annual convention at Banff. In politic 
Dr. Ross is a Liberal; in religion, a Presl>\ 
ten , in. 

James ! . \V. Ross, M.I).. CM 
L.R.C.P., London, England, is a native . 
Toronto and an out-and-out Canadian. H 
was born on August i6th, 1858, and receive 
his early training at the County Model Scho 
the Collegiate Institute, and Upper Canad 
College. In 1875 he matriculated in mod 
cine at Toronto University, and three yeai 
afterwards took the degree of Tb 
studies thus commenced in this country \ui 
for three years continued abroad at Londoi 
Berlin, Leipzic, and Vienna. When in 18:- 
Dr. Ross began the practice of medicine i 
Toronto he had in addition to his colic;. 
education the benefit of three years , 
ence as resident-assistant at Toronto Oener 
Hospital, and had acquired a knowledge 
his profession which shortly enabled him to take a front rank. Dr. Ross is of sturdy Scotch descent. His great grandfathi 
to Canada with a Highland regiment about the year 1808 and served as Quartermaster at Niagara and afterwards at 5fo 
(Toronto). Dr. Ross father has been a physician in Toronto for thirty years ; his mother was a daughter of Mr. John Mclntos 
a member of the Provincial Assembly about the time of the Mackenzie Rebellion. Dr. Ross is on the teaching faculty of tl 
Women s Medical College, and is physician to several of the city charities. 

William Winslow Ogden, M.B., M.I)., Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in Toronto School of Medicine and one of tl 

leading practitioners in the city, was born of old English stock in the Township of Toronto, Co. Peel, Ont., July 3rd, 1837. 

was educated in his native county, at the Toronto Academy, and at Victoria College, Cobourg, taking both the Arts course ai 

the Medical course at the latter institu 
tion. He also attended the Toronto 

School of Medicine, and in 1860 gradu 
ated with honours in medicine from 

Toronto University. Since that date 

he has practised his profession in Tor 
onto, taking at the same time a deep 

interest in educational matters and an 

active participation in politics as a 

Liberal. In 1869, Dr. Ogden became 

lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence in 

the Toronto School of Medicine, and, 

since 1887, when the Medical Faculty 

of Toronto University was created, has 

been Professor of Forensic Medicine 

in the University. Dr. Ogden has for 

a quarter of a century been a member 

of the Toronto School Board, and was 

long an active member of the Toronto 

Reform Association, at one time its 

Vice President, and in 1879 was 

nominated the Reform candidate for 

the Ontario Legislature, but failed to 

secure election, though he polled a 

large vote. In religion. Dr. Ogden is a KKSII.KNCK OF DR. K. J. BAKKICK, HONI. STREET. 




Methodist has taken a warm interest in the denomination, has been a member of all the General Conferences, and for over 
thirt , lrs j ws h eL . n a zealous leader in the Church. He is a member of the Middlesex Lodge, Sons of England Benevolent 
Societv. and is its medical examiner in the beneficiary department. 

Eli James Barriek, M.D., was born on December 23rd, 1848, in the Township 
of Wanfleet, Ontario. He was educated in the common schools, the Normal School, 
Victoria University, Toronto Medical School, and St. Thomas Hospital, London. 
Midland. Dr. Barrick took his M.D. degree at Victoria University, r866 ; L.R.C.P., 
London, England, 1866; M.R.C.S., En-land, 1867: L.R.C.l . and L.R.C.S., Edin 
burgh, 1867, and ! .(). S., London. England, 1870. He has practised in Toronto con 
tinuously since 1867. From 1867 to 1870 he was Demonstrator of Anatomy in 
Victoria Medical School and Professor of Midwifery from 1870 till 1875. Dr. Karrick 
is Treasurer of the Ontario Medical Association for 1889-90. He is a member of 
the Methodist Church. 

George Sterling Ryerson, M.I)., CM., L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. Edin., Surgeon of the 
Royal Grenadiers, was born in Toronto, January 2ist, 1854. He is the son of Rev. 
George Ryerson, and the nephew of our great educationist, Dr. Egerton Ryerson. 
The Ryersons are of Dutch Huguenot descent, their progenitors having come from 
Holland in 1646. Descended from U. E. Loyalists on his father s side, Dr. G. S. 

Ryerson s ancestors on the maternal side 
were Continentalists. He was educated 
at the Gait Grammar School and Trinity 
Medical School, and from the latter he 
graduated in 1875. The following year 

he proceeded to the old land, where he received the practising diplomas of the 
Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons of Edinburgh. After studying his 
profession for some years in London, Paris, Vienna, Heidelberg and Berlin, Dr. 
Ryerson returned to his native city to fill the appointment of Professor of Eye 
and Ear Diseases in Trinity Medical College and Surgeon to the Mercer Eye and 
Ear Infirmary, which positions he still occupies. Dr. Ryerson has been Surgeon 
of the Royal Grenadiers since 1881 and served with distinction during the North- 
West Rebellion. For his services in the North-West Expeditionary Force, Dr. 
Ryerson was recommended by the General-in-Command for promotion to the rank 
of Surgeon-Major, ranking with a Lieutenant-Colonel in the militia. Through his 
efforts the Ambulance Corps of the Royal Grenadiers was organized in 1884. 
Dr. Ryerson is closely identified with music in Toronto, being first Vice-President 
of the Choral Society and a Director ^ WMn ^^^^^H^^^^^^^M 
of the Conservatory of Music. He is 
a prominent member of the Masonic 
fraternity. His able articles on medical 
subjects find interested readers in Eng- 
\) r Ryerson is a member of the British 

Medica? Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
and is a charter member of the Ophthalmological Society of Great Britain. 

Dr. |ohn S. Kin- was born at Georgetown, Co. Halton, in 1843, his father 
having emigrated to Toronto in ,834, the year of the city s incorporation. 
life was spent on a farm in the County of Wentworth. At fifteen, he entered 
Hamilton Grammar School, and, after a time, obtained a first-class teachers cert 
at the Normal School, Toronto. In 1869. Dr. King abandoned teaching f 
journalism, and in .872 was on the editorial staff of The Globe. While thus engaged 
he read for the medical profession and attended lectures. On leaving 77/6- Globe, 
be devoted himself entirely to professional study, obtained his license, and com 
menced practice, first at ( )akville and then in Toronto. He became a men 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, in ,876. and obtained his 
degree from Victoria College. In 1881, Dr. Ring was appointed Surgeo) 
Andrew Mercer Ontario Reformatory for Females, and also to the Ontario Indv 
Refuge for Girls, with both of which institutions he is still connected. 
has long been a prominent man in various societies. He is a Mason ot twenl 

years standing : a Past Worshipful Master, and a Royal Arch Mason :ic IK, -amc ^ ^ j 

connected with the Knights of Pythias in .874 and soon passed through 
1876, and was elected Grand Chancellor four times: entered the Supreme Lodge of the World in 1877; 


land, the United States and Canada. 



Prelate twice. Dr. King is also a member of the Oddfellows ; and was the first ( rand Medical Examiner in Canada for the 
A. (). U. \V. He also belongs to the Sons of England, to the Royal Arcanum, to St. George s Society, in which last body he 
_ has held the post of Surgeon, member of Committee, third and second Vice-Presi 

dent, nnd Steward. In politics, Dr. King is a Liberal of a rather independent 
type : in religion, he is a Presbyterian. 

Charles Sheard, M.I)., C.M.. M.R.C.S., Kng., was born in Toronto, February 
i 5th, 1857. To Upper Canada College he is indebted for the early drilling in intel 
lectual pursuits which have made him and many other Canadians ornaments to the 
profession of medicine. Being a thorough-going Episcopalian, Dr. Sheard looked 
to the University of Trinity College for his higher education. From that institu 
tion he graduated with the degree of M.D., C.M. Subsequent study in the Hos 
pitals of London, England, at Trinity College, Cambridge, at Vienna, Paris and 
Berlin, enlarged his medical education. Returning to Toronto, Dr. Sheard prac 
tised as a physician with marked success. His special intimacy with the department 
of Physiology was recognized by his appointment to that Chair in Trinity College. 
In 1889, Dr. Sheard occupied the position of Vice-President of the Canada Medical 
Association, and for the year 1890 he is Vice-President of the Ontario Medical 
Association. He is also a member of the acting staff of the Toronto General Hos 
pital, and has an extensive practice. 

Peter Henderson Bryce, M.D., 
Secretary of the Provincial Board of 
Health, was born at Mount Pleasant, 
Brant County, August i7th, 1853. His 
educational training was received at 
Mount Pleasant Grammar School, 



Upper Canada College, University of Toronto, Edinburgh University, and Ecole 

dc McJecine, Paris. From the Toronto University he received the degrees of 

M. A. and M.I)., carrying off the gold medal in Scienceand the McMurrich silver 

medal for a Practical Science essay. Dr. Bryce entered upon the study of 

divinity in Knox College, but owing to temporary ill-health he gave it up in 1876, 

and took a lectureship in Guelph Agricultural College. In 1880 he graduated in 

medicine at Toronto University, spending some time afterwards at Edinburgh and 

Paris. Returning to Canada, he practised successfully at Guelph till appointed to 

the position of Secretary of the Board of Health in 1882, when he removed to 

Toronto. His efforts in forming local 
boards have contributed largely to the 
present efficiency of the Provincial 
Board. Dr. Bryce is a member of the 
American Public Health Association 
and Chairman of the important com 
mittee of the International Conference 

of State Boards dealing with interstate notification of diseases. During the small 
pox epidemic of 1885, he rendered valuable services to Ontario in preventing a 
spread of the disease in the Province. Dr. Bryce, who is a Licentiate of the Royal 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh, is the son of George Bryce, who 
came from Stirlingshire, Scotland, fifty years ago and settled at Mount Pleasant. 
He was brought up as a Presbyterian, and is still a member of that denomination. 

"Bensfort," the residence of Dr. Lesslie M. Sweetnam, is situated on the 
north-east corner of Church and Shuter Streets. It was erected in 1889 under 
the supervision of Mr. Matthew Sheard. Dr. Sweetnam was born at Kingston, 
Out., August ist, 1859. He was educated at Upper Canada College, and took the 
medical degree at Toronto University, in 1881. He began the practice of his pro 
fession in a general way in 1882, and since 1887 has made the diseases of women 
a specialty. Dr. Sweetnam is a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
of Ontario, M.B. of Toronto University, and M.I)., C.M., of the University of 
Victoria College, Cobourg. 
Horatio Charles Burritt, M.D., C.M., comes of United Empire Loyalist stock. He is the grandson of Col. 1 Janiel Burritt, 

a U. E. Loyalist, and the first settler on the Rideau River, and the son of the late Dr. \\ . H. Burritt of Smith s Falls. The 

subject of this sketch was born September 2nd, 1840, at Smith .-, Falls, where he attended the Grammar School. At Bishop s 




School (l.ennoxville. P.O.). he was further instructed. Subsequently he entered McCiill University. Montreal, from which he 
received the decree of M.I).. C.M., in May, 1863. After graduating he went to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, in the capacity 

of Acting Assistant Surgeon. On _ 

returning to Canada he practised at 
Morrisburg and Peterboro until he 
removed to Toronto, in 1882. Dr. 
Burritt is a member of the Church 
of Kngland. 

Professor F.dward B. Shuttle- 
worth, the analytic chemist, was 
born in 1842, at Sheffield, Eng 
land. He received his education, 
however, in Ireland, entering the 
Government School of Science at 
Dublin, where he obtained a certi 
ficate of proficiency in his favourite 
subject Chemistry. Shortly after, 
he came with his father to Canada 
and naturally drifted into pharmacy, 
settling in 1865 in Toronto as 
Manager of the Toronto Chemical 
Works under the Messrs. Lyman. 
In 1866, Prof. Shuttleworth with a 
few others interested in scientific 
pharmacy founded the society that 
afterwards became the Ontario Col 
lege of Pharmacy. In 1867, he 
established the Canadian Phanna- 

ceutical fiHirnal, a periodical of which he is still the editor. In 1882, the College of Pharmacy assumed teaching powers 
with Prof. Shuttleworth as Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Chemistry. The Professor has also for a number of years 
been lecturer on Pharmacy in Trinity Medical College, and in the old days held a similar appointment in the Medical Depart 
ment of Victoria College. He is also corresponding and honorary member of the Philadelphia, Quebec, and other pharmaceutical 
colleges. Prof. Shuttleworth has taken a deep interest in Art, and in 1880 occupied the Vice-President s chair of the Ontario 

Society of Artists. Professor Shuttleworth is noted as a volunteer, having served 

in the Tecumseh Rifles and in the Montreal Artillery, as well as in the American 

army during the Civil War. 

Samuel ( ,. T. Barton, M.I)., is p 

of Irish parentage. He was born in 

1 86 1 at Athlone, Ontario. When his 

primary education was completed he 

came to Toronto and matriculated at 

the Provincial University, from whence 

he graduated in Arts. Turning his 

attention then to medicine, he received 

from Victoria University the degree of 

M.I). Dr. Barton takes an active 

interest in charitable work. He is one 

of the medical attendants of the West 
ern Dispensary, which does much to 

alleviate the distress of the poor in 

times of sickness. He is a member 

of the College of Physicians and Sur 
geons of Ontario. 

Jerrold Ball, M.D.. resides at 

the corner of Sherbourne and Shuter 

Streets, where he carries on a large 

general practice. He was born in the 
County of Simcoe in 1848 and educated in the Toronto University, graduating in medicine in 1874. He began practice in 
Toronto immediately upon graduating, and is now a well-known physician. Dr. Ball s religious connection is with the Metho 
dist Church. An illustration of his residence will be found in these pages. 

DR. H. C. BrRitrri. 




The honour of being the first female medical practitioner in Canada belongs to Emily Howard Jennings Stowe, M.I). 
Horn and educated in this Province, she followed for many years the profession of teaching. It was not until she was married 

^^^^^ - __ _ and had a family, that Mrs. Stowe determined to carry 
out her long-cherished purpose of entering the field of 
medicine. She studied the healing art in New York 
City. After obtaining the degree of M.I), she returned 
to Toronto and inaugurated a successful career. Through 
the efforts of Mrs. Stowe the professional standing of 
female physicians in Ontario has been established, and 
the way has been opened up for women in other depart 
ments. The existence of two medical colleges in this 
Province for women to-day attest the progress that has 
been made. Two of Dr. Stowe s children have entered 
professional life. The eldest, Dr. Augusta Stowe Gullen. 
was the first woman to obtain the medical degree from 
an Ontario University, and is one of the faculty of the 
Women s Medical College. Dr. Emily Stowe is an 
ardent and effective advocate of female enfranchisement 
on the platform and elsewhere. She has amply deserved 
the success which she has achieved. 

The Women s Medical College, established in 
1883, through the energetic efforts of the late Dr. Barrett, 
is in affiliation with the Universities of Trinity College 
and Toronto, and is now the foremost Canadian Medical 
College for women, both in the completeness of its teach 
ing faculty and in the number of its graduates and 
students. The building (see page 18) is commodious and 
adapted for the purposes of medical education, being 


fitted up in the most modern and scientific manner. Its 

The staff is large, including 24 Lecturers and Demon- 
Four of the Lecturers are ladies. The new College, 

situation opposite the General Hospital affords it peculiar advantages. 

strators, among them several of the foremost physicians of the city. 

opened in 1890, has been erected through the joint contributions of a large number of the citizens of Toronto, interested in the 

medical education of women for missionary and other work. The value of the lot and buildings is about $12,000. The 

business affairs of the College are managed by a Board of Trustees, elected annually 

by the subscribers and the Faculty. The educational arrangements are in the hands 

of the Faculty. The Chairman of the 

Board of Trustees is James Beaty, Q.C., 

I.L.I).: the Dean of Faculty, R. 15. 

Nevitt, B.A., M.I). ; and the Secretary 

of Faculty, D. J. Gibb Wishart, B.A., 


John Hall, M. B., M. D., for 

thirty years an able practitioner of the 

Homeopathic School in Toronto, but 

now of Victoria, B.C., was born in I .in- 

coln, England, in 1817. He was edu 
cated at Lincoln and Grantham, and 

became an indefatigable student and 

an earnest inquirer in matters pertain 
ing to his life-long profession. He 

came to Canada during the troubled 

era of the Macken/ie Rebellion, and 

until peace settled upon the country he 

made his home for a time in Cleveland, 

Ohio. Here he took a deep interest 

in Pharmacy, and became enamoured 

of Homeopathy, then asserting its 
claims in rivalry with the old school Allopaths, and studied with a view to practising that system. In 1857 he obtained UM 
e of M.I), from the Western Homeopathic College of Ohio, and shortly afterwards removed to Toronto, and became o 
Licentiate of the Homeopathic Medical Board, and in 1869 a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, 





and in iSSi a member of the Board of Examiners of the College. Dr. Hall was not long in establishing a large and lucrative 
practice in Toronto, and for main years was worthily identified with Homeopathy, its school, hospital, and other professional 
interests. \Vhile a resident of the city, he 
\vus President of the Hahnemanm an Club, 
and is still an honorary member. He is also 
an honorary member of the Lippi Society of 
Philadelphia, and of the International Hahne- 
mannian Association. Dr. Hall s health, of 
recent vears, having suffered from the severity 
of the Canadian winter, he has been necessi 
tated to relinquish his practice in this city 
to Dr. W. |. Hunter Emory and to make his 
home in Victoria, British Columbia. The 
worthy gentleman has many sincere and 
attached friends in the Provincial Capital 
who. sociallv as well as professionally, hold 
him in high esteem. 

W. J. Hunter Emory, M.D..M.C.P.S., 
was born at Burlington, Ont., in 1861. His 
preliminary education was received at Water- 
clown High School and Hamilton Collegiate 
Institute. He pursued his professional studies 
in Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital College, 
where he received the degrees of M.I), and 
M.H.S. in March, 1882. The following year 
he passed the examinations of the Council of the College of Physicians of Ontario, thus becoming a licensed and registered 
practitioner in Ontario. He was elected in the same year a member of the Canadian Institute of Homeopathy, of which he 
became Secretary-Treasurer in 1885, Yice-President in 1888, and President in 1889. J)r - Emory entered into partnership with 
Dr. John Hall, Sr., in 1885, and succeeded to his practice in 1888. He is Examiner in Medical Jurisprudence and Sanitary 
Science for the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons, Attending Physician and Surgeon of the Toronto Homeopathic 
Hospital and a member of the International Hahnemannian Association. Dr. Emory, though still young, has attained a high posi 
tion as a practitioner, is well-read in his profession, and has a successful future before him. He is a member of the Methodist 

"Hahnemann Villa," the residence of John B. Hall, M.D., M.C.P.S., situate on Jams Street, corner Carlton, is one of 
those substantial and comfortable, though unpretentious, homes so numerous on that beautiful thoroughfare. The picture 

was taken just as the Doctor was about to 
enter his brougham. Dr. Hall is a native of 
Lincoln, Eng. He received his education at 
Oberlin University, Ohio, Homeopathic 
Hospital College, Cleveland, and Missouri 
Homeopathic College, St. Louis. In 1862 
he established practice in Cleveland and 
afterwards in St. Paul, Minnesota, where he 
remained until 1875, w hen he accepted a 

SBb-^NtflPmil r *..! , "SSsPWf position with his father. Dr. ]ohn Hall, late 

IKiK, PT! W BlSa* i rtJB&NI of Richmond Street. In 1880 he established 

himself at the above residence. Dr. Hall is 
well-known throughout the Dominion as an 
able and skilful physician, and although his 
practice is chiefly among the more affluent, 
the poor are never neglected. Dr. Hall is 
very liberal in his views, and although a firm 
believer in the Homeopathic law, does not 
recogni/e it as the only one governing the 
remedial action of medicine. 

Dr. William H. Ilowitt is the eldest 
son of the late Henry Howitt, of Long Eaton 
Hall, Derbyshire, where his ancestors have 



been landowners since 1485. To a branch of the family belonged the late William Howitt, writer and poet. Dr. Howitt 
educated at /.ion House Academy, in the Island of Jersey, and subsequently at King William s College, Isle of Man. 


received his professional training at McGill University, Montreal, and St. Thomas Hospital, London, England In 1872 
he began the practice of medicine at Menomonie, Wisconsin, U.S. In .878, becoming convinced of the truth of Hahnemann s 

law of cure he came to Toronto, and, having obtained re-registration as a 
Homeopathic member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, 
thenceforth practised according to the doctrines of the New School. 

The Homeopathic Hospital, Jarvis Street (see page 28), had its inception in a 
small free dispensary which the friends of Homeopathy opened in 1887, on Rich 
mond Street East. The movement was aided by the city with a grant and the 
institution was voluntarily attended by the physicians of this school, prominent 
among whom were Dr. John Hall, Senior, and the late Dr. Campbell. Karly in 
1890, it was felt that there was a pressing need for a Homeopathic Hospital, to 
supplement the work of the dispensary, and by means of private subscriptions and 
an increased grant from the city, the first venture was made in a house at the 
corner of Richmond and Duncan Streets. The hospital was opened on January 
i 7th, with one patient and a staff consisting of lady superintendent, caretaker and 
housekeeper. Before two months had elapsed the accommodation of the hospital 
was found to be utterly inadequate for the demands upon it. The present quarters 
were opened on May 8th, largely through the efforts of His Honour Judge Mac- 
dougall. A private ward was furnished by Mrs. Grant Macdonald, and the largest 
public ward was furnished and decorated by Mr. John Ross Robertson. l!y August 
the average number of patients was seventeen and the calls upon the dispensary 
averaged one hundred a week. The nursing staff had reached six a head nurse 
and five in training. Since October a regular training school for nurses has been 
DK. \Y. II. HOWITT. organized, the members of which attend lectures by the medical staff. The hospital 

movement has had the hearty endorsation of the members of the Homeopathic profession in Toronto. 

lames liranston Willmott, M.D.S., D.D.S, one of the founders of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons, Toronto, a 
professor in the institution, and its representative on the Senate of the University of Toronto, with which it is affiliated, was 
born of English parentage in the County of Halton, Ont., June isth, 1837. In early life a student in Victoria College, he 
passed from it to practice dentistry at Milton. Subsequently he graduated at the Philadelphia Dental College, and in 1871 
came to reside in Toronto. Since that period he has been engaged in a large and lucrative practice, and intimately associated 

with the development of dentistry, both in connection with the Board of Examiners 

and latterly with a chaii in the Royal College of Dental Surgeons. In religion, I )r. 

Willmott is a Methodist, is deeply inter 
ested in the prosperity of the Metropolitan 

Church in the city, and was a member of 

the Toronto Methodist Conferences of 

1885, 1886, and 1890. 

Martin Fred Smith, L.D.S., was born 

in Liverpool, England, July i2th, 1852. 

He was educated at Liverpool College, 

and in 1867 began the study of medicine. 

After two years study he showed a pre 
ference for dentistry and entered the office 

of a successful practitioner at Islington, to 

perfect himself in the profession he had 

chosen. His first location as a dentist was 

in Denbigh, North Wales, where he prac 
tised two years. In 1879 he came to 

( anada and commenced the extensive 

practice which he now has in Toronto, 

in the fine offices of the ( anada Life 

Assurance Company. 1 >r. Smith is a 

member of St. George s Society, the Sons 

of England, the I. O. F., and the Order DR. M. F. SMITH. 

IJk. J. 15. \VlI.I.MOTT. 

of Canadian Foresters. His allegiance in religion is to the Church of England. 

John ( ,. Adams, 1 ,. 1 ).S., youngest son of the late Rev. Ezra Adams, was born at Acton, Ontario, in 1839. He commenced 
the study of dentistry in Toronto in 1870, and became a graduate of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons in 1873. Since 
then he has been engaged in the practice of dentistry in Toronto. His reputation for careful work has secured for him a large 
number of students, ten of whom having graduated are practising in Ontario, and others are scattered through the United 


States and the Provinces. He has taken a deep interest in charitable work, especially in the Sick Children s Hospital, Boys 
and Girls Homes. At the age of thirteen he became a member of the Methodist Church, and has tilled all the offices a layman 

can hold. Largely through his efforts a 

movement in the direction of window- ^^ 

gardening is gaining ground, and Tor 
onto s business streets are annually 

beautified by the presence of fine floral 

displays. Dr. Adams is a Liberal Reformer, 

a believer in Equal Rights, and a member 

of the Sons of Temperance, Good Tem 
plars, Royal Templars, United Workmen, 

and Select Knights of Canada. 

Probably there is no dentist who 

has been so long established in this city 

as William Case Adams. He was born 

at Lundy s Lane, near Niagara Falls, 

October i8th, 1823, his father being a 

Methodist minister. After receiving a 

liberal education at Victoria University. 

Dr. Adams came to Toronto in 1851 to 

study dentistry. At that time there were 

but three dentists in Toronto. Dr. Adams 

studied with Mr. J. B. Jones in 1854, 

when he received the degree of D.D.S., 

DR. \V. C. ADAMS. 


and began business as a dental surgeon. During the first two years of the existence of the Dental College he was on the 
teaching staff. Among his students were Dr. Willmott, Dr. Snider, Dr. Troutman, and Dr. Trotter. Dr. Adams is a Methodist 
and a Reformer. Since 1857 he has been a Freemason. He is the inventor of a useful addition to dental apparatus, known 
as a root-extractor, which can be screwed into roots and will draw them without any cutting of the flesh. He is both capable 
and experienced in his profession. 

The care of the sick has not been left in Toronto entirely to the good offices of medical men. With the (are also of 
the destitute, provision has been made for the sick by the philanthropy of the citizens, aided to some extent by both the 
Corporation and the Provincial Legislature. The Toronto General Hospital is a noble example of the city s humanity, and 
large is the provision it has made, and annu 
ally makes, for the maintenance and equip 
ment of the institution. As early as 1817. 
the Government of Upper Canada granted 
400 acres towards the foundation of a ( .eneral 
Hospital in the city. With this land appro 
priation, and .4,000 donated by the Loyal 
and Patriotic Society of the Province, being 
unexpended moneys collected for the relief 
of sufferers in the War of 1812, an hospital 
building was erected, in 1817, at the corner 
of King and John Streets, near where the 
Arlington Hotel now stands. It was, how 
ever, not devoted to its purposes until 1829, 
the Government having appropriated it five 
years before for the housing of the Legisla 
ture, lire having destroyed the Parliament 
Buildings. In 1854, the present Hospital 
site, occupying four acres, on Gerrard Street 
East, between Sackville and Sumach Streets, 
was selected and buildings were erected. 
These have since been added to, and the 
noble pile, of which we have given an illustration on page 43, admirably fulfils its purpose. An Hospital Trust was incorporated 
in 1847, which manages its affairs, aided by the beneficent efforts of a number of medical practitioners who form a consulting, 
an acting, and an Executive staff. The Board of Trustees consists of five gentlemen, one of whom is the Mayor, with three 
members appointed by the Ontario Government, the fifth being the appointee of the subscribers to the Hospital fund. The 
capacity of the Hospital is 350 beds. Attached to the institution are the Burnside Lying-in Hospital, with over thirty beds ; the 






Mercer Kyc and Ear Infirmary, with forty beds : and a Nurses Home, for the pupils of the Training School, with accommo 
dation for fifty nurses. The Hospital receives an annual grant from the Provincial Government of nearly $25,000, and from the 

City Corporation of $16,500. 

Another beneficent institution is the 
House of Providence, Power Street, near by 
the General Hospital. It is supported by 
the Roman Catholic Church, and managed 
by its worthy and self-denying sisterhood. 
Its object is the relief of the aged, infirm, 
and destitute of both sexes, without distinc 
tion of creed, and of hapless orphaned 
humanity. It well deserves the aid and 
sympathy of the charitable. The Hospital 
for Sick Children, on College Avenue, at the 
corner of Elizabeth Street, appeals with an 
unquestioned claim to every feeling heart. 
The new and elegant building, which has 
just been erected, shows the response of the 
citizens to this excellent charity ; and its 
bright interior, with the good offices of its 
kindly management, will make glad the heart 
of its suffering inmates. Towards the erection 
of the new building, the city, in 1887, made 
"a Jubilee Grant" of $20,000. The hospital 
is designed for the relief of children as out 
door patients from birth to the age of fourteen 
years, and for the reception of children as 
in-door patients from two to fourteen years. In connection with the institution, thanks to the beneficence of Mr. John Ross 
Robertson, who gave the money for its erection, there is a convalescent branch on the Island, called the Lakeside Home. 
St. John s Hospital, on Major Street, is another excellent institution which well merits recognition in these pages. 

In connection with the hospitals, it is hard to refrain from saying a word here of one or two of the city s charities, 
though we had hoped, had space permitted, to have given them a separate chapter. The Industrial School is not altogether a 
charity, for the Provincial Government, we believe, contributes to its maintenance, as does the city, and the Government has 
given it a plot of eight acres at Mimico, and leased it forty-two acres in addition. The institution, which owes its inception to 
tin /( al of MX- Mayors W. H. Rowland and W. B. McMurrich, well deserves the countenance and support of the citixens. Equally 
deserving of support is the Newsboys Lodging and Industrial Home, on Frederick Street, which receives the good offices of its 
long-time friend and benefactor, Sir Daniel Wilson, and those of the zealous 
Chairman of the Home, the Hon. Senator Allan, D.C.L. Of other deserving 
charities we must content ourselves merely with their enumeration, vi/.: the 
Home for Incurables, on Dunn Avenue; the House of Industry, Elm Street; 
the St. Nicholas Home, Lombard Street; the Infants Home and Infirmary, St. 
Mary Street: the Hillcrest Convalescent Home; the Wayfarers Home; the 
Prisoners Aid; the Ladies Mission and Relief Society; the Haven for Dis 
charged Female Prisoners : the Industrial Refuge ; the Sunnyside Children s 
Home ; and the Industrial Refuge for Girls, a section of the institution known 
as the Mercer Reformatory for Females, which is supported by the Provincial 
Government. To all these charities the city devotes about $30,000 yearly. 
To these institutions have to be added the Hoys Home, on George Street; tin- 
Girls Home, on Gerrard Street East; and the Orphans Home, on Dovercourt 
Road all worthy objects of public beneficence. For the excellent management 
of these charities, the city is indebted to many philanthropic ladies of Toronto, 
who find in them a worthy field for their activities. The Boys Home is designed 
for the training and maintenance of destitute boys not convicted of crime, from 
the ages of five to fourteen. The institution, which was opened in 1859, affords 
accommodation for over 150 boys. Since its foundation, it has afforded a home 
for nearly 1,600 boys. The Girls Home was established as a public nursery in 
the year 1857. Some three years later, the institution was enlarged to admit girls up to the age of fifteen, and to train them 
for household work. The Orphans Home was founded in 1851 for the relief and support of all friendless orphans of members 
of all Protestant denominations. Besides these charities, the city s destitute or distressed are materially helped by the various 
national societies and benevolent organizations, ecclesiastical and industrial. 







EDUCATION, from an early period in the history of Upper Canada, has had a large share in the interests of the 
people, and few communities have more heavily and uncomplainingly taxed themselves for its support than have the 
public of the City and the Province. The City s annual assessment for Public Schools alone amounts now to about 
$600,000 ; wh.le it disburses nearly another hundred thousand in support of the Collegiate Institutes and Separate 
These two sums exceed in amount the whole Legislative grant of the Provincial Government for the yearly mainten 
ance ot all grades of the schools in Ontario, including the disbursement for inspection and general administration Though 
Separate Schools continue to be recognized and aided both by the City and the Province, the Educational System of Ontario 
is. in the mam. unsectarian, and the Public Schools at least are free. The chief source of the school maintenance is local 
taxation, aided by Government grants from the public chest, supplemented, in a small measure, by some unexpended balance 
from the Clergy Reserves Fund. The total annual expenditure for school purposes throughout Ontario is said to amount to 
34 per cent, of all the taxes collected upon the assessable property of the Province. Submitting to this enormous annual public 


den. it cannot be said that Ontario is indifferent, or lacking in public spirit, in seeking the enlightenment of her people, 
-ler schools are essentially popular institutions, organized and sustained for the education not of any privileged order or class, 
but of the masses. Th cy are open to the children alike of the most wealthy and the most humble home. 

The Public School System of the Province dates from the year 1816, when the Legislature of Upper Canada passed a 

minion or Elementary School Law, and appropriated ,5,000 sterling a like sum to be -ranted annually for the mainten- 

nce of the schools. Six years later, a Board of Education for the Province was established, which also for a time had under 

supervision the Royal Grammar Schools, for which provision had been made by grants of the public domain when the 

Province was founded. It was not. however, until after the Union, in 1841, that efficient provision was made throughout the 

ince lor national education. In 1844, a further impetus was given to the movement by the appointment of the Rev. Dr. 

ton Ryerson to the chief superintendency, and a school system was founded of an eclectic character, combining the best 

-attires of the educational system in vogue in Xew England and the Old World. Since that period the system then inaugurated 

> made great strides, and to-day there are close upon 6,000 school-houses in the Province, employing over 7.000 teachers, 

tered school population of nearly half a million. Besides the Public Schools, the Province maintains 115 High 

3ls, of which twenty-six are Collegiate Institutes, employing over 400 highly-qualified teachers, with a registered attendance 

nearly 18,000 pupils. These High Schools provide an advanced education in the English branches, and a classical course 


with modern lan-uaes. to enable pupils to pass the matriculation examination in the Universities, the teacher s non-profes- 
sional examination, or to passat once into the business of life. In Toronto, the two Collegiate Institutes have over a thousand 
pupils on their rolls, and Upper Canada College had, in 1889, an attendance of 409, of which 174 were boarders. The 
teaching si ge ;md highly trained in both the College and the Institutes. The educational system of the Province is, as 

our readers know, presided over by a Minister of Kduration, who is also a member of the Government. The school age in 
Ontario is from five to twenty-one. A section of the School Act compels the attendance at school of children between seven 
and thirteen years of age for a period, at least, of a hundred days each year. This enactment is unhappily, however, Dot 
strictly enforced The expenditure in the Province on school buildings during the past twelve years exceeds five millions of 
dollars. A gratifying feature is the improved character and increased equipment of these school buildings. The log school 
house of the past is fest disappearing, there being only about 500 now in existence, against 1,466 in 1850, while brick school 

houses have within the same period increased from TOO to over 2,000. 

The Public School statistics for the city must be gratifying to every Toronto does nobly for education, and the 
taxpayer, though he may grumble at the large and increasing annual outlay, has the satisfaction of knowing that his parental 


responsibilities are advantageously assumed by the State. The flaw in his ointment will doubtless be the difference between the 
actual and the enrolled attendance, in which there is a great and unfortunate discrepancy. In 1889, the registered attendance 
at all the schools of the city was 28,287, while the average daily attendance was only 18,926. Of the latter, almost 5,000 
attended school for less than 150 days in the school year. In these figures there is an admonition for the school authorities and 
the truancy officer. Though the fact to which we have called attention is sufficiently depressing, and calculated to restrain our 
jubilation over the success of the school system, there is much at the same time on which the sober citi/en may rejoice. \\ hen 
the yearly tax-bill comes in, if this is not always thought of, let the sight, on any important thoroughfare in the early inon 
early afternoon, of the glad troops of youths going to or from one or other of the schools, to become in time useful and worthy 
citi/cns. banish both impatience and misgiving. The cost of maintaining the schools, of which there are now nearly fifty in 
operation in the city, with over 400 teachers, amounted in 1889 to $267,442. This gives a cost per child for the year of $9-45 
on the basis ol registered attendance, or of $14.13 on the basis of average daily attendance. In addition to the expendn 
$267,442 last year by the city for the maintenance of the schools, there was an appropriation of nearly $300,000 for new school 



uildings. sites, repairs and improvements. The estimated total value of the city s school sites, buildings and equipment is 

ose upon one and a quarter millions. The government of the schools is vested in a Board of twenty-six members, representing 

ic thirteen \\ ards of the city. 

he Executive Officers of the 

oard are the Chairman, 

ispector, Secretary-Treasurer, 

>licitor, Superintendent of 

uiklings. Drill Instructor and 

ruant Officer. 

In its wealth of educa- 
inal institutions. Toronto 
stly claims pre-eminence 
,nong the cities of the 
nminion. At the head of 
iucational system of the 
rovince stands the national 
stitution, known as the Uxi- 


-cinally established by Royal 

barter in 1827, under the 
ation of King s College, 

.ihlic lands having been set 

.ide for its endowment from 

it- first settlement of the 

rovince. The institution was 

finally opened in 1843, arR l 

\ years later its name was 

langed into that of the Uni- 

rsity of Toronto. In 1853. 

i Act of the Legislature was 

issed, under which the Uni- 

rsity was constituted with 

,-o corporations, the University of Toronto, and University College, the functions of the former being limited to the examination 
candidates tor degrees in the several faculties, or for the co nferring of scholarships and honours ; those of the latter being 

confined to the teaching of subjects in the 
Faculty of Arts. In 1850, it lost its denomi 
national character, and became for the future 
a purely unsectarian and State institution, 
though with it are federated and affiliated a 
number of denominational Universities and 
Colleges, and in 1887 it had restored to it its 
original Faculties of Law and Medicine. By 
the provisions of the Act of 1887. a 
reorganization in the teaching departments 
of the University took place, and in addition 
to the old chairs in Arts, distinct chairs of 
Mathematics, Physics, Greek Language and 
Literature, the Oriental Languages, and Poli 
tical Science have been established, along 
with lectureships in the Greek Language and 
Literature, in the Latin Language and Litera 
ture, in Ancient Greek and Roman History, 
in the Italian and Spanish Languages, and 
in Physiology. The City of Toronto has also 
recently endowed it with a chair of Geology, 
and one of English Literature and Language. 
About a year ago, the beautiful University 

uildings, which were among the finest on the continent, had the misfortune to be burned, and with them the well-equipped 

brary and museum. These, however, are now being replaced, and there has lately been erected new and separate accommodation 

>r the Departments of Biology and Physiology, in addition to the building known as the School of Practical Science, founded 





;ity. The government of Toronto University is vested in a Hoard of Trustees, of ten 

and nine nominated by the l.ieut.- 
Governor in Council, certain ex officio 
members, the Minister of Education, 
the President of University Col 
representatives of the Law Society, the 
Medical Schools, and the graduates in 
Arts, Medicine and Law, the affiliated 
denominational Colleges, and the lli-h 
School masters, two members of the 
Council of University College, and all 
former Chancellors and Vice-Chancel 
lors. Convocation consists of the 
graduates in the several faculties. By 
the University Federation Act, of 1887, 
the University functions of instruction 
have been revived in most branches of 
study in the Faculties of Arts. 1 ,aw and 
Medicine; and the professors and lec 
turers in Arts and Science have, with a 
few exceptions, been reorganized into 
a teaching faculty in the University. 
This faculty consists of the President, 
nine professors, six fellows and two lec- 

MAS W. DYAS, WIDMF.R SIKKF.T. turers in Arts; three professors and 

fourteen lecturers, demonstrators, assistant- demonstrators, and 
University, University College has a Faculty consisting of the 

President, three professors, seven lecturers, and two 

fellows ; with a separate Corporation, consisting of the 

President and five professors. The present Chan 
cellor is the Hon. Edward Blake, Q.C., LL.D., M.P., 

and the Vice-President is Mr. William Mulock, M.A., 

Q.C., M.P. The President of the University is Sir 

Daniel Wilson, LL.D., who, in 1881, succeeded its 

long-time head, the late Rev. Dr. John McCaul. Mr. 

H. H. Langton, B.A., is Registrar, and Prof. Alfred 

Baker, M.A., is Dean of Residence. 

" No place in Canada so forcibly reminds me 

of Oxford as Trinity," observes Professor Goldwin 

Smith, in speaking of TRINITY UNIVERSITY, founded 
in 1851, under a Provincial Act by the late Bishop 
Strachan, as a Church University and College. By 
the provisions of the Royal Charter (July i5th, 1852) 
the government of the University is vested in a cor 
poration, composed of (i) the Bishops of the five 
Dioceses of the I rovince (Toronto, Huron, Ontario, 
Algoma and Niagara) (2), the Trustees (three in num 
ber), and (3) the Council, consisting of the Chancellor 
and ex-Chancellors of the University, the Provost and 
Professor* in Arts and Divinity in Trinity College : < er- 
tain members, nominated by the five Bishops and by 
each Medical School or College affiliated to the Uni 
versity :and certain members elected by the Graduate 
members and Associate members of Convocation. 
Convocation consists of the Chancellor (Hon. Geo. HAZEITON AVENUE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

Wm. Allan. D.C.L.), the Provost (Rev. C. W. E. llody, 

M.A., D. ( .!,.), the Prok S M>rs, all M.A. s, and all Graduates in Divinity, Law and Medicine- in all, at present, abc 
members and bers. The Degrees of the Um\cr>ity are open to all persons without any religious test, except i 



. ease of Derives in Divinity, candidates for which have to subscribe to certain declarations. Trinity has received, from its 
option, many generous benefactions, in the shape of legacies, scholarships and prize funds, and since 1882 it has largely 

friends of the institution. Of 
built, and a new wing is now 
Trinity has been fortunate in 
and in the Chancellors and 
tution. Trinity has attracted 
subsidiary institutions, such as 
College for Women, Trinity 
and repute of the University. 
and Divinity subjects, besides 
the extensive Faculty of Pro- 
Faculty of Music. The Dean 

reased its endowment by the praiseworthy efforts of the authorities and 

e years, a Convocation Hall and a beautiful College Chapel have been 

ing completed for the extended uses of the now flourishing University, 
headships, the Provosts Whitaker and Body, as well as in its zealous founder, 

i-e-C hancellors, who have taken an active part in the governing of the insti- 

it, and in some instances has called into existence, a number of affiliated or 

inity Medical College, Women s Medical College, St. Hilda s Residential 

.liege School for Boys, at Port Hope, etc., all of which add to the fame 
the University there are now twelve professors and lecturers in the Arts 
lecturers and examiners in Law and other special subjects, together with 

;sors and Lecturers in Medicine and its allied studies. It has also a 

d Registrar of the University is the Rev. 

ofessor \Vm. Jones, D.C.L. 

KNOX COLLEGE, the metropolitan 

eological training-hall of the Canada 

esbyterian Church, was founded in 1846, 

few years after the Scottish Disruption. 

le present handsome building on Spadina 

enue (see page 32), was erected in 1875, 

d is of the Gothic order of architecture, 

. material being white brick, with dressings 

cut stone. It has a frontage of 230 feet, 

ch of the wings running northward about 

o feet. The main entrance is surmounted 
a massive tower 1 30 feet high. The Col- 

;e has numerous lecture rooms and the 

-idence has accommodation for seventy-five 

idents. There is also a fine library and 

invocation Hall. It is governed by a 

>ard of Management (appointed, we believe, 

nually by the General Assembly of the 

lurch), composed of 34 members, of which 

r. Wm. Mortimer Clark, M.A., is Chairman. The Senate consists of the Principal, the Rev. Wm. Caven, D.D., the Professors 

d Lecturers of the College, and a number of gentlemen, clerical and lay, appointed by the General Assembly. The Theo 
logical course extends over three sessions, 
and there is at the disposal of the authori 
ties a number of valuable prizes and scholar 
ships. Knox College is affiliated with 
Toronto University. 

WYCLIFFE COLLEGE (incorporated 
under the name of the Protestant Episcopal 
Divinity School) is the theological training- 
hall of the Evangelical section of the Church 

- 1 rfl vi- W i --y f England in Canada. It was founded in 

<** 1879, and is affiliated with Toronto Univer- 

n 1 . a"*^ $-~ s 1 ^ ^ ias ^ or ts a m l ie ml P artm g f 

R fa EH it tf sound and comprehensive theological teach- 

. -1 II ^f lA -a,, sir Jl , AnBfcSRH Ji. ing "in accordance with the distinctive 

principles of Evangelical truth, as embodied 
in the Thirty-nine Articles." The College is 
doing excellent work and is turning out many 
worthy clergymen. Its Principal is the Rev. 
Dr. Sheraton. 

M< MASTI.R UNIVERSITY, situate on 
Bloor Street, at the northern limits of Queen s 
Park, is under the immediate control of a 
Board of Governors and a Senate, which are 
KESIM..VK on COLLBGB MKKKI. ultimately responsible, for the most part, to 




the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. 

was named in honour of the late Senator McMaster, 

The University obtained the fullest powers from the Legislature in 1885, and 
of Toronto, who contributed nearly a million of dollars to its funds. 
There are four departments in operation : Woodstock College (founded by the late 
Rev. Dr. Fyfe at Woodstock in 1857 as The Canadian Literary Institute, for the 
purposes of better literary and theological instruction) ; the Academic Department. 
for boys and young men; Moulton College, on Bloor Street East, Toronto, organ 
1888 as an academic department for the education of young ladies 

Toronto Haptist College, organized in iSSi. 
for the purposes of theological education : 
and the Arts College, organized in 1890. 
These two latter departments are at present 
conducted in Me Master Hall, Uloor Street 
West, Toronto. The charter requires that 
McMaster shall be a Christian University, 
and that the Bible shall be a text-book in all 
its departments, all the professors, masters 
and teachers being members in good standing 
of evangelical churches. There is a principal 
and six masters at Woodstock. The equip 
ment for English, Classical, Scientific and 
Modern instruction is efficient, and a Manual 
Training department has recently been organ 
ized in connection with the College the iir>t 
in Canada. Moulton 1 .adies College has : 
staff of seven teachers, besides special instruc 
tors in music and painting, and proviiK 
dence also for those of its matriculants wlu 
may enter the McMaster Arts 1 >epartmuit 
WKSTKRN CON<;KF.<;ATIONAL. CHUKCII, SPADINA AVENUE. Toronto Baptist College has the largest stai 

of any theological department in the Dominion of Canada, and the recently-opened Arts Department is adequately equippe. 
for its work The staff of the latter department will shortly be increased, until ample provision is made for the 
University in its regular and honour courses. McMaster University is a self-sufficient and mclepende 
entered the field of the higher education 
under the stimulus of the highest Christian 
aims, with the avowed purpose of promot 
ing exact and broad scholarship and sound 
discipline with a view to character and 
service. It will, we doubt not, command 
from the public at large, as well as from 
the Baptist denomination, the fullest 
upportunites for the development of its 

established in 1852, under the patronage 
of the Most Rev. Dr. DeCharbonnel, then 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Toronto, by 
the Hasilian Fathers, of Annonay, France. 
The collei e buildings were erected in 1856, 
and have of late years been considerably 
extended, and a chapel has been added to 
the equipments of the institution. St. 
Michael s was in 1881 affiliated with the 
Provincial University, and has a large and 
efficient teaching faculty. 

the able I rineipnMiip of Mr. Cieorge Dick- 
son, M.A., maintains the high record and KF.SIHK.NCK 01 MR. ELIAS KOCKKS, DEKR PARK 
honourable repute of this old historic school. It is soon to remove from its long-time >ite. on King Street \\est, to spucm 
grounds, beautifully situated in the northern suburbs of the city. There a handsome pile of buildings has been erected by t 

It ha 



rovincia! Government for its use. and it may safely he predicted that it will continue to go down the ages, adding year by year 
, its well-won honours and traditional lame. The College was founded in 1829 by Sir John Colborne, Lieutenant-Governor of 

Province, upon the model of the great 
uhlie Schools of England. It has had a 
mgand intimate connection with the 
ational university, and fora number of years 
as under its administration. It is now gov- 
rned by a Board of Trustees (of which 
le Hon. John Beverley Robinson, E\- 
,ieut.-("iovernor of Ontario, is chairman), 
ppointed by the Provincial Executive. 
Recently its endowment has suffered at the 
ands of the Ontario Legislature, an act of 
ujliation as perilous as it was without \var- 
int. Sufficient, however, has been secured 
3 it to ensure its continued life and 

ncler the PrincipaWiip of Mr. Thomas 
virkland. M.A., is an institution designed 
a the training of teachers, as a part of the 
rovineial system of education. It was 
nincled in 1X47 at the instance of the late 
Lev. Dr. Ryer.son, Chief Superintendent of 
.ducation. and at first held its sessions in 
le Provincial Education Department, but 
i 1858 was transferred to its present home. 



he work performed by the school is largely professional, the course of studies consisting of the History and Science of Educa- 
un, the Principles and Practice of Teaching, School Organization and Management, together with instruction in English, 
lygiene. Chemistry, Physics, Drawing, Vocal Music, Calisthenics, Drill, etc. Its students have the advantage of study and 
ractice in the class-work of the adjoining Model School. 

Dr. Theodore H. Rand, Professor of Education and Ethics in McMaster University, was born at Cornwallis, Nova 
i otia, in 1835. After a preparatory course in the public schools and at Horton Collegiate Academy, he entered Acadra College, 
om which he graduated in Arts in 1860. After teaching for a time he was appointed to the chair of English and Classics in 
ic Provincial Normal School, at Truro. Here he gave himself to the work with the zeal and enthusiasm which have marked 

his subsequent career. He took an active 
part in the preparation of the Free School 
Act of 1864, which wrought a great reform 
in the Public School system of Nova Scotia, 
and was subsequently made Provincial 
Superintendent of Education. His task was 
for a time an arduous one, for at first the 
Act was misunderstood and consequently 
unpopular. Subsequently, however, all diffi 
culties were overcome, and Mr. Rand, in 
1871. felt free to take up similar work in 
New Brunswick, where he had accepted the 
office of Superintendent of Education for the 
Province. Here again he was eminently suc 
cessful. Prof. Rand who had in 1864 
received his M.A. in course, and in 1874 the 
degree of D.C.L., causa honoris resigned his 
Provincial office in 1883 to accept the chair 
of Education and History in Acadia College. 
Here he remained till 1885, when he remo\ed 
to Toronto, to take the chair of Apologetics 
and Didactics in McMaster Hall. After a 
year spent in this work he consented, at the 
olicitation of the late Senator McMaster and others, to assume the Principalship of the Baptist College at Woodstock. He 
lischarged the duties of this position until 1888, when he returned to the work in McMaster Hall, which had been reorganized. 




I ROF. T. H. RAND, D.C.L. 


and, by Act of Parliament, raised to the rank of a university, under the liberal endowment bequeathed by Senator Me Master. 
The Toronto and Woodstock Colleges became constituent parts of the University. The College year, 1889-90, which inter- 

vened before the opening of the Arts 

department of the University, in which he 

had been designated as Professor of Edu 
cation and Ethics, Dr. Rand spent in 

England, whither he had gone for purposes 

of study and observation in connection 

with university work. He has now returned, 

however, and is actively engaged in the 

duties of his Professorship in the Arts 

Department in the newly-opened College 

and as Chairman of the Faculty. 

Professor James Loudon, M.A., 

F.R.S.C., the learned Professor of Physics 

in Toronto University, is a native of Tor 
onto and was born here in the year 1841. 

He was educated at Upper Canada Col 
lege, and at the University of Toronto, of 

which he is a distinguished honour-man 

in Mathematics, and graduate. He is also 

an M.A., and for a time was Dean of that 

national institution ; a member of the 
Senate : and Professor of Physics in the University. He is a member of several learned bodies, an eminent specialist in his 
department, and an expert and lucid demonstrator. Professor Loudon is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and an 
enthusiastic Canadian. In religion, he is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Professor Charles Carpmael, M.A., F.R.S.C., Director of the Magnetic Observatory, Toronto, and of the Meteorological 
Service of the Dominion, was born in 1846, at Streatham Hill, Surrey, England. He was educated at Clapham Grammar 
School, and at St. John s College, Cambridge. At the latter institution his studies were chiefly those connected with Natural 
and Experimental Science, including chemistry, physics and mathematics. While at College he won a minor scholarship and 
a foundation scholarship, and graduated sixth wrangler. In 1870, he was elected a Fellow of his College. In the satin 
he was attached to the British Eclipse Expedition to Spain, and at Estepona, thirty-five miles from Gibraltar, took a spectm 
scopic observation of the Corona. Owing, however, to unfavourable weather, the observation was not successful. Coinin- 
thereafter to Canada, Professor Carpmael was in 1872 appointed Deputy Superintendent of the Meteorological Service of tlu 
Dominion, and, eight years later, Director of the Magnetic Observatory and Superintendent of the Meteorological Service. 
both of which posts he still ably fills. He is also President of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, and was, in 1886, President oi 
the Science Section of the Royal Society of Canada. 

Mr. George Dickson, M.A., Principal of Upper Canada College, was born of Scotch extraction in Markham Township 
Co. York, in 1846. For nearly a quarter of a century he has been identified with educational pursuits and has had greai 

experience as a teacher. He was himself 

educated at the Richmond Hill, Mark- p^ 

ham, and Whitby Grammar Schools, and 
at Toronto and Victoria Universities. At 

the former University he matriculated with 

honours, and at the latter he graduated 

with honours. In 1866 he began his career 

as a teacher in the Township of King, 

where we first recognize Mr. Dickson s 

special aptitude for educational work, for, 

as the result of two years labours in King 

Township, twelve of his pupils obtained 

first-class certificates. In 1868, Mr. Dick- 
son was appointed mathematical master in 

the Chatham Grammar School, and from 

there passed, for a year, to the Woodstock 

Literary Institute, where he had charge of 

the University class in English, mathe 
matics, classics and history. In 1872, he 

accepted the assistant-mastership of the ^* 
[.A. Collegiate Institute, Hamilton, and in the PRINCIPAL GEORGE DICKON. M.A. 




illowinu year, on the appointment of Mr. J. M. Huchan (the Headmaster) to a High School Inspectorship, Mr. Dickson suc- 
eeded to the position. Here he laboured with great success from 1873 to 1885, the Institute taking highest rank among the 
jcondary schools of the Province, and \vinningreputefortheachievementsof its pupils at the Departmental Examinations 
nd the Matriculations at the Universities. 
,uch was the fame of the school under its 
\perienced administrator, that the attend- 
nce rose within his regime from 230 pupils 

close upon six hundred. Within ten 
ears of Mr. Dickson s appointment, no 
L-SS than 175 of his pupils parsed the 
."niversity examinations and nineteen 
cholarships were awarded them. The 
tepartmental Examinations show like 

ratifying results. From 1880 to 1885, in 
iddition to his onerous duties as Princi- 
ial of the Collegiate Institute, Mr. I )ickson 
lad charge of the organization and man- 
igement of the school system of the City 
if Hamilton. He also organized and was 
irst President of the Hamilton Teachers 
\ssuriation. In 1885, Mr. Dickson was 
ippointed by the Ontario Government to 
he 1 rincipalship of Upper Canada Col- 
ege, which position he continues to fill 
.vith much success. In this new sphere 
Principal Dickson s powers of organiza- 
:ion, good discipline, and thorough 
msiness-like administration, combined 
,vith his all-round scholarship, fine teachi 
ng ability, and the faculty of imbuing 
students with love of their work, soon 
nanifested themselves and gave a new 

mpetus to the old historic school of the Province. Under his management, not only has the College continued to flourish, b 
t has done increasingly good work, as yearly University honours prove, and passed through a crisis in its history which under 

1 less vigorous administration would probably have been its doom. Principal Dickson is a member of the Senate of Knox 
College and was also on the Senate of Toronto University. In politics, he is a Reformer: in religion, a Presbyterian. 

" Mr Archibald MacMurchy, M.A, Rector of the Collegiate Institute, and Editor of the Canada Educational Monthly, 
was born of Highland Scottish parentage at Stewartfield, Argyleshire, and when quite young came with his parents 
Here he continued his education and at the same time taught school, until 1854, when he took a course at the Normal : 
_^________ ___^ Toronto. After receiving his certificate, he engaged as a master in the Provm 

Model School, while taking his undergraduate course at the University of Toronto. 
Throughout the latter course, Mr. MacMurchy was a first-class honour man in 
mathematics, English, French, and the Sciences, and graduated with honours and 
a medal. On graduating, he devoted himself to his life-work as an educator, his 
high academic standing, ability as a teacher, and sterling character, serving him in 
good stead. In 1858, he was appointed mathematical master at the Toronto 
Grammar School (now the Collegiate Institute), and in !8 7 2 succeeded to the 
Rectorship. As the head, for now nearly twenty years, of this excellent institution, 
Mr MacMurchy has not only earned for it a high and honourable repute, but has 
been able to turn out thousands of young men who, in numberless walks of life, 
have made or are making their mark in the Dominion. His enthusiastic interest 
in his profession is shown also in his able editorship of the Canada Educational 

*^ - m ^K \r,,nthlv and as the author, in his own department of mathematics, he has won 

^ deserved fame Mr MacMurchy was for years a member of the Senate of I oronto 
University, an active worker and sometime President of the Ontario Teachers-Ass,, 
ciition in religion, he is a Presbyterian, loyal to the traditions of the ( 
section of that body : in politics, he is a staunch Conservative. 

The life of the professional man, whatever may be his specialty, does not 
offer, as a rule, any great variety of incident. Particularly is this the case with the 
College Don or the more humble educator. His habits as a student and scholar 






limit his field of action, though, in fashioning the intellect and character of youth, great may be the field of his influence. In 

connection with education in the city, there has scarcely been a better known man, or one who for a lengthened period has held 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ a more important position, than Mr. John Martland, M.A., one of the oldest masters of 

Upper Canada College. For a quarter of a century he has been Residence-Master 
in that historic institution, and both in the Boarding House and in the College class 
rooms has been brought into intimate and daily contact \vitha generation of Canadian 
youth. His influence has ever been beneficent and many owe to him a life-long debt. 
Having himself been educated at an English Public School and an English Univeisiu. 
the traditions of both naturally clung to him, and became his models, as to scholarship 
as well as to personal habits and demeanour, for the training of those under him. To 
the success of his methods there are many to testify, while among old College hoys 
testimony is as warm and emphatic in praise of the personal qualities of the man. Mr. 
Martland was born at Blackburn, Lancashire, August 26th, 1828. His father, who 
was a medical man and a Magistrate of the county, sent him for his education first to 
the Blackburn Grammar School, and afterwards to a well-known North of England 
school Sedbergh, in Westmoreland. From the latter he passed, as head-boy, to 
Oxford University, where he gained a ,70 scholarship, tenable for five years, at 
Queen s College, his tutors being the present Archbishop of York, and Mr. Heslop. 
a rare classical scholar and an Editor 
of Demosthenes. In 1852, he gradua 
ted with a Pass degree, illness having 
prevented him from taking honours. 
After leaving Oxford, Mr. Martland 

travelled considerably, and while in England coached pupils for the Universities 

and the Army. Through the influence of the family of one of his pupils, he 

was given letters of introduction to Sir Edmund Head, then Governor-General 

of Canada, and came to Montreal in 1860. For two years he acted as Rector s 

assistant in the High School, Montreal, and on the resignation, in 1862, of the 

Rev. Dr. Scadding, he was appointed to a mastership in Upper Canada Col 
lege, and at once entered upon 

his duties. Two years afterwards, 

he was entrusted with the charge 

of the College Boarding House, 

and since then has been largely 

instrumental, under successive 

Principals, in giving character to 

the College Residence as well as 

to the College itself. There is not 

a profession, and hardly a county 

in the Dominion, in which there 

are not College boys who know 

and venerate the name of Mr. 

John Martland. Classical learn 
ing, if it could speak, \vould have 

also much to say for his warm in 
terest, and that of his colleague 

Mr. \Vedd, in all that has tended 

to its advancement in Canada. 
Mr. Luther Edmund 

Embree, M. A., Headmaster of 

the Parkdale Collegiate Institute, 

Toronto, was born in Xova Scotia 

in 1844, and came to this Prov 
ince in 1862. Designing to follow 

teaching as a profession, he be 
gan his career in a public school 

in Co. Peel, and taught there for 

five years. In 187 i . he entered 






Toronto University, winning a double scholarship in classics and general pro 
ficiency. At his second year s examination he won the same two scholarships, 
adding to his honours the classical pri/e of the year. In 1873 he became assistant- 
master in the Toronto Collegiate Institute, but continued the language course in 
the University, and graduated as a medallist in modern languages in 1875. The 
following year lie was appointed Principal of the Yarmouth Seminary, in Nova 
Scotia, and remained in that position for four years, when he returned to Ontario, 
and from 1880 to i8SS was successively headmaster of the Strathroy High School 
and the Whitby Collegiate Institute. Two years ago, he received the appointment 
of Principal of the Parkdale Collegiate Institute, which under his administration 
has taken high rank among the secondary schools of the Province, and attained a 
success that is almost phenomenal. In 1884, Mr. Embree was one of a committee 
of three appointed by the Education Department of the Province to prepare the 
present scries of Ontario School Readers, a work for which Principal Embree had 
high literary and professional qualifications. He holds advanced views in educa 
tional matters and takes an enthusiastic interest in all that pertains to the well- 
being and advancement of his profession. Mr. Embree is an active member of the 

Senate of the University of Toronto, to 
which he has been three times elected, 
as the representative on that body of 
the High School Masters of the Prov 
ince. Mr. Embree belongs to the Methodist denomination. 

Mr. Thomas Kirkland, M.A., Principal of the Normal School, Toronto, was 
born in the County of Armagh, Ireland. August I2th, 1835. After receiving his 
early education in his native parish, and at the Normal School, Dublin, he took a 
course in agriculture at the Albert National Agricultural Training Institution, at 
Cilasnevin, and then entered Queen s College, Belfast, as a student of civil engineer 
ing. While in Dublin, designing to go abroad for his health, Mr. Kirkland attracted 
the notice of Archbishop Whately, then Chairman of the Commissioners of National 
Education in Ireland, who gave him a letter of introduction to the Rev. Dr. 
Ryerson. In 1854, Mr. Kirkland proceeded to Canada. Here he devoted himself 
to education as his life s work, and taught school successively at Oshawa, Whitby 
and Barrie. He then spent three years at the University of Toronto, winning a 
scholarship in Mathematics and honours in all subjects. From 1863 till 1871, he 
was Principal of the High School at Whitby. and in the latter year was selected by 
Dr. Ryerson to fill the position of Science master in the Normal School, Toronto. 
This chair he held until 1884, when on the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Davies, he 
became Principal. Mr. Kirkland is an 
eminent mathematician and a successful 
educationist. He was one of the first 
elective members of the Senate of Tor 
onto University, and is also a member of the Senate of Knox College. For ten 
years he occupied the chair of Chemistry and Physics in Trinity Medical School 
and was a lecturer on Botany. Mr. Kirkland is the author of a number of well- 
known mathematical works and of a work on Statics, authorized by the Department 
of Education for Ontario. In religion, Principal Kirkland is a Presbyterian, and a 
1 >ire< tor of the Upper Canada Bible Society. 

Mr. James A. Mcl.ellan, M.A., I.L.D., Director of Teachers Institutes in 
Ontario, was born in Nova Scotia in 1832. His parents removed to this Province 
in 1837, and his boyhood was spent at Thornhill. In that village, at Victoria 
College, Cobourg, and at Toronto University he was educated, the while devoting 
himself, in the intervals of his study, to teaching. During his University career, 
he was the winner of first-class honours, chiefly in mathematics and metaphysics, 
the recipient of two medals, and a general-proficiency scholarship. In 1873, he 
wrote for his M.A. degree, and somewhat later obtained from Toronto University 
the degree of I, L.I). In his Normal School professional course he also stood high, 
and completed it by obtaining a first-class (Grade A) certificate. Fora time Dr. 
McLellan taught in the Whitby High School, in Upper Canada College, and in 
1864 was Principal of the Yarmouth Seminary, Nova Scotia. In 1871, he was DK. T. M. MA 





1841 in the Township of Orford, Co. Kent, Ont. 

appointed by the Ontario Educational Department, Inspector of High Schools, and for long has served on the Central Com 
muter, or Advisory Board of the Minister of Education for the Province. In these posts, Dr. McLellan performed a large 

amount of hard work and, as the ablest of 

departmental experts, did much to advance 
educational interests in Ontario. In 1883, he 
was made Director of Normal Schools, and 
subsequently Director of Teachers Institutes, 
in which positions he has rendered high 
service in quickening the professional mind. 
in broadening the field of study, and mould 
ing public opinion on national education. 
Dr. McLellan s great gifts as a mathematician 
are well-known and appreciated throughout 
Canada, and his many valuable works on his 
favourite subject have also brought him into 
note in the United States and in the ( >ld 
World. He is the author, also, of a work 
on " Applied Psychology : An Introduction 
to the Principles and Practice of Education," 
which has met with warm approval as one 
of the most important works on educational 
psychology in the English language. 

Mr. T. M. Macintyre, M.A., LL.B., 
Ph.D., Principal of the Presbyterian Ladies 
College, Bloor Street West, was born in 

After receiving his preliminary education in his native county, he continued 

studies in the \Vardsville Grammar School, and in 1864 entered Albert College, graduating in Arts in that institution and 
subsequently becoming Professor of Mathematics in the College. Later on, he became, successively, headmaster in the High 
Schools of Bowmanville and Ingersoll, and in 1878 removed to Brantford, on his appointment to the Principalship of the Pres 
byterian Indies College in that city. In 1878, he obtained his degree of LL.I!., and afterwards that of Doctor of Philosophy. 
Under his administration, the Brantford Ladies College became favourably known for its elevated standard and the thorough- 
ness of its work in the higher education of women. When Toronto University made provision for the holding of local exami 
nations for women, Dr. Macintyre secured for the College the advantages so wisely afforded. He has always taken a deep 
interest in the educational questions of the day and been a strong advocate of a Provincial University, with federated colleges, 
combining and preserving both State and denominational interests. Dr. Macintyre is a widely-read student, chiefly in English, 
history, and philosophy, and has won a reputation as a public lecturer on historical and cognate subjects. After having been in 
charge <>f the Hrantford Ladies College for eleven years, Dr. Macintyre removed to 
Toronto, in 1889, and purchased the Richard Institute, Bloor Street West, where he 
established the Presbyterian Ladies College. The first year, having met with grati 
fying success, it was found necessary to enlarge the accommodation and increase the 
facilities of the institution. This was done by the erection of considerable additions 
to the College, suitable for lecture halls, art studios, and rooms for residence. In all 
respects, the institution is now admirably equipped for its work. 

Mr. Frederick Fit/Payne Manley, M.A., Adjutant of the Royal Grenadiers, is 
of English birth, being born in the County of Devon, Dec. ijth, 1852. At an early j. 
age he came to Toronto. The winning of a public school scholarship enabled him 
to attend the Toronto Grammar School, from which he passed to the Toronto Uni 
versity, and carried off the highest honours, graduating in Arts, in 1874, a medallist 
with first class honours in mathematics. In the same year he was appointed master 
of the preparatory form in the Toronto Collegiate Institute, and was soon promoted to 
the assistant-mastership in mathematics. Since the reorganization of the Royal Grena 
diers, Captain Manley has been continuously the adjutant of the regiment, and served 
with the gallant corps during the North-West Rebellion. He was President of the 
UniverMtv College Literary and Scientific Society in 1880, and was twice elected to the 
I )irec torate of the Old Toronto Mechanics Institute (now the Eree Public Library). 

Dr. James Carlyle, the teaching expert of the Normal School, was born in 
Dumfries. Scotland, of Scotch parentage, being the son of John Carlyle, who was half- 
brother of the celebrated Thomas Carlyle. Coming to Canada a mere boy in 1837, he began at the age of seventeen to 
m the neighbourhood of lirantford. He entered the Provincial Model School in 1855, and immediately after graduating 
was appointed to a position in the Central School of Brantford, from which he transferred two years later to the Provincial 




Model School for Boys, Toronto, as principal. This position he filled for thirteen years, during which time he studied medicine 

and graduated from Y.ctona Medical College. In 1871, Dr. Carlyle was promoted to the Mathematical mastership of the 

Normal School and since it has been relieved of its academical training functions 

he has acted in the capacity of teaching expert, instructing students in the art of 

teaching. In politics Dr. Carlyle does not meddle ; his services have done much 

to promote the cause of education in Ontario. He is an enthusiastic curler and a 

patron of all athletic sports. 

The name of Mr. James Laughlin Hughes, Public School Inspector for the 

City of Toronto, has acquired more than local fame. Born near Bowmanville, 

Out., l- ebruary 2Oth. 1846. Mr. Hughes received his education in the public schools 

and the Toronto Normal School, from which he graduated in 1865. At the con 
clusion of his course he took charge of a school in Frankfort, and the following year 

was appointed by the Provincial Council of Public Instruction to the position of 

assistant-master of the Toronto Model School. In 1869, Mr. Hughes became the 

Principal of the Model School, holding the office till 1874, when he was appointed 

Inspector of the Toronto Public Schools. Mr. Hughes has taken a prominent part 

in all recent educational movements, and has contributed many valuable works to 

the literature of education. He is an able and efficient administrator in his 

important public office. Mr. Hughes is a zealous Protestant and a loyal member 

of the Orange Order, of which he is 
Deputy Grand Master of Ontario. 
Taking a deep interest in Sunday 
School work, he has been President of 
the Toronto Sunday School Associa 
tion, and Secretary for three years of the Provincial Sunday School Association. 
He is a Past Master of St. Andrew s Masonic Lodge, a Past President of the Irish 
Protestant Benevolent Society, and was first Chief of the Toronto Lodge of Good 
Templars. Mr. Hughes has contested seats for the Ontario Legislature both in 
the Conservative interest and as the nominee of the Equal Rights Association. He 
is a Methodist, and has been Superintendent of a Sunday School since 1869. Mr. 
Hughes was first President of the Canadian Branch of the Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientific Circle and is Educational Director of the Niagara Assembly of that 

Mr. William Magill is the Principal of the Toronto Academy, the well-known 
English and Classical School for Junior Boys, Simcoe Street. Born in Dublin, 
Ireland, February 8th, 1823, Mr. 
Magill obtained his certificate as a 
teacher from the Board of Education 
in that city when but twenty years of 
age. Alter teaching school for four 

years, he accepted the management of a large estate, which position he held until 

1866, when the estate was sold and he came to Canada. The school to which 

Mr. Magill now devotes himself was established by Rev. Alexander Williams. M.A.. 

Rector of St. John s Church, in 1866, and passed into Mr. Magill s hands in 1869. 

It has since grown in favour as an institution for the English and classical education 

of junior boys. Mr. Magill s high character and repute are guarantees to parents 

that their children s moral and intellectual nature are safe in his hands. Mrs. Magill 

takes charge of the French and music departments. Mr. Magill is a member of the 

Church of England, and is in all respects a worthy citizen. He has been con 
nected with the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society since its inauguration in 1870, 

and has for many years been on its Council list. 

Mr. Samuel McAllister, the oldest master in the service of the Toronto 

School Hoard, and the highly-esteemed Principal of Ryerson School, was born on 

the i2th of August, 1834, in the Town of Portaferry. in the North of Ireland. At 

the age of twelve, with his parents he removed to Liverpool, where his education 

was continued in the Collegiate Institution. He remained in that city for eleven 

years, during the greater part of the time being employed as clerk in an iron-broker s 

office. In 1857, he emigrated to Canada, and fora short time found employment as a book-keeper in Toronto. Having decided 

to give up commerce for teaching he took the position of English Master in an academy kept by Mr. Bartlet, at which many who 


MR. \\ M. MAGII.L. 

Mli. S. Me Al LISTER. 



are now prominent citizens of Toronto received their early training. In the year 1859, having obtained a first class County 
Board certificate, lie entered the service of the Toronto Public School Board, and is now Principal of Ryerson School, which has 

an attendance of over one thousand pupils. 

Mr. McAllister, who has fine attainments 
as an educationist, has been President of 
the Toronto Teachers Association, the 
Toronto Principals Association, and the 
Ontario Teachers Association. He has 
contributed many interesting articles on 
educational subjects to The Mail, The 
Week, and the Educational Monthly. He 
is an active member of the A.O.U.W. and 
Financier of Granite Lodge. 

The Principal of Wellesley School, 
Mr. Adam Fergus Macdonald, was born in 
Perthshire, Scotland, February i2th, 1836. 
His preliminary education, commenced in 
a parish school, was completed at the 
Dollar Academy, Clackmannanshire, 
Scotland. Passing from the Academy 
with honours, he remained four years 
teaching in Scotland, the last of which was 
spent as headmaster of the Alva Academy. 
In 1856 Mr. Macdonald came to Canada. His first appointment was at the public school at Hagerman s Corners, Markham, 
which he held for twelve years. He then removed to Eglinton, where he remained till 1871, when he became headmaster 01 
Louisa Street School. In 1877 he was promoted to his present position, and under his charge Wellesley School has gained a 
high repute. Mr. Macdonald has been a member of King Solomon s Lodge, A. F. & A. M., for the last fifteen years. He was 
a charter member of Granite Lodge, A. O. U. W., and Legion No. 6, Select Knights, A. O. U. W., in both of which he has 
held office. He has assisted in the preparation of two authorized educational works on penmanship and arithmetic, both being 
of high standard. Mr. Macdonald is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Robert W. Doan was born near the Village of Queensville in North York. His early training received at the village- 
school was completed in the Toronto Normal School during the principalship of the late Mr. T. J. Robertson. Commencing 
his profession by teaching school in Section No. 8, East Gwillimbury, Mr. Doan was soon invited to take charge of Aurora 
Public School. In 1872, he came to this city, teaching successively in Parliament Street School, the Park School, George Street 
School, Victoria Street School, and Dufferin School, of which he is now the able and zealous principal. Mr. Doan is a member 
of the Board of Examiners of Public School teachers for the County of York, and Secretary of the Ontario Teachers Associa- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ tion. He is Ex-President of the Toronto 

v Teachers Association, and a Past Master 
of St. Andrew s Lodge, A.F. & A.M. Mr. 
Doan is a Methodist and a member of 
Sherbourne Street Methodist Church. 

Mr. Levi J. Clark, Principal of the 
City Model School (Victoria Street), was 
born in the Township of Hawkesbury, 
Ontario, in 1842. His ancestors were 
amongst the earliest settlers in the Ottawa 
Valley, his great grandparents having come 
from Massachusetts in the latter part of 
the last century. Having decided to pre 
pare himself for the teaching profession, 
Mr. Clark spent some time at a school ten 
miles north of Toronto under the tuition 
of his brother, the late A. B. Clark. 
Having obtained a first-class certificate 
from the County Board, he began teaching 
in 1863 at Clover Hill, Simcoe County. 
Two years later, he came to the County 

ot Vork. and in 1874, having obtained a first-class provincial certificate, he received an appointment in Toronto, where he has 
since remained. His interest in public questions led Mr. Clark recently to prepare a valuable paper on the disposal of Toronto 
c. which attracted public attention and much favourable comment. He has also /ealously and intelligently advocate! 






IF i sanitan reform in tin cit) I thi publii 

press. He is an active member of the 
Canadian Institute, and St. Andrew s 
Lodge, A. F.& A. M. Although not taking 
a prominent part in politics, he has been 
a life-long Reformer, and, like his parents 
before him, he is a member of the Metho 
dist Church. 

Mr. John Campbell, Principal of 
Holton Avenue School, was born in the 
County of Victoria, Ont., April 28th, 1834. 
He graduated from the Provincial Normal 
School, Toronto, as a teacher in 1860, 
taught for six years in Markham and 
Vaughan, and two years in Weston. In 
1868 he came to Toronto, and was en 
gaged as a teacher in the public schools. 
For the last twenty-two years he has been 
in the employment of the Public School 
Board, and is now the second oldest in 
the service. Mr. Campbell was appointed 
to his present position in May. 1886. He was Vice-President of the Caledonian Society two years, and is Vice-President of 
the Gaelic Society. Mr. Campbell is a member of the Presbyterian Church and the Masonic fraternity. 

Mr. \Vm. John Hendry, Principal of the Jesse Ketchum School, was born in Toronto in 1845, and received his primary 
education in the Common School at Mimico. Until he was eighteen, he engaged in farm work, when he determined to enter the 
teaching profession, and with that end in view entered the Toronto Normal School, from which he graduated in 1868, the holder 
of a first-class certificate. In 1873, he was appointed Headmaster of the Yorkville Public School. Here he was very success 
ful, for when the system of County Model Schools for the training of third-class teachers was introduced, his school was selected 
as the Model School for the Co. of Vork. This continued for five years until Vorkville was brought within the Toronto School 
system, when the village was absorbed in the city. In 1886, Mr. Hendry was chosen by the Toronto Public School Board to 
organize the Industrial School at Mimico, and for two years he acted as Superintendent of that useful institution, until he 
received his present appointment as Headmaster of the Jesse Ketchum Public School, Toronto. Mr. Hendry is Hon. Sec. of 
the Industrial School Association, President of the Toronto, and Treasurer of the Ontario, Teachers Association. In church 
work he also takes a deep interest, and is an elder in the Charles Street Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Andrew Hendry, Principal of Givins Street Public School, was born within the limits of the present City of Toronto, 
in the year 1847, of Scotch extraction. He entered the Toronto Normal School in 1866, after receiving a good grounding in 
elementary education in one the Etobicoke Public Schools. In the Normal School he won a second-class certificate, and 
subsequently a first-class certificate. Mr. Hendry has taught in rural, village and 
city schools in the Counties of Vork and \Ventworth, and in the City of Toronto. 

For the last fifteen years he has been in 
the service of the Toronto Public School 
Board, having had charge of some of the 
largest public schools in the city. Mr. 
Hendry has been Secretary-Treasurer of 
the Toronto Teacher s Association for 
several years past, and takes a warm in 
terest in everything that pertains to educa 
tion. He is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, and actively connected with one 
of the western congregations in the city. 

Mr. Connor O Dea, proprietor of 
the British American Business College, 
was born at Kilrush, Clare Co.. Ireland, 
June 25, 1844. Coming to this country 
at the age of eight with his parents, he 
resided in Bolton Village, Cardwell 
County, until in 1864 he entered and 
graduated from the British American Busi- 
MK. ANDREW HEXDRY. ness College in this city. He was then 




of the (Irani! Trunk Ry. 

by the principals. Messrs. Musgrove & Wright, as teacher of penmanship, book-keeping, and arithmetic. This position 

he held for fifteen years, until he was appointed Secretary and Manager, which he held till 1885, when he became proprietor. 

Through his efforts a weak and financially 

involved institution was built up to what is 

now one of the most flourishing of its kind in 

Canada. Mr. O Dea is the author of two 

text-books used extensively in business col- 
throughout Canada and the United 

States "The Practical Hook-keeper," and 

the "Manual of Correspondence." The latter 

is in its tenth edition, and nearly 20,000 

copies have been sold since its first publica 
tion in 1887. 

Mr. Thomas Bengough, a well-known 

journalist and expert stenographer, was born 

in Toronto in 1851. He began his career as 

a printer s apprentice in the office of the 

Whitby Gazette, and subsequently in that of 

the Toronto Globe. Meanwhile he mastered 

shorthand. He was for some time on the 

staff of the Guelph Mercury and, later on, 

city editor of the Toronto Liberal; after this 

for a short time he filled the editorial chair 

of the Whitby Gazelle. His thorough know 
ledge of shorthand writing, however, gave 

Mr. liengough openings other than those afforded by journalism, pure and simple. He was for two years Private Secretary to 

the Hon. Oliver Mowat ; at one time also shorthand correspondent for Mr. White, now Traffic Manager of the Midland Division 
and he now holds the post of official shorthand reporter to the York County Courts, to which he was 

appointed seven years ago. Mr. Bengough, who, by the way, is 
a brother of the popular cartoonist of Grip, originated the Cana 
dian Shorthand Society, and in 1885 was elected President of the 
International Association of Shorthand Writers of the United 
States and Canada. 

The Canadian College of Commerce, whose home is in the 
College Arcade, on the corner of Yonge and Gerrard Streets, is an 
institution for the business training of young men designed for 
commercial walks of life. Its proprietors are Messrs. Thomas 
Bengough, Official Court Reporter, and W. A. Warriner, a trained 
and experienced accountant. Both men are experts in their several 
departments of phonography and penmanship, and are thoroughly 
versed in the practical work of a Business College. In these 
busy days, our chiefs of commerce are too much occupied in 
their ventures to have time for the training of " raw material in 
their clerkships, and the young man who would set out favourably 
in life is more likely to be successful if, before entering an office, 
he spent a session or two in a Business College. The Canadian 
College of Commerce, of which Mr. Warriner is Principal, is just 
such an institution as a young man would find it advantageous to 
graduate in, for it is thoroughly well equipped, and is conducted 
by men who have had a large and varied practical experience. 
In the newly established Training Institute in Toronto for teacher* 
in-training for High Schools, the Minister of Education appointed 
Messrs. Bengough and Warriner to positions on the staff. 

The close of a chapter is not the most advantageous 
place to discuss the subject of Manual Training. It is, however, 
a department of school work which we would like to see more 
generally introduced into our Schools and Colleges in Ontario. 
Not only is manual training in itself an excellent discipline, but a 

rational means of obtaining and transmitting useful knowledge. On this subject we recommend the reader to peruse the late 

report to the Minister of Education, on "The High Schools of the Eastern States " (U.S.), by an exceedingly able and 

experienced High School Injector, Mr. John Seath, B.A., Toronto. 

.. I ii"MA- I!i-.N .i>r<;i[ AMI W. A. WAKKINKK. 






AT. like literature, is still in its infancy in Canada. Our artists, however, have made a beginning, and no little of their 
work is creditable to them, particularly in the less ambitious field of water-colour painting. There is, naturally as yet, a 
manifest lack of originality and of effort to found a distinctively Canadian School of Art. Work in oils is for the most 
part crude, and where it has merit it too frequently reminds one of Old World models. Our best native pictures indicate 
that both the eye and the hand of Canadian painters have been trained in England or on the Continent, and though they show 
cultivated taste and more or less of painstaking effort, they lack originality of design and that true art-power to grasp and execute 

a good native subject. In water-colours, mr^s~- .^. - 

Canadian artists are not open so much to 
this charge : though even in this department 
there is a tendency to draw inspiration, not 
from Nature, but from Old World models, 
and particularly from the Impressionist 
School of France. This, perhaps, is a phase 
of art-life in Canada through which it has 
to pass before it rises to the higher region of 
original and creative work. Increased study, 
less conventional and more original treat 
ment, and a greater determination to go 
directly to Nature for subjects for the brush 
and for the inspiration for their adequate 
execution, will doubtless cause these defects 
in time to disappear. A greater measure of 
competent art criticism will also be helpful 
in improving the work of our native artists, 
with a more liberal encouragement of art by 
the well-to-do classes in the country. With 
the wealth and variety of natural beauty in 
Canada, the picturesqueness of some aspects 
of its life, especially in French Canada and among the Indians and half-breeds on the great plains of the West, there is no 
reason why the work of our artists should be commonplace or lacking in originality and local colour. Historical subjects, 
particularly in the French regime, abound, which it can hardly be said have as yet been touched. Incidents in the life of the 
settler and pioneer furnish many themes for treatment, while the woods and waters of the country supply unlimited material for 
the deft handling of the skilled artist. Canadian sports, and many of the outdoor industries -such as lumbering, fishing, fish- 
drying and canning, running rapids in a canoe, and numerous agricultural operations, lend themselves to art treatment : while 
art education is becoming increasingly necessary in the more skilled artisan pursuits, in the factories and workshops. 

Local art associations in some of the chief cities of the older Provinces have been in existence fora number of years and 
have done much to educate taste in the fine arts. The Royal Canadian Academy, founded at Ottawa, in 1880, by Lord Lome, 
has also given a great impetus to Art in Canada. In Toronto, private enterprise has supplied the city with an excellent Gallery 
of Art, accessible and well-lighted. Here loan exhibitions of paintings, engravings, ceramics and other works of art, are period 
ically held, besides the attractive exhibitions of the permanent collection. In the Province of Ontario, a local Society of Artists 
\vas founded a number of years ago and has done much to educate the public taste and evoke an interest in Art, which hitherto 
had nothing but the annual exhibitions at the Agricultural Fairs upon which to feed. Though this Society has done much to 
raise the standard of excellence among local artists, and, in its art rooms and annual exhibitions, to furnish the means of bring 
ing art productions before the public, the limited wealth of the community has failed to give the Society that measure of support 
needful for its active maintenance. Nor has it been able, with the aid of a small Government grant, to keep out of debt. Its 
financial management of recent years has also been unfortunate. For a number of years the Ontario Society of Artists 
maintained for the use of its members and such pupils as had a desire to study Art, classes for model and life drawing and 




the training in some departments of industrial drawing. These classes have now been transferred to the Education Office 
and placed under the control of the Provincial Education Department. Much more than this, we are sure, however, can 
he done in Toronto for Art. 

The progress of the art of Music in Toronto during the past twenty years has been commensurate with the material 
growth .of the city. Twenty years ago, there was not a single choral or orchestral society in existence, the Toronto Musical 
Union, formed by Mr. ]ohii Carter, in 1861-2, having died for want of support. One or two performances of opera and an 
occasional concert constituted the artistic educational amusement of the musical public. How great an advance has since been 
made may be best appreciated by calling to mind that there are now in active operation two associations for the production of 

oratorios and other works requiring both 
chorus and orchestra, The Philharmonic and 
Choral Societies ; two orchestral societies, the 
Toronto Symphony Orchestra, and the Tor 
rington Orchestra, and two societies for the 
practice of unaccompanied part-songs, the 
Toronto Vocal Society and the Haslam Vocal 
Society. There are now, moreover, three 
theatres and several public halls, at which 
musical entertainments are often given. 
While in 1870 a production of opera was a 
rare occurrence, we find that during the sea 
son 1889-90, no fewer than fifty-six operatic 
performances were given, while the number 
of different operas presented was twenty-six. 
Among the lyric dramas put on the Toronto 
stage within the past five years there may he 
mentioned as specially worthy of note, \\.i_ 
ner s " Flying Dutchman" and " Lohengrin. 
Goldmark s "Queen of Sheba," Meyerbeer s 
" Les Huguenots," and Rossini s " William 
Tell." It must not be forgotten, too, that ot 
late years few artists of renown who have 
visited the United States have omitted to 
appear in the city. Still another feature ot 
recent years has been the foundation and 
development of two large teaching institu 
tions, the Conservatory of Music and the 
College of Music, conducted on the plan 
found so successful by the Musical Training 
Schools of Europe. 

The event which perhaps may In 
considered the most conspicuous landmark 
on the road of progress was the Musica 
Festival of 1886, under the direction of Mr. 
F. H. Torrington. The forces placed undo 
the baton of the conductor consisted o! a 
chorus of one thousand singers and ar 
orchestra of one hundred members. Tin 
principal works given were Gounod s trilogy 
" Mors et Vita," and Handel s " Israel ii 

Egypt." The festival was a great success and brought visitors to the city from all parts of the country. The date of the seconc 
festival has not as yet been decided upon, but no doubt when it takes place the result will show that Toronto has made anothei 
important stride in the development of music. 

Though but a recent acquisition to Canada, Mr. Hamilton MacCarthy has already by the skilful use of his chisel brough 
credit to the land of his adoption and added many beauties of art to our national treasures. Mr. Hamilton C. T. P. Mac 
Carthy was born on July 28th, 1846, at Hyde Park Corner, London, England. He is grand-nephew of the late Capt. Edw 
MacCarthy, of the 5<Dth Regiment, \\lio served with distinction in the Peninsula wars, and is the son of an eminent Englis 
sculptor, whose- spirited animal subjects are famous throughout Europe. Mr. MacCarthy was educated in his fathers studios 11 
London and lielgium. His long connection with the volunteers in England has given him a decided penchant for subjects when 






..pirited action and strung emotion arc required. The statue of the late Col 

ski, Mr. MacCarthy has executed busts of the Kar, of HeaeonsHeU,. Lord , 

ton Archbishop Tait, Mr. Goldwin Smith, Rev. Dr. Rverson, and others. In 
; he was elected an Academician of the Royal Canadian Academy of \rts 
s a member of the Executive Council of the Ontario Society of Artists a 
* * the Tomato Art School, a member of St. George s Society, and he 
Sons of England. 

-Mr. Frederic Herbert Torrington is an Englishman and was born in Dudlev 
Worcestershire October, ,837. He commenced playing the violin at seven years 
He then stud.ed the instrument under competent masters, and was after 
wards articled for four year, to the organist of St. Georges and St. Mary s Churches 
Kidderminster, officiating both as organist and trainer of the choir bo vs He was 
organist of St Ann s Church, Bewdley, for two years, first violin Kidderminster 
hilharmomc Society, and solo violinist at the -Music Hall concerts In 1858 he 
England for Montreal, where for twelve years he was organist of St James 
street Methodist Church, and there established several orchestral and vocal 
He was also organist of the Jesuits Church at the evening services and 
professor of the violin at the Jesuits College. In ,869, he was engaged by Mr 
S. Gilmore to form a Canadian contingent of the great Orchestra for the first 
Peace Jubilee held in Boston ; was one of the solo organists who gave recitals upon 
the grand organ in the Boston Music Hall, and also took part in the first concert 
Shortly after the Jubilee, he accepted the position of organist of King s Chapel 
Boston, which he held for four years, and then became one of the regular solo 
at the Mus c Hall, and at the New Eng.and Conservatory of Music, at which institution he was one of the Xiona 

K n T S !T , T " " C f man> mUSiCal SOdetieS and ne f the first violins of ^e Harvard 

Symphony Orchestra, Handel and Haydn Society s Festival and Oratorio Concerts, and in the English German ,nd It.ln, 
operas given with Parepa-Rosa, Nillsson Patti and others. He conducted the genera, rehearsal, of grTclots oT 

Boston Jubilee in ,872, of which Mr. P. S. Gilmore was again the musical director, five of Mr. Torrington s part in the mimense chorus of 20,000 voices, he being one of the first 300 violins at all the concerts In i8 n Mr Tor 
nngton was induced to come to Toronto, being offered the positions of organist and director of the choir at the Metropolitan 

Lurch, and of conductor of the loronto Philharmonic Society. In both these positions he has laboured incessantly for the 
acal cause. At the Metropolitan Church he organized and maintained a volunteer choir of from sixty to eighty voices, in 
h a large number of choir leaders, solo vocalists, and organists holding prominent positions in Canada have been trained 
standard of music set up by Mr. Torrington has been that of the most eminent church composers, and the influence thus 
exerted has been an important factor in 
establishing a correct taste for good church 
music in Toronto. The field of Mr. Tor 
rington s labours outside his church work 
lias been largely in connection with the 
Philharmonic Society, through which 
medium, the standard oratorios, cantatas, 
miscellaneous vocal and instrumental 
works of the great composers have been 
-tudied and introduced to the Toronto 
public. Among the most celebrated of 
these are "Elijah" (five times), "Messiah" 
-ix times). "Redemption" (twice), and 
" -Mors et Vita," Gounod; " Rose of 
^liaron," Macken/ie ; " Spectre s Bride, 
1 vorak: -Golden Legend, Sullivan: 
"Arminius," Bruch, and selections from 
the grand Wagner operas, etc., etc. The 
result of Mr, Torrington s work was 
manifested at the Toronto Musical Festi 
val held in June, 1886, at the Caledonian 
Ri ik. Not the least amongst Mr. Tor- 
nngton s efforts have been the steps he 
has taken to establish an effective local 
" hestra in Toronto. The results have 
ih Wn themselves in the orchestral " BUTTON WOOD," SUMMER RESIDENCE OF MR. CHARLES LINDSBY. 




concerts given by the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, which developed later into the Torrington Orchestra, and the Toronto 

( (rchestral Association, which has been giving a series of concerts annually for lour seasons past. Under Mr. Torrington many of 

those mm acting as orchestral musicians at all the society concerts, where orchestras 

are employed, have become competent to do so through the opportunities which 

he has provided them. In 1888. Mr. Torrington founded the Toronto College of 

Music, which has been remarkably successful; in 1 890. this institution became a 

chartered joint-stock company, with a capital of $50,000. Mr. George Gooderham 

,s President, and Mr. J. K. Kerr. Q.C., and Professor J. W. London are Vice- 

Presidents of the College, which is now affiliated with the University of Toronto, 

Mr. Torrinuton being appointed its representative on the Senate. 

The name oi Mr. Edward Fisher, Musical Director of the Toronto 
Conservatory of Music, is familiarly known not only to the citizens of Toronto, but 
to the musical public throughout Canada. Mr. Fisher s early life was passed in the 
United States. Boston, Mass., having been his home for several years prior to his 
leaving that country. In that city he received his musical education, mainly at the 
n Conservatory of Music; here also he occupied at different times several 
important church positions as organist and practised his profession as teacher of 
the pianoforte. In 1874 he went to Berlin to study under the famous masters 
Haupt and Loescharn. On his return to America he was offered the directorship 
of music at the Ottawa Ladies College, which position he accepted and filled 
successfully for several years. In 1879, he removed to Toronto in order to accept 
the position of organist and choirmaster in St. Andrew s Church, which he still 
holds. Soon after taking up his residence here, the Toronto Choral Society was 
organized with Mr. Fisher as conductor. The history of this Society under Mr. 

Fisher s direction has been one of uninterrupted success, its active membership varying in different years from 15010400 
voices. Among the more notable works performed by the Society under his baton may be mentioned the following oratorios :- 
"The Creation," "The Messiah," "St. Paul," "Eli," "Samson," and "Israel in Egypt." A large number of cantatas, orchestra 
works and part songs are also included in the repertoire of the Society. In 1886, Mr. Fisher decided that the auspicious time hai 
arrived for carrying into execution a plan which he had long cherished of establishing a Conservatory of Music, where instrue 
should be given on lines similar to those adopted by the leading conservatories in Europe. With this object a commute, 
consisting of some of the leading citizens of Toronto was formed and proceeded at once to get incorporated under the title 
the Toronto Conservatory of Music, the capital, which was placed at $50,000, being at once largely subscribed for by pub 
spirited citizens. The Hon. G. W. Allan was elected President, and Mr. Fisher, Musical Director, the other members of th. 
Hoard of Directors being as follows, viz., Hon. Chancellor Boyd and W. B. McMurrich, Q.C., Vice-Presidents; Messrs 
A. M. Cosby. Honorary Treasurer; Mr. Justice Maclennan ; Elmes Henderson; Henry Pellatt : E. A. Scaddmg ; 
O Sullivan, D.C.L.; S. H. Janes, M.A.; and Dr. G. Sterling Ryerson. The staff of teachers is an exceptionally strong one am 

f thi mo : distingui h< d musicians in th 

Dominion. Ever since its incorporation the Conservatory has attracted a larg 
attendance of pupils, about 400 having been the average up to the present tiuu 
Mr. Fisher was the leading spirit among the professional musicians in the Provim 
who in 1887 met together and organized the Canadian Society of Musicians. He i 
now President of this Society, which is the representative organization o! th 
profession in Canada. He is also Yice-President for Ontario of the Music Teacher 
National Association, the largest and most influential body of musicians in Americ. 
The name of Mr. J. W. F. Harrison is inseparably connected with the histoi 
of music in Canada. At the City of Bristol, England, where he was born. Mr. 1 lair 
son received his first instruction in the pianoforte from Signor Esam, a prominei 
Spanish teacher. After pursuing his studies in London he was given in Pans 1 
finishing lessons by Ernest Lubeck, the great German pianist. On the organ, M 
Harrison was a pupil of Mr. George Riseley, organist of Bristol Cathedral, an 
subsequently studied in Xaples under Yincenzo Magnetta, in which city he was I 
a time choirmaster of the English Church. As a director his first appearan 
at the age of twenty when he prepared a chorus lor the production ot "Messiah 
lie was afterwards engaged to conduct music in connection with the dniinat 
readings of Mrs. Scott-Siddons, Mrs. Stirling, and Mr. J. M. liellew. In i8? 2 - M 
Harrison came to Canada and was appointed organist of St. Georges Chun 
Montreal. While there he produced for the first time in Canada. Mendelssohl 
Antigone" and "(Kdipus." Being offered the position of Musical Director ot t 
MR. T. W. V. HARRI i Ladies College and organist at Christ Church, Ottawa, he removed to the capital 



MR. II. (il EST C OI.I.JXS. 

1879, "here he founded the Ottawa Philharmonic Society 

1 ....... """"" " ........ ........ ;, ....... - 

devoted himself to the improvement 

of the choral service of that church, 

bcm- a zealous member of the 

Church of England. In 7879. Mr. 

Harrison married Miss S. Frances 

Kiley, of Toronto, one of the 

cleverest of our Canadian literary 

women, and herself an accomplished 

musician and composer. This lady, 
it is hardly necessary to say. is well- 
known by her iwm de flume of 
"Seranus," as well as by the pro 
ductions of her pen, in prose and 
verse, under her married name. 
Mr. Harrison is himself also a con 
tributor to the native literature, 
chiefly on musical subjects. 

Mr. H. Guest Collins is a son 
of the late Rev. O. L. Collins, rector 
in the village of Ossett, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, England. His 
early education was primarily under 
private tutors at home. At the age 

MR. J. CHURCH,,., A.LIWB. f " "* he com ~^ the study of 

music and developed an absorbing 

interest in the art. Fortunately for him, the family possessed an excellent musical library, and of this the young musician 

made the utmost possible use. In 1859, the family moved to York for the benefit of the Grammar School, and here Mr 
,s already highly-developed taste for music was cultivated and trained. Symptoms of cataract, however had be-mn to 
themselves in the eves, and in 1864. the doctors having forbidden reading and writing, Mr. Collins came to Canada for the 

purpose of farming, settling in the Township of Markham. He derived great benefit from the climate and once more devoted 

himself to music. For seven years he gave 

instruction, after which he accepted the post ^^^^""""^^B 

of organist in Christ Church, Deer Park, "^* -*" ^^ 

Toronto. In 1872. he moved to All Saints 

Church and remained there fourteen years. 

-Mr. Guest Collins was on the first committee 

of the Philharmonic Society, and has tilled 

the po>ts of Honorary Secretary and Yice- 

1 resident of the Canadian Society of 


Mr. J. Churchill Arlidge, Canada s 
popular flute virtuoso, was born at Stratford- 
on-Avon, England, March i;th, 1849. At 
an early age he developed a talent for music, 
and made his first public appearance as a 
solo flautist at the Crystal Palace, London. 
when nine years old. Under such teachers 

S benjamin \\ells, Antonio Minasi. George 
Kudall, and Sidney Prauen, young Arlidge 
made great progress. At the age of sixteen 
lie went to Kclgium, where he remained two 
years under the tutelage of Svensden and 
N.-mmms. He subsequently studied music 
two years in Paris. After his return to Eng 
land he was associated with many of the best 
Artists in London. In 1874 he made an 
experimental trip to America, remaining a 
year in the United States and nearly a year MR. ANU MRS. CLARENCE I. 

MR. FRKD. \V.\uiuNoroN. 


in Canada He again returned to England, where he remained till -885, when he came to Toronto and took part in the musical 
festival held in the following year. His work since then is well known to all lovers of music. Mr. Arlidge is a member ol 

the teaching staff of the College of Music, and for the past three years has been 
organist and choirmaster of Carlton Street Methodist Church. 

Mr. Clarence Lucas, of the Toronto College of Music, and son of the 
Rev. D. V. Lucas of this city, was born at Smithville, County of Lincoln, Ontario, 
on the 1 9th of October, 1866. When a mere child he gave evidence of tin- 
possession of musical talent, and after some preliminary instruction he, at the age 
of fifteen, studied harmony under a distinguished professor and also took lessons 
on the piano under the most proficient masters. In 1885, he went to Europe and 
studied two years at the "Conservatoire Nationale de Musique," at Paris. Also at 
Rome, Florence, and London. Upon his return to Canada he joined the staff 
of the College of Music, Toronto, and was subsequently musical director at the 
Wesleyan Ladies College, Hamilton. In September last (1890) he accepted a 
position at the Conservatory of Music, Utica, N. Y. Mr. Lucas has written a 
number of musical compositions, some of them of a high order. In 1888 Mr. 
Lucas married Miss Clara Asher, a young and talented English lady, who in 
infancy was a musical prodigy, and was appointed pianist to the Prince of Wale- 
before entering her teens. Madame Lucas gives instruction on the piano t< 
advanced pupils only. 

There is no more popular baritone and few more successful musical director: 
in Canada, than the leader of Sherbourne Street Methodist Church choir. Born a 
Northampton, England, in 1852, Mr. Fred. Warrington was ten years of age whet 
he came with his parents to Canada. After residing a short time at Quebec IK 
settled in Toronto. In 1869, when a member of the choir of the old Adelaide Street Methodist Church, young Warrington 1 
voice began to attract attention. At the inception of the Philharmonic Society, in 1872, he became a member and took sol, 
parts in die first production of the "Creation " by this Society. Under the instruction of Mrs. Grassick and Mr. Torringtoi 
considerable advance was made and Mr. Warrington s voice was further developed by study with the most eminent teachers o 
Boston and New York. After being leader of the choir of Bloor Street Methodist Church for two years, Mr. Warrington accepte. 
the directorship of Elm Street choir in 1880, which he soon made one of the best in the city. Six years later he removed t. 
Sherbourne Street Methodist Church, the choir of which is now under his leadership. Mr. Warrington has shown remarka 
versatility, being almost equally at home in massive oratorio, in ballad, and in light opera. He has been associated with sue 
eminent artists as Mrs. A. E. Osgood, Miss Agnes Huntingdon, Mrs. Caldwell, Mrs. Gertrude Luther. New York. VV. I! 
Courtenay, Ivan Morawski, Mrs. W. Winch, Boston, I). M. Babcock, Carl /.ehran, Boston, and many others, whose iniluenr 
in music is an inspiration. 

Miss Sarah Maud Mary Harris, one of Toronto s most expert pianists, was 
born in the " Queen City," August ist, 1864. At an early age, she began the study 
of the pianoforte, though her tuition was unavoidably interrupted until a later period 

when it was resumed actively under 
noted masters in France and lingland. 
In her seventeenth year she went to 
Gennany, where she studied under 
Professor Oscar Paul, of Leipsic, and 
Dr. Theodor Kullak, of Berlin, receiv 
ing much encouragement under these 
eminent professors. Subsequently, 
Miss Harris pursued her studies in 
Boston, under the late Dr. Louis Maas. 
and in New York, under Mr. Sebastian 
Bach Mills. From the tuition of these 
masters she received much benefit, 
and for the last three years she has 
been teaching her art successfully in 
Toronto. In 1883, Miss Harris was 
for a time pianiste to the Toronto 
Choral Society, and since then has 
given evidence of enhanced musical 
talent. Miss Harris is a member of 
the New Jerusalem Church. 

Miss S. MAVH M. II . 

Miss K. S. MKI.I.ISII. 


M1SS K ;" ma S :"""" MdliS f h > ""; BaC " " " > Unimly and teacher of Harmony at the Toronto Conservatory of 
Music sine, that institution was founded, is one of the sweet girl graduates " of whom, or rather of the tvp, of uh, ^ 
I Vet Laureate speaks. If our Canadian Universities are to open their doors for 

the higher education of women, no one will say them nay when the field of their 

study is the essentially feminine one of music. Miss Mellish is a musical graduate 

(iSS(>) of our Canadian Trinity, and was one of the first ladies in Canada upon whom 

the degree of Bachelor of Music was conferred. She was for some time a pupil of 

Mr. Arthur E. Fisher, of Toronto, and is accomplished in her art. On the I2th 

November. 1890. Miss Mellish, who is a daughter of the Rev. Rural Dean Mellish, 

of Caledonia, married Mr. A. M. 1 lymond, Law-Secretary in the office of the Hon! 

the Attorney-General of the Province. 

Among the resident professional musicians of Toronto, there are perhaps 

few who have taken a more active part in its musical life during the past twenty- 
live years than Mrs. S. R. Bradley. Her early studies in singing and pianoforte 

playing were directed by Mr. VanKoerber, of Fort Hope. Subsequently Mrs. 

Bradley received instruction from Mr. John Carter and Mrs. Grassick. Her voice 

is a brilliant soprano and its striking qualities, combined with an attractive style, 

have won for her general favour. At the age of seventeen she was entrusted with 

one of the principal solos at a public performance of "The Messiah" in Toronto. 

Since that time she has taken a prominent part in most of the great musical events 

associated with the city. Mrs. Bradley 
has been for seven years directress of 
the choir of Berkeley Street Methodist 
Church. She has charge of the vocal 
department of the \Vhitby Ladies Col 
lege, and is instructor in voice culture at St. Joseph s Convent. Mrs. Bradley s 
repertoire extends over a wide range of music, both operatic and sacred. 

Miss Li/.zie Higgins, an accomplished pianist, is a native Canadian. She 
studied music in this country with the best available masters, and finished her 
professional education at the Royal Conservatory of Music, Leipsic, Germany, 
where she was a pupil of /.wintscher, Zeichinuller, I )rs. Paul and Quasdorf. After 
her return to Toronto, Miss Higgins was attached to the College of Music as a 
teacher of the pianoforte. In 1889, upon her marriage with Mr. George McPherson, 
of Hamilton, she became a resident of Montreal. 

Mr. Vincent Perry Hunt was born at \Vhitby. Out., August i2th. i.Ssy- At 
the age of seventeen he decided to adopt music as his profession, and ardently 
set out to equip himself for his life-work. After six years study he went to 
Germany in 1881, and entered the 
Royal Conservatory at Leipsic under 
the tuition of such distinguished 
masters as Dr. Carl Reinecke, Bruno 
Zwintschcr, Prof. I )r. Papperit/. and 


Miss L]/:/.II: MICC.INS. 

Jadassohn. Receiving the Directorial Diploma in 1885, he returned to Canada in 
the same year and became a resident of Toronto. Mr. Hunt has been connected 
ith the Toronto Conservatory of Music since its inception. He has been Director 

: Music in I >cmi!l Ladies ( Allege, ( )shawa, for the past five years. As is recorded 
on his Directorial Diploma. "Mr. Hunt possesses a very fine and correct execution, 
combined with an intelligent conception, and refined musical ability. His rapid 
MK cuss as a teacher in Toronto speaks well for his future prospects. Mr. Hunt is a 
Methodist and the son of a Methodist minister. 

The leader of the choir of the Central Presbyterian Church, Mr. Alexander 

- Cringan. was born at Carluke, Lanarkshire, Scotland, October 131)1, 1860. 
Receiving his early training at the local Grammar School, he got his musical 
education at the Tonic So] Fa College, London, Kng., where he took the special 
subjects ot harmony and voice training and the art of teaching music. Mr. 
Cringan is a graduate and licentiate of the Tonic Sol Fa College, having the 
degree ol G. L. T. S. C. In 1887 he was appointed Superintendent of Music for 
the Toronto Public Schools. He was conductor of the Tonic Sol Fa Society 
during 1SS6-7. Since 1887 he has been identified with the Scottish Select Choir 
and tlie Summer School of Music of the American Vocal Music Association. Mr. Cringan is the author of the Canadian 

MR. V. P. HUNT. 


conducted with marked abili 
the Crystal 

i\ ihe school children s concert in the Pavilion 


Music Course and Teachers Handbook. He cc 

MUSH Hall. March zist, 1890. and the Carnival Concert 

Palace in the same year. Since iSS 7 he has been choirmaster at the Central 

Presbyterian Church. 

Mr Herbert L. Clarke, cornet soloist, is a son of Mr. Win. Horatio 
Clarke, formerly organist of Jarvis Street Baptist Church. He was born at 

Boston, Mass.. September 1 2th, 

1867. Having decided musical 

tastes, he took up the study ol 

the cornet in 1881, and becoming 

an efficient performer on it, he 

travelled considerably through 

the United States and Canada 

giving solo performances. In 

1886, he won the championship 
of Indiana as a cornet soloist, 
and in the following summer was 
engaged as a performer on his 
favourite instrument at Charlotte, 
Rochester s summer resort. In 

1887, he settled in Toronto and 
has been a member of the Queen s 
Own Band, and acornet specialist. 
Mr. Clarke, who is now leader of 
Heintzman s Band, is also an 
arranger of music for orchestra 

and military bands. MR. UKRKERT L. CI.AKKE. 

Mr. Percy V. Greenwood is a native of Halstead, Essex, England. He was educated at the Grammar School of his 
native town, and acquired a thorough knowledge of music before coming to Canada, a young man of twenty, in 1883. Shortly 
after taking up his residence in this Province, he accepted the position of organist in the Anglican Church at Paris, Out., which 
he filled acceptably for some time. After his removal to Toronto, he was organist of All Saints Church, and a member ol the 
teaching staff of the College of Music. In 1889, he surrendered both of his positions in Toronto, in order to accept that ol 
organist in the Church of St. |ohn the Evangelist, at Boston, Mass., where he remained one year, removing thence last fall to 
Houghton. Mich., where he now presides at the organ in the Episcopal Church in that place. 

_ Mr. G. Arthur Depew was born at Clinton. July 241)1, 1869, and at th. 

of four exhibited musical talents. He 

commenced studying the piano at six, 

and when only nine years old was 

organist of Park Street Methodist 

Church Sunday School, Chatham. 

Coming to this city at the age of 

thirteen, he was placed under the 

tuition of Mr. Arthur E. Fisher, and 

made good progress with the piano, 

the violin, the organ, and the study of 

harmony. At the age of fourteen he 

presided at the organ of Sherbourne 

Street Methodist Church two months. 

and from that time has supplied many 

of the Toronto churches. When but 

seventeen he was appointed organist oi 

Old St. Andrew s, which position he 

now holds. For the last three years 

he has been conductor of the 

Chautauqua Orchestra, at Niagara, 

writing and arranging many songs and 

choruses. Mr. Depew has already 

passed two examinations for the degree 

of Musical Bachelor, at Trinity Univer 
sky, and is now writing lor the final. He is an excellent accompanist, and has the prospects of a brilliant future in the musical world 




Mr. Samuel Richardson, who is known to the musical world as Sims Richards, was born in l,.ndon England May -n! 
r8 4 7. As a child he had a fine voice, and at the age of eight was a paid chorister in St. Stephen s Church, Westminster Fr O1 

nine till eleven years of age he led the singing of 1,600 children in the Sunday 

School of the Lccleston Square Congregational Church. At the age of twelve his 
was allowed a long rest and subsequently it developed into a fine tenor. Coming 

to Canada in 1809. he settled in Muskoka, taking charge of the choir of St. Thomas 

Church. Mracebridge. He subsequently removed to Rosseau. where he had charge 

of a choir for seven years. Returning to Kngland to have his voice trained he 

received instruction from Mr. ( liarles ]".. I.inney. ( horal Vicar of St. Paul s ( athedral. 

He then came hack to Canada anil made a successful tour with a Concert Company. 

after which he went to Xew Vork for further study. While there he accepted a 

position in Rev. Henry Ward lieecher s Church, which he held two years, and also 

sang in Taltnage s Tabernacle, as well as at several concerts. In 1882, he settled 

in Toronto, making his first appearance under the auspices of the Philharmonic 

Society. His successes in this city are well-known, and he never fails to please his 

audiences. Mr. Richards is a member of the Church of England, and a strong 

temperance man. He was sergeant-major and drill instructor in the 3rd Middlesex 

.Artillery. London, and one of the best swordsmen and rifle shots in the regiment. He 
_ is a member of Doric Lodge, A.F. & A.M 
.Mr. Richards is solo tenor at Carlton Street 
Methodist Church. He is much sought after 
for concerts as a vocalist, and has upon many 
occasions exhibited a marked talent as a 

reader Mi;. SIMS RICHARDS. 

Mr. Edwin Ashdown, music publisher, was born in London, England, December 
2nd, 1826. In 1845 he entered into partnership with Mr. Parry and embarked in the 
music publishing trade under the firm of Ashdown & Parry. In 1860 he succeeded to the 
business of Wersel & Co., established 1810. The sole business has since 1884 been 
carried on by Mr. Ashdown. The publications of the firm consist of music of every 
description and include many large, important works. Mr. Ashdown visited ( anada some 
years ago and established a house here, since which time his publications have continually 
gamed m favour. He is possibly the largest English music publisher and directs special 
attention to music of the educational 
class. He has connections in all parts of 
the world, more particularly in Canada. 
Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, the 
United States, India, and South Africa. 
Eor some years he has been represented 

m Toronto by his son. Mr. Sydney Ashdown. who is also Manager of the Anglo- 
Canadian Music Publishers Association (Limited). 

Professor J. K. Davis was born at Oakville, in the year 1835. After 

having received a liberal education he removed to Toronto, in 1855, since which 

time his name has become famous in connection with the art of dancing. 

Professor Davis is the author of "The Modern Dance Tutor," which has had a 

large circulation. He is the originator of a number of popular dances, including 

the Jersey Ripple, Le Bronco. Eureka, Cavotte Lancers and others. He has 

invented a method by which the acquisition of new dances is greatly simplified. 

Professor I >avis is a member of the National Association of Teachers of Dancing 

it the United States and Canada. The fancy dances composed by him for the 

recent Kermesses received very favourable comment. Instruction in instrumental 

music and calisthenics, as well as dancing, is given by Professor Davis, at his 

residence, on Wilton Avenue. 

\\ ith all that has been said of music and musicians, the confession, we 

tear, must be made that Toronto is not distinctively a musical city. The masses 

perhaps are more fond of sport. Vet Toronto possesses two good military bands and some excellent musical conductors, with 

more than average material for park and island instrumental concerts. Lew out-door entertainments for the people are more 

worthy of encouragement than these summer band-concerts on the island and in the city parks. In attracting the masses to 

them, they not only afford innocent delights, but are potent counter-attractions to the sensational drama and the saloon. 



1 III 









HUT i-i . 

ORD MACAU LAV had the reputation of having walked through every street in London. Though only a miniature 
copy of the great metropolis, we doubt if it can be said that any citizen has walked through every street in Toronto. 
To even the oldest resident such a perambulation would be a surprise and delight. Of those who live in the city, 
few really know it. How often do we owe to the visitor a knowledge of places in Toronto of which we had never 
known, and an acquaintance with streets of which we had never heard. Yet we think we live with our eyes open, and inculcate 
111 our children the habit of observing things, which brings with it pleasure as well as instruction. The truth is few of us 
assiduously cultivate the habit, and we miss much, even in our own town, that would at least add to our store of reminiscence. 
In the newer parts, particularly, of Toronto, there are homes so beautiful that if we had seen them abroad we would have come 
back and raved about them. With even the existence of the streets or avenues on which they are situate we have been 

ignorant. For all that we knew, the streets 
and the homes, and those who live in them, 
might have been part of another city. \\ e 
are all, more or less, creatures of habit, and 
as a rule we are singularly local in our 
environment. The business man know?, 
little of the town but his own habitat and 
the route which he daily traverses between 
his home and his office. Even to the young 
womanhood of the household, much of 
Toronto, though it is their place of birth, 
is an unknown city ; they are commonly 
more familiar with its public prome; 
than with its deserted environs. To a 
chance drive, or a rare stray walk, are they 
indebted for revealing a Toronto of which 
they have not even dreamed. 

But we hear it asked, " Where is this 
Toronto of which its citizens know little, and 
in what consists its beauty?" It lies all 
about east, north, and west and varied 
are the elements in the composition of the 
picture. The modern homes of Toronto 
are. for the most part, to be found west of Trinity University, east of the Don, and north of College and Carlton Streets. 
To take a drive through each of these fast-growing sections of the city is, socially and artistically, to unlock the door on a 
multitude of pleasing perceptions. To the lover of his kind, not the least of the pleasure will be derived from making 
acquaintance with the city s domestic shrines and the human associations that attach to them. To know the city is to know 
the people, and very humanizing and tending to patriotism is it to know and come into contact with one s own townsmen. In 
tins modern age. cities are more and more losing their old character, and citizenship is no longer a bond. What is true of the 
city is in part true of the nation, and hence the decay, or the arrested growth, of national sentiment. If we do not know our 
fellow-citizens how .shall we know our compatriots? Let us return, then, to the old social ways and make real the tie of 

Aside from the prevailing isolation and the absence of anything like fellowship, the aspects of city life, in its domestic 

are in the present day very gratifying. In the newer residential streets of Toronto, not only is there the manifestation 

of greater plenty, but an equally manifest provision for the comfort and health of the people. /Esthetic-ally, there is also a 

wonderful showing. A new era in housebuilding has dawned and street-architecture is no longer commonplace and featureless. 




\Ve arc not sure that the revival in our midst of Old English styles uf architecture will prove suitable to the climate, or that 
pinnacles and -allies and fanciful exterior decoration will take well with the snow. But the picturesque effects are undoubted, 
and variety is pleasing, though simplicity is not to be denied its charm. True, showiness is not always comfort, nor is a fine 
house with luxurious surroundings always to be preferred to one of less pretensions, whose sanitary credentials are perfect, and 
where the mistress is not society s slave and a bondwoman in her own home. Nothing is more ignoble as well as pernicious 
in its example, than the spirit which prompts wealth to flaunt itself. Simplicity and refinement are not tyrants ; ostentatious 
display and parade for Fashion s sake, are. We sometimes make for ourselves strange gods ; in the home, society and its 
claims occasionally become a fetich. 

The home of taste is always the home of simplicity, even though it be that of wealth and gentility. House-builders and 
real-estate men are not always impressed with the truism ; though in the residential streets of modern Toronto it is rare to meet 
with any gross violations of the canons of tasteful house construction, or with anything that otherwise offends. The art taste- 
is excellent in the architectural designs of the City s modern homes, and there is, besides, a pleasing variety. It may be a 
question whether we are not building beyond the wants as well as beyond the wealth of the city. The number of expensive 
houses may be greater than the means of the people justify. It is said that it is difficult to get a new house, modernly designed, 
at a modest rental. It is perilous for landlord as well as tenant to make house-rent too dear. The cost of living is currently- 
increasing in the city, and, if it continues to rise, people with limited incomes will be deterred from coming, or if they have 
already come, they will make haste to be gone. 

In Toronto, we have gone a long way in house accommodation from the log-house of the early settler. Taking "Russell 
Abbey " as a type of the home of opulence at the beginning of the century, we have also vastly improved upon that. Our homes, 
however, have not the literary and social 
interest which belong to those in Old World 
communities. Even the oldest city homes, 
compared with the historic mansions of the 
Motherland, are but of yesterday. You can 
count upon the fingers of one hand those 
that to-day have any pretensions to antiquity. 
Had primogeniture and entail been allowed 
to take root in the early days of the Province, 
it would have been difficult to have handed 
down the family roof. Hitherto, it has not 
been the rule to build for posterity. Even 
had this been otherwise, fire and family 
vicissitude would have made sad havoc of 
hereditary designs. All we have, therefore, 
to cherish is the family pedigree, fins, in some 
fortunate instances, the family portraits and 
the remains of the family plate. But the 
modern citizen has another and a substantial 
grievance. The first settlers owned the houses 
the\ lived in : those of to-day, as a rule, do 
not. In old times, it was the exception to 
rent a house ; nowadays, it is the exception 
for the tenant to own a house. Despite this, 
the number and beauty of the city s homes 
is the visitor s constant theme of praise. In 
the newer streets, in the residential part of 
the town, the villas and their surroundings 
are an ever-recurring picture. Our pages give many examples at once of the architect s and the owner s taste. Nor are these 
confined to any single section of the city. They are to be found in all directions, giving character to and adorning the streets. 
Y\ ith the growth of wealth will come the country residence, within measureable distance of the town. Already, opulence is 
building homes for itself in the outskirts, and even going several miles drive from the city. East and west, on the lake-front, are 
many picturesque sites for a suburban villa, as well as north, along the ridge overlooking the Davenport Road, and on 
commanding elevations on the Upper Don and the Humber. As the city continues to grow, the real-estate agent may be trusted 
to find these eligible spots out, and in time to bring them into the market. In hotels, we have as yet nothing very elaborate to 
boast of, though when the Rossin House was built it was deemed, no doubt, a considerable enterprise. Some day, presumably 
not far distant, Toronto will erect a hostelry in keeping with its wants and its metropolitan character. 

The conditions of life in a new country, with democratic ascendancy, are unfavourable to any hard and fast line of class- 
distinction and to the organization of clubs with any pretension to exclusiveness. The trades and the professions mingle 
together, the differentiation, where it occurs, not being between the two. still less between different orders of professional men, 




but rather between the club where the rook and the cellar are both excellent and the club where either or both are bad or 
indifferent. Imperially is this the case among social organizations which have had their origin in devotion to sports or games 

to yachting, cricket, curling, tennis 
and bowls, or to in-door amusements, 
such as whist, euchre and billiards. 
In this fraternity of common interest 
the doctor will jostle the merchant, 
and even the bank-wicket will rub 
elbows with the bank-parlour. If 
there is at all a gulf of social separa 
tion, it is between all these and the 
struggling literary man or journalist, 
or it may be, the out-of-elhows 
painter, who has genius but lacks 
the patron to give him bread. The 
fault, of course, is nobody s, and 
nobody cares or complains. If there 
is ever a breath of repining, it may 
come from a man of education and 
brains, who has been misguided 
enough to take to intellectual pur 
suits for a living, instead of going 
into the liquor traffic, keeping an 
hotel or becoming a sugar-broker s 
clerk. Happy is the man and more 
happy the country that knows no 
distinctions of class. If the country 
must have an aristocracy, let us all pray that it be not that of wealth only, but of wealth and intellect. 

We have elsewhere, in these pages, spoken of the habitat, at least, of Toronto s clubs. Of those connected with recrea 
tion or amusement, two are specially to be noted, namely, the Royal Canadian Yacht Club, and the Victoria Club. Both are 
nourishing institutions, the one having special attractions for the summer, the other for the winter. Another successful orgam/a 
tion is the Granite Club, on Church Street. THE VICTORIA Ci.un, though hardly more than three years old, is already strong- 
and lusty, and gives promise of a long and prosperous career. It has already a membership of 400, with a centrally-situated, 
artistic building, tastefully furnished rooms, and spacious covered and open rinks for curling, bowls and tennis. The Club is 
governed by a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, and a Board of seven I )irectors. There are associations 
within the Club, each with its own executive head, devoted to the different games, of which the following are the chief: Curling 

(President, Mr. Thomas 

Mc(law), Lawn Tennis 
(President, Dr. E. \V. 
Spragge), Bowling 
(President, Mr. E. H. 
Duggan), and Whist 
(President, Mr. J. E. 
Robertson). The Club 
was organi/ed in 1887, 
under charter, by a 
joint stock company, 
with an authori/.ed capi 
tal of $50,000. The 
.iiH building was 
formally opened, Janu 
ary 4th, 1889, by 1 .onl 
Stanley, the (lovernor- 
Ceneral. and the Club 
is admirably ma; 
under its popular Pre-i 
dent, Mr. A. M. Cosby. 
The suites of rooms, 
including the reception, THE STEAMER "Cmoi.A" LEAVING FOR NIAGARA. 


reading, smoking, billiard and dining rooms, are bright and attractive, and the whole is pervaded by an atmosphere of quiet 

elegance and comfort, tt hen the play is on, the rink and tennis court are full of life and movement. The Secretary of the 

Victoria Club is ( apt. Hums: the Treasurer, 

Mr. ( asimir I M ckson. 

Mr. John C. l- itch, one of Toronto s 

worthiest and most respected sons, and for 

fifty years a resident of the city, was born in 

the Province of Quebec, in 1820. He came 

to Toronto when quite a lad, and commenced 

business in 1851. in partnership with Sir 

\\ m. I . Rowland, as wholesale grocer and 

commission merchant. This partnership of 

recent years was well known under the style 

of Messrs. Fitch & Davidson, the latter 

member of the firm being the present Presi 
dent of the Toronto Board of Trade. During 

the past few years, Mr. Fitch has retired from 

active life, having sold his business interest to 

Mr. I >a\ idson, his late partner. Throughout 

his career. Mr. Fitch has been held in high 

esteem for those qualities of personal honour 

and business integrity which distinguished 

the old-time merchant in days when specula 
tion and sharp dealing were less rife, and 

when men were more punctilious about their 

dealings with one another. Mr. Fitch took a 

warm interest, some years ago, in the Toronto RESIDENCE OF MR. j. c. FITCH, JARVIS SIKFKI. 

& Xipissing Railway and in otljer public-spirited projects, tending to the development of the city s trade. In 188^. Mr. Fitch s 

patriotism as a citizen was put to a melancholy test by having to submit to the loss of his son, Lieutenant Fitch, of the 

Grenadiers, in the storming of Batoche during the Kiel Rebellion. On that occasion, he and his family received the profound 

and heart-felt sympathy of every citizen. In religion, Mr. Fitch is a member of the Church of England. A view of his 

commodious residence, 566 Jarvis Street, appears on this page. 

Mr. Alfred Morgan Cosby, manager of the London & Ontario Investment Company, and one of the most well-known 

and popular of Toronto s citizens, was born in the County of Welland, September nth, 1840. His ancestors were United 

Empire Loyalists, and he owes to them the fine racial qualities which distinguish that best of all unions, the Scoto-Irish stock. 

Mr. Cosby received his education in Toronto, and took away from the schools such knowledge as was deemed ample as well as 

most practical for a business life. At the outset of his career he chose banking for a calling, and in 1861 entered the service of 

the Dank of Toronto. In the employment of 
this institution his excellent business ability 
soon led to preferment, and he was given 
charge of the Port Hope branch of the Bank. 
This responsible position he held until 1876, 
when he removed to Toronto to accept the 
managership of the London & Ontario 
Investment Company. Here he finds scope 
for his activities, and, possessed of a clear 
head and a sound judgment, administers the 
affairs of his important trust with credit and 
success. Since the Victoria Club was 
founded he has been its President, and by 
his genial as well as prudent management has 
made it an attractive and popular resort. In 
1870, Mr. Cosby married a daughter of the 
late Mr. J. ( ,. U orts, of the firm of Messrs. 
Gooderham \" \Vorts, and his home is the 
beautiful residence. ". \laplehvrn" (h\rn signi 
fy ing corner), at the north-east corner of Col K-c 
and St. ( leorge Streets. In politics, Mr. Cosby 
is a Liberal : in religion, he is a Presbyterian 
KKMDENCK OF MK. E. \V. Cox, ISAHELI.A s i KKF.T. and a member of St. Andrew s Church. 




Mi. Simeon Heman lane*. M.A., one of Toronto s successful men of business, was horn in the Township of \Vesl 
Oxford. February ^th. 1X43. The family is of old Huguenot stock, its earliest representative on this continent having settled in 
Massachusetts shortly after the coming of the Pilgrim Fathers to Xew England. Mr. Janes received his early education at 

the Ingersoll Grammar School, and in iSoi entered Victoria University, from which 
he graduated H.A. in 1866 as the valedictorian of his class. Six years later, he was 
admitted to the degree of M.A. in the same University. Mr. Janes had studied 

^tfteE**-^ with the view of devoting himself to the profession of law, but he had a strong 

f predilection for commercial pursuits, and for a number of years was engaged in 

trade, as the head of a large wholesale dry-goods house in Toronto. About ten 

fthtf^My years ago. when real property in the city began to become active, Mr. Janes with 

j|f considerable discernment turned his attention to real estate, and has become one of 

Bfe" the largest, shrewdest and most successful operators on the market. His specula 

tions have been on a large scale, and their results have amply justified the sound 
judgment, as well as the daring, with which they have been entered upon and 
cleverly carried through. An active and far-seeing business man, he is at the same 
time a well-read student and a thoughtful observer of men and things. He has been 
an extensive contributor to the periodical press of Canada, and takes a large and 
intelligent interest in economical and scientific questions and holds advanced views 
in Liberal politics. Mr. Janes is an advocate of free trade relations with our own 
continent, and has actively promulgated his views on the platform and in the 
press ; in religion he is a member of the Anglican Church. 

The residence of Mr. S. H. Janes, which is now being completed, is situated 
on the late Senator McMaster s property, west of the home of the late Senator Mac- 
donald, and on the brow of the ridge that until recently stemmed the northern 
extension of the city. The site is commanding, and the mansion is a worthy, and 

likely to be a lasting, adornment of its fine situation. The style of architecture is pure Norman, the massiveness of the huge 
grey stone of which it is built being relieved by the maroon tiling of the roof and the rather quaint continental design of its 
corner towers. The building is in the form of an L, and is approached by a winding drive from the massive lodge, with its 
beautiful gates and curved stone wall that flank the grounds on Avenue Road. It is a splendid piece of masonry, which puts 
to shame the flimsy ephemeral edifices, with their stuccoes and veneers, of modern house construction. The interior of the 
house is designed to be in keeping with its exterior grandeur. The main entrance is on the east, where a poile cochere and the 
<lee]> embrasured windows of the long dining-room and the billiard hall over-head break the massiveness of the eastern wall. 
On the southern or city-side, is also an entrance from the piazza, with a low stone-wall enclosure : and on the western flank are 
the conservatories, opening out of the drawing- 
room, music room, and main hall. The in 
terior furnishings and decorations are unique. 
The walls of the spacious hall are wood- 
panelled for eight feet from the floor, 
with einbos>ed leather carried up to the 
ceiling. The dining-room walls will be hung 
with rare tapestries, the spoils of old Italian 
palaces ; and many costly treasures from 
the cities of the ancient Florentine Republic 
will adorn this modern Toronto mansion. 
Among the latter are a Roman sarcophagus, 
statuettes in marble, and a beautiful specimen 
of the beaten iron female (or lam])) a copy 
of that in the 1 alazzo Stro/.zi which the 
authorities of Florence allowed only to the 
most distinguished of her citizens. The 
drawing-room will be treated after the manner 
of l.ouis Sei/e, and the music room and 
library will each have its own distinctive 
i lures. The grounds, which are 
five and a half acres in extent, are to be the 
scene of the landscape-gardener s art. The 
residence, as a whole, though unique and 
sumptuous, is in it-, general effect quiet and tasteful. It has 
York architect, from plans designed or adopted by its owner. 


been erected, under the supervision of an experienced 

k J ^y VI * \ 


"Sherbourne Villa," the residence ,,f Mr. George A. Cox, President of the Itfnk of Commerce, situated at 439 Sher 

bourne Street, is one t the old mansions that a quarter of a century ago gave evidence of the rising wealth of Toronto and 

the taste ot her people. It was erected by 

the late Mr. Ridout, and passed into the 

hands of Mr. Co\ on his removal from 

IVterboro to this city in 1887. Mr. ( ,. A. 

Cox is a Canadian by birth, having been 

born in the County of Northumberland, 

May 7th, 1840. He began life as a telegraph 

operator, and at an early age was given charge 

of the Montreal Telegraph Company s office 

at Peterboro , where he became identified 

\vitb business and public interests. In 1878, 

he was appointed President and Managing 

Director of the Midland Railway, and by his 

energy and financial ability raised the value 

of the stock from seventeen cents on the 

dollar to one hundred and twelve on the 

London market. He became President of 

the Central Canada Loan & Savings Com 
pany in 1883, on its organization. Mr. Cox 

is Vice-President of the Western Fire Assur 
ance Company, Director of the General 

Trusts Company, and President of the Bank 

of Commerce. To attain to this high position 

in the banking circles of Toronto, implies 

the possession of unusual gifts, and these 

Mr. Cox possesses. He has always taken an 

active interest in everything pertaining to the 

Methodist Church, of which he is a prominent 


The residence of Mr. E. W. Cox, a 

representation of which is given in these 

pages, is situated at 162 Isabella Street, in 

one of the most desirable localities in Toronto. 

Mr. K. \\". Cox is the eldest son of Mr. 

C.eorge A. Cox, President of the Bank of 

Commerce, with whom he is associated in 

the management of the Eastern Ontario and United States branches of the Canada Life Assurance Company. This institution, 

which is one of the strongest of the kind in the Dominion, has secured a large share of the business of Eastern Canada and the 

United States through the efforts of .Mr. Cox. Though 
a young man, he gives promise of much usefulness as 
a citizen of the Provincial metropolis. 

Among the many palatial residences on |arvis 
Street, the home of Mr. lames Carruthers, though 
not the most pretentious, is one of the most modern 
and ornate in the neighbourhood. It was erected two 
years ago under the supervision of Messrs. I.angley & 
Burke. Its owner, Mr. Carruthers, was born in 
Toronto in 1854. He is a member of the firm of 
Messrs, \orris \- Carruthers, grain merchants, corner 
of Scott and Colborne Streets. Mr. Carruthers 
residence is at 545 |arvis Street. 

The elegant residence, on the corner of 
Hoskin Avenue and St. George Street, recently built 
of Credit Valley stone and pressed brick, is the home 
of Mr. U". I). Matthews. At Uurford, in the Count) 
of Brant, June 22nd, 1850, Mr. Matthews was born, 
KF.SII.KM i OF MR. WII.MOI Ii. MATTHKWS, ST. <;H.OI,E STKKF.T. and at the Model School. Toronto, he was educated. 

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In 1866 he entered as a clerk the office of his father, an extensive grain merchant, and in 1873 was admitted as a partner. 
the death of his parent, in 1888. Mr. Matthews continued the business alone under the original name of the house 

\\ . I). Matthews Ov Co. He was President 
of the Corn Exchange and for two year* 
President of the Toronto Board of Trade. 
Mr. Matthews, who is an able business man, 
is a Director of the Canadian Pacific Rail 
way, the Dominion Bank, and the Con 
federation Life Association. He is President 
of the Toronto Incandescent Electric Light 
Co. and the Toronto Safe Deposit Company, 
His denominational connection is with the 
Methodist Church. 

The handsome and luxurious resi 
dence of Mr. John Foy is situated at 40 
Bloor Street West. It was erected in 1887 
under the supervision of Messrs. Darling & 
Curry. Mr. Foy is a native of Toronto. 
having been born here in June, 1846. He 
was educated at St. Michael s College, and 
at Ushaw College, England. For many 
years he has been connected with the Niagara 
Navigation Company, of which he is at 
present the manager. He has been Director 

of the Home Savings and Loan Co., the Niagara Navigation Co., and President of the Niagara River Company. Mr. Foy is 
a member of the Roman Catholic Communion, and is connected with St. Basil s Church. 

" The Elms" is the name of the fine residence, on Beverley Street, of Mr. Llewellyn A. Morrison. This gentleman was 
born in Peterboro County, and until 1866 was occupied on his father s farm, and in the lumber woods. After passing a year 
at Norwood Grammar School, and two years in school teaching, he spent some time in the United States, engaging in mechanical 
industries. Returning to Toronto, he opened a machinery wareroom, the beginning of the present Soho Machine Brokerage, 
and since that time has been closely identified with the growth of machinery business in Canada. Mr. Morrison is a regular 
contributor of articles on mechanics to technical and scientific periodicals. His literary gifts have led him also to compose a 
number of sacred poems and hymns. His patriotic " Tocsin " Songs are already finding a place in Canadian homes. 

" Haddon Villa," the residence of Mr. Robert Simpson, is situated on the north side of Bloor Street, at the head of 
Church Street. Its owner is one of the most extensive merchants in Toronto. Born in Morayshire (Elginshire), Scotland, 
September lyth. 1834, Mr. Simpson received a good commercial training before coming to Canada. In 1872, he began his 
successful mercantile career in Toronto. His present mammoth premises at the corner of Yonge and Queen Streets- a partial 
view only of which is given elsewhere consist of four connected buildings, three and four flats high, having a floor area of nearly 
three acres. Mr. Simpson, who is a capable as well as an honourable business man, is a member of St. Andrew s Society, and 

of Old St. Andrew s Presbyterian Church. 
A representation in these pages is 
given of the residence of Mr. John R. 
Bailey. It is a brown stone building of 
very neat appearance on St. George Street. 
Mr. Bailey has for the past fifteen years 
been one of the leading coal merchants 
of Toronto, a useful and worthy citi/en, 
and a successful man of business. 

Mr. Sanderson Pearcy, wholesale 
dealer in paints, oils, glass, etc., is a native 
of Toronto and was born April 24th, 1841. 
His education was acquired in the public 
schools and city night schools. In 1862 
he went to British Columbia and engaged 
in gold mining in the Cariboo District, 
where he remained ten years, meeting 
with great success. Returning to Toronto 
in 1872, he founded the commercial 
enterprise of which he 

Ml;. L. A. Mm:. 

is at present 
proprietor. He is a large owner of real 

MR. Ronri;i SIMPSON. 


estate in the central part of the city and resides at 92 l!] ( ,,,r Street West. Mr. Pearcy s residence, of which a picture is herewith 
given, is an elegant and comfortable modern structure. Mr. Pearcy is a lover of good horses and has exceedingly well appointed 
stables anil some splendidly bred animals. He 
is a Past Master of Ashlar Masonic Lodge and 
an attendant of the Central Methodist Church. 
(Hen Zephyr" is the residence of Mr. 
Sturgeon Stewart, Managing-Director of the 
Eno Steam Cienerator Company. It is situated 
on Dowling Avenue. Mr. Stewart was born in 
the County of Simooe. May loth, 1855. After 
a primary education he took a three years course 
in theology at Victoria University, passing the 
examinations with honours. for three years 
after leaving college Mr. Stewart was actively 
,ed in ministerial work, but was compelled 
to retire on account of ill-health. He published 
the Liberal newspaper at Richmond Hill for the 
next six years, and in 1887 he organized the 
Bryan Manufacturing Company for the produc 
tion of hardwood specialties. He was Managing- 
Director of this company till 1889, when he 
retired and became its President, which position 
he still holds. Last year Mr. Stewart organized 
the Eno Steam Generator Company (Limited), 
of which he is Managing-Director. He is a 
local preacher and one of the founders of Park- 
dale Methodist Church. Mr. Stewart was a RESIDENCE OK MR. SANI.ERSON PKARCY, BI.OOR STREET W. 

member of the Parkdale Town Council several years and Public School Trustee. He was Secretary of the West York Reform 
-Wiieiation, and although a Liberal is in sympathy with Canada s New Party. 

In a comfortable home at 88 Charles Street resides Mr. Alfred Harris. He is a native of Toronto and was born on the 
4th of July, 1863. His education was acquired at Upper Canada College, at a private school in England, at the Lycee de Mont- 
pellier, France, and in Switzerland. Mr. Harris has retired from active business, and has never sought publicity or prominence. 
He is a Director of the Sheppard Publishing Company, and a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Richard Thome s residence on Jameson Avenue, in St. Alban .s Ward, is a splendid specimen of Toronto s com 
fortable homes. Born at Thornhill, on August 22nd, 1840, Mr. Thorne came to Toronto for his education, and was for some 
years a student at Upper Canada College. After his College career, he spent several years in commercial pursuits, and in 1880 
,^^^_^^^^^__ , -,,...^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^__ established the factory of Messrs. R. Thorne 

iY Co.. Pearl Street, for the manufacture of 
folding beds, woven wire mattresses, moulding 
and picture frames. Since that time he has 
built up one of the most extensive industries 
of the kind in Western Ontario. Mr. Thorne 
is a member of the Church of England. 

"Don Villa," Broadview Avenue, is 
one of the oldest of the substantial residences 
in East Toronto. It was built in 1852, by 
the late Robert Defries, then postmaster in 
the House of Assembly, a position he filled 
for thirty-six years. "Don Villa" is now 
owned and occupied by Mr. Samuel H. 
Defries. one of the oldest passengerconductors 
on the Grand Trunk Railway. Mr. Defries is 
an Ex- President of the "Old Reliable" Rail 
road Conductor s Life Insurance Association 
of the United States and Canada. He is a 
member of the Order of Railway Conductors, 
Toronto Division. No. 17. Mr. Defries was 
born in Toronto, in 1838, and is a man of 
oi-- MR. JOHN K. BAILEY, Si. GEORGE STUEET. worth as well as of wealth. 



MK. E. |. LKNNOX. 


The beautiful residence of Mr. Xoel Marshall, situated at 98 Smith Street, is surrounded by extensive grounds, tastefully 
laid out. and planted with trees and flowers. The house, which is built of red brick with ( redit Valley stone facings, was erected 

in 1889, from designs made by the Messrs. 

Mallory Bros. Mr. Marshall is a native of 

London, Kng., where he was born on the 

3oth of December, 1852. He came to 

Canada at an early age, and attended 

school in Toronto until his twelfth year, 

when he entered the employ of Messrs. 

L. Coffee & Co., grain merchants, with 

whom he remained three years, devoting 

his evenings to study at night schools. He 

was afterwards engaged by Messrs. Geo. 

Chaffey & Bro., coal merchants, which 

business he has followed uninterruptedly 

ever since. In 1878 he became connected 

with the firm of Messrs. C. J. Smith & 

Company. When, in 1889, the Smith Coal 

Company was formed, he became its Vice- 

President and Managing-Director. This 

company is said to be the largest dealers 

in wood in the Dominion, handling about 

60,000 cords yearly. Their coal trade is 

mainly local, wholesale as well as retail. Mr. Marshall is a Royal Arch Mason, a member of the Royal Arcanum, and a Son of 
England. He is Warden of St. Matthew s (Anglican) Church, a member of the Public School Board, and Vice-President of the 
Property Owners Association. 

In the comfortable residence shown in our illustration resides Mr. Benjamin Langley, at 441 Broadview Avenue. Mr. 
Langley is a native of Toronto, and has always felt a deep interest in this city. He was born on the 25th of July, 1835, and 
acquired as a youth in Toronto the education to fit him for after-life. For many years, Mr. Langley has been a clerk in the 
post office. His integrity, diligence and careful attention to duty have obtained for him a reputation for trustworthiness, which 
is so essential for the work in which he is engaged. Mr. Langley is an active member of the Baptist Church. 

Mr. Iv J. Lennox, architect, was born of Irish parents, in Toronto, in the year 1855. With an education acquired at 
the old Grammar and Model Schools, he attended the architectural drawing classes in the old Mechanics Institute in 1874, 
and carried off the first prize and diploma in a class of sixty, of which he was the youngest pupil. For the next five years he 
studied architecture in the office of the late William Irving. After travelling for a time, another five years were spent as a 
member of the firm of Lennox & McGaw. Since then, Mr. Lennox has been in business alone and has built up one of the 
largest practices in Canada. The high reputation for beauty of design and executive ability, which Mr. Lennox has acquired, 
causes him to be frequently employed as a consulting architect. Among the many buildings erected under his supervision in 
Toronto are Bond Street Congregational Church, Bloor Street Baptist Church, and Erskine Presbyterian Church. He is now 

*CT superintending the erection of the City 

and County Municipal buildings of Tor 
onto, the Freehold Loan <S: Savings 

Company building, and the new Athletic 

Club building. Although a young man, 

Mr. Lennox is already in the front rank of 

his profession in Canada. 

The firm of Messrs. Langley \- 

Burke, architects, have erected many of 

the finest buildings in Toronto, and have 

placed throughout the Province lasting 

monuments of their professional skill. In 

such buildings as McMaster Hall, Old St. 

Andrew s Church, Jam s Street Baptist 

Church. St. James Cathedral, and many 

a business house and private residence. 

this firm have executed designs which 

beautify and bring credit to Toronto. 

Henry I. angle), senior member of the 
MR. KhMiiM, BUR-KE. firm, is a native of this city, and was born MR. W. T. 


in ,836. He studied architecture in the office of William Hay, and in z86 2 formed a 

l4 & 

rship with .Mr. Thomas Gundy 
-red into partner., 

nephew. Mr. Edmund Burke. On the 
retirement of Mr. Edward Laurie), in 
1883, the firm became Langley & Burke, 
and continues under that name. Mr. 
Burke is a Torontonian by birth, and is 
now in his fortieth year. He was educated 
in Upper Canada College, and entered 
Mr. Langley s office as a student, in 1865. 
Both are members of the Toronto Archi 
tectural Guild and Ontario Association of 
Artists. Mr. Burke is a member of the 
Council of the latter, and Mr. Langley is 
a member of the Board of Trade. 

The City Engineer of Toronto, 
Mr. William T. Jennings, was born in this 
city, May igth, 1846. After being edu 
cated at the Mode! Grammar School and 
Upper Canada College, he commenced 
his professional career as an engineer in 
1869, under the late Mr. Molesworth, 
surveying the swamp lands of Grey and 
Bruce for improvements. From 1870 
till 1875, he was on the engineering staff 
of the Great Western Railway, which he 
left in 1875, to enter the service of the 
Dominion Government. Several impor- 


tant surveys on the Canadian Pacific Railway were made by Mr. Jennings while in the employment of the Government the 
instruction Company, and the C. P. R. Company. In 1886, he took charge of the surveys and examinations for the C. P. R 
Ontario, and in 1890 was appointed to his present position. Mr. Jennings is a member of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, the Institution of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. He is connected with the Toronto, Rideau and Granite Clubs. Mr. Jennings is a member of the 
old United Presbyterian Church of Canada, of which his father, the late Rev. Dr. Jennings, was a pastor. 

Mr. Charles Unwin, of the firm of Messrs. Unwin, Foster & Proudfoot, was born at Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, Eng- 

nd, December 3 oth, 1829. In his early years he was a student at Upper Canada College, at which so many of the prominent 

fcnadians of to-day have been educated. In 1851-2 Mr. Unwin was assistant to Col. J. Stoughton Dennis in laying out the 

idian Reserves on Lake Huron. Since then he has had an extensive experience as a Dominion and Provincial Land 

Surveyor. Mr. Unwin is a member of 
the Church of England. 

Mr. Frederic Fortescue Pass- 
more, land surveyor, was born in Selby, 
Yorkshire, England, January 131)1, 
1824. He was educated at the 
Grammar School, Bideford, Devon 
shire. He came to Canada in his 
early manhood and was admitted as a 
Land Surveyor, October ist, 1846. 
Mr. Passmore was appointed Secretary 
of the Board of Examiners of Land 
Surveyors of Upper Canada, in April, 
1852. And was made a member of the 
Board in January, 1859. He is a 
member of the Church of England. 

"Thornhurst," the residence of 
Mr. George Plunkett Magann, is situ 
ated at the foot of Dowling Avenue, on 
the. lake shore, overlooking Humber 
Bay. The house was erected in 1889, 





from plans furnished by its owner, while its 
construction was supervised by David Roberts, 
architect. The material used was a combination 
of Credit Valley stone, Scotch freestone, red 
brick, terra cotta and tile. The interior is 
finished in natural woods, quarter-cut. The 
grounds, which are laid out in lawns and terraees. 
and ornamented with forest trees, slope sym 
metrically to the south, fringed by an esplanade 
along the lake-front. Mr. Magann is a native 
of Dublin, Ireland, but came to Canada in early 
childhood, and was educated at Hamilton, ( )m. 
He is descended both on his father s and his 
mother s side from well-known families, whose 
male heads were prominent in the legal profes 
sion. For many years Mr. Magann has been a 
railway contractor and a dealer in railway 
supplies. He is a large owner of mill and vessel 
property, as well as of real estate in Canada and 
the United States. 

Mr. John McBean, a well-known city 
contractor, is descended from a staunch and 
sturdy family of United Empire Loyalists. He 
was born in the County of Glengarry, Ontario, 
on the 2gth of March, 1834. After acquiring 
a common school, and the rudiments of a com 
mercial, education, he was seized with the gold 
fever and when but little more than fifteen 
years of age set out for California, where he 
arrived early in 1850. He subsequently visited 
Australia, Colorado and British Columbia, and 
spent seventeen years of his eventful life in 
gold-mining in various parts of the world. For 
three years he resided in Chicago, and in con 
junction with his father and brothers, introduced 
the Nicholson pavement in that city. In 1872, 
RESIDENCE OK MR. A. HARRIS, CHARLES SLREF.I. he returned to Ontario, settling in Toronto, upon 

the streets of which he has since in the capacity of contractor made his mark. Mr. McBean is a member of the Torontc 

Board of Trade. 

The energetic firm of Messrs. Brown & Love, building contractors and dealers in stone, was organized in 1875 h> 

Frederick D. Brown and H. G. Love. Before settling in Canada both of these gentlemen had the advantage of practicu 

training and experience as builders in England. Their handiwork adorns many 

of the chief business streets of the city. The first structures of importance erected 

by the firm in Toronto, were the British America Assurance Company s buildings, 

and the Gas Company s offices, Toronto Street. These were followed by such 

edifices as The Mail building, Bank of Commerce, Canada Life building, Manning 

Arcade, Western Assurance Company s building, Wyld, Grasett & Darling s ware 
house, and St. James Square Presbyterian Church. At Hamilton, the firm erected 

the head office of the Canada Life Insurance Company, the Post Office, and the 

Custom House. This firm have now in hand the erection of the Confederation 
Life Insurance Company s building and the magnificent residence of Mr. George 

Gooderham, liloor Street. Many of the above are illustrated in this volume. 

Mr. Adam Armstrong s residence on St. George Street (see page 54), is a 
fine specimen of Greco-Roman architecture. It was erected of Credit Valley 

stone and red brick, in 1887-8, from plans adapted by its owner, who was also its 

builder. Mr. Armstrong, who is of Scotch descent, was born in the East Riding 

of York, Ont., on the 2 ist of June, 1 847. He received a common school education, 
supplemented by a commercial course. When quite young he was employed as an 
assistant by his father, who was a master-carpenter and joiner, but upon attaining MR. JOHN MCBEAN. 



his majority he abandoned his trade, and 
engaged in mercantile life as a salesman and 
commercial traveller. In 1879 he began 
building operations in Toronto, devoting 
himself mainly to the erection of residential 
structures, building principally upon real 
estate which he owned individually, or over 
which he had control. He is a large 
property-owner, and not unusually owns at 
one time from fifty to one hundred houses 
for rent or sale. Mr. Armstrong is a 
Reformer in politics and a Presbyterian in 

Devonia," the residence of Mr. 
C. R. S. Dinnick, on St. George Street, was 
erected in 1887 from plans made by the 
owner. Mr. Dinnick is a native of Daven 
port, Devonshire, England, where he was 
born on the 2 2nd of August, 1844. He was 
apprenticed at an early age to a carpenter 
and joiner with whom he served seven years. 
Shortly after the expiration of his apprentice 
ship he came to Canada, locating in Toronto 
about the year 1870, and followed his trade 
as a journeyman several years, when he 
engaged in business on his own account as a 
contractor and builder. He pays special 
attention to the craft of a builder, and enjoys 
the reputation of having erected more houses 
lor sale than any other one builder in the 
city. It is only twenty years since Mr. GI.EN ZEPHVI;," RESIDENCE OF MR. STURCRON STEWART, DOWI.ING AVENUE. 

1 >inniek came to Toronto empty-handed, but by diligence and integrity he has now amassed a handsome competence. He is a 
member of Trinity Methodist Church, a Mason, and an Oddfellow, and belongs to the Royal Arcanum. 

The late Mr. Lionel Yorke was, in his day, one of the most extensive contractors in Toronto. Born at Wisbech 
Cambridgeshire, England, March i 7 th, 1834, he was fifty-five years of age at the time of his death in April, 1889. Mr. Yorke 

came to Canada thirty years ago, and after a 
residence of ten years in Peterboro settled 
in Toronto. The first work he undertook 
was the erection of the Government House. 
He was afterwards identified with many of 
the largest building enterprises in Toronto, 
including Yonge Street Arcade, Old St. 
Andrew s Church, Carlton Street Church, the 
Hank of Montreal, and the Standard Bank. 
Mr. Yorke, who was a man of great industry 
and probity, was a prominent member of 
Bond Street Congregational Church. His 
death at a comparatively early age was deeply 

The substantial residence of Mr. 
Henry Lucas, contractor, at 860 College 
Street, was erected in 1889, by himself. Mr. 
Lucas has erected many important buildings 
in Toronto, including the Sick Children s 
Hospital, College Avenue, the Toronto Club, 
York and Wellington Streets, the Burnside 
Lying-in Hospital, and the Barber iS: Ellis 
Company s warehouse. This well-known 
contractor is a native of Portsmouth, England, 


where he was born, December 3ist, 1846. 


He came to Canada in 1871, having previously well-mastered his trade, and has since been fully occupied. He was first High 
Chief Ranger of the Ancient Order of Foresters in the Dominion, and was largely instrumental in obtaining the charter from 

England for tne Subsidiary High Court for Canada. Mr. Lucas is a Baptist, and a 
member of Doric Lodge, A. F. & A. M. 

Mr. John Maloney, dealer in stone and building material, was bom of Irish 
parents in Toronto, August 151)1, 1848. After receiving a primary education in the 
Separate Schools, Mr. Maloney began business life as a teamster and two years after 
wards became a dealer in building stone. Subsequently he was appointed agent for 
the Credit Forks Stone Quarries. In 1885 he purchased a quarry at Shaw Station on 
the C.P.R. and shortly afterwards opened a brick yard at the Humber, from which he 
now turns out a large amount of building material. Mr. Maloney lives on Brock 
Avenue, and a view of his cosy home is given in this work. He is a member of the 
Ancient Order of Foresters and Treasurer of the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. 
The neat and substantial suburban home of Mr. James Clarkson, on Parkdale 
Avenue, is situate on extensive grounds in a desirable section of the city now hein^ 
laid out in building sites. The residence is of red brick, with a western outlook, and 
is modern in style and picturesque in appearance. Mr. Clarkson, who is of American 
descent, was born in the County of York, in 1838, his father, Mr. Hiliary Clarkson, 
having many years ago emigrated from New York, of which State he was a native, and 
settled in the Township of Markham, where he long resided and was much respected 
by all who knew him. The subject of this sketch was engaged in agricultural pursuits 


until about the year 1874, when he removed to Toronto. Previous to his coming here, Mr. Clarkson purchased the valuable 

property on which he now resides, and for several years had it under cultivation as a market-garden. Latterly, some portions 

of the property have been laid out in lots 

suitable for suburban residences. About 

eleven years ago, Mr. Clarkson married 

Miss Catherine Boulton, of Toronto. 

He is a Reformer in politics. 

The Queen s Hotel has long held 
a leading place among the resorts of the 
travelling public in Toronto. The pro 
prietors, Messrs. McGaw & Winnett, 
besides possessing great personal popular 
ity, are experts in catering to the wants of 
their guests. Such distinguished visitors 
as the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia, Prince 
Leopold, Prince George, the Duke and 
Duchess of Connaught, the Marquis of 
Lome, the Earl and Countess of Dufferin, 
the Marquis of I.ansdowne, Lord and 
Lady Stanley, and Sir John Macdonald, 
have made the Queen s their home while 
in Toronto. The hotel, which for more 
than a generation has been identified with 
the growth and development of the city, 
commands a splendid view of Toronto Bay 
and Lake Ontario. It is elegantly furnished 
throughout, and is surrounded by beauti 
ful grounds. It has an excellent cuisine 
and wine-cellar, and the table-attendance 
and general management are such as give 
unbounded satisfaction. 

The Rossin House is one of the best 
known and most centrally located hotels "DON VILLA," RESIDENCE OF MR. S. H. DEFRIES, BROADVIEW AVKNUK. 

in Toronto. Situated at the corner of 

King and York Streets, it is on the route of almost every line of street-cars that traverse the city. For forty years this hot 
has been one of the institutions of the city, and on more that one occasion it has been the home of visiting royalty. 
Prince of Wales, Prince Alfred, and Prince Leopold, have all made the Rossin their headquarters while in Toronto. 



.roprietors, Messrs Nelson Bros, formerly of Halifax, N.S., have recently been improving the interior decorations, and have 

overed the walls and ceilings of many rooms and parlours with magnificent works of art. The decorations of the spacious 
,mng room are exceed.ngly beautiful and ornate. The house is capable of accommodating four hundred and fifty guests. It 

, known among the wealthier classes of 

ravelling Americans from Maine to Cali- 
irnia. Every improvement that modern 

cience can suggest has been added to the 

lossin, and to-day it is one of the most 

lopular hotels in Canada. 

The Walker House is the first hotel 

>f any prominence that meets the eye of the 

raveller on his arrival at Toronto. It is 

.ituated at the corner of York and Front 

Creels, it overlooks the Bay and Lake 

Ontario, and is exceedingly convenient to 

he station. The scrupulous cleanliness of 

he building and the homelike comforts it 

:ffords always ensure it a large share of the 

latronage of the travelling public. Guests 

o the number of 1 70 can be seated in the 

arge and cheerful dining-room. An elevator 

ffords easy access to the 135 sleeping 

partments, all of which are connected by 

lectric calls with the office. The upper 

orridors are laid out in the shape of a 

quare, having exits from two opposite corners. This makes it impossible for fire to cut off retreat, and at the same time secures 

hat perfect ventilation which makes the Walker House one of the coolest hotels in Canada for summer guests. On the opposite 

orner of Front Street, the Walker House annex affords excellent sample rooms for commercial men. Associated with Mr. 

)avid Walker in the proprietorship is Mr. John Wright, under whose management the business has been for some time past. 

:n the office the face of Mr. David Livingston has been familiar for the past twelve years, while Mr. John Grimes, formerly of 

he Grand Union, Ottawa, and Mr. James T. H. Findlay, are more recent though scarcely less popular attaches. 

The Lakeview Hotel, of which Mr. John Ayre is proprietor, occupies a commanding site at the corner of Parliament 
ind Winchester Streets. It is an excellent up-town hotel and is rapidly growing in favour as a resort for the travelling public 
ind families. Electric bells and bath-rooms are provided on every flat. There is a good lawn, telephone communication and 

^^^^^^^^^. convenient access to cars for all parts of the 
city. Iron and patent rope fire-escapes are 
placed in every apartment, so that guests are 
secure from danger of fire. This hotel is 
not far from the Horticultural Gardens and 
Riverdale Park. It is kept scrupulously neat 
and inviting throughout. 

The Elliott House is situated at the 
corner of Church and Shuter Streets, in a 
locality which affords a pleasing view from 
every window. It is a comfortable family 
hotel and has recently been entirely refitted. 
The proprietors, Mr. John Hirst and Mr. ]. 
W. Hirst, who is also manager, are experienced 
hotelkeepers. The former has been thirty 
years in the business, and the latter has 
travelled eleven years through the Dominion. 
Adjoining the hotel is a large lawn shaded by 
some fine trees. The cuisine is one of the 
best equipped in Toronto. The Elliott 
House has sixty sleeping apartments, besides 
ample parlours and reading rooms. Although 
near the centre of the city it possesses all the 
advantages of an up-town hotel. 







E. 1 S and bounds is the figure which most accurately denotes the successive stages in the rising scale of values in the 
.i>M^suble property of Toronto within the past two decades. The increase even in the last ten years has km 
phenomenal. In 1879, the value of 
the city s assessable property was a 
trifle over fifty millions, of which about a sixth 
represented personal property and income, the 
remainder being realty. Last year (1889) the 
assessment values had risen to over one hundred 

and thirty-six millions ! Than these figures, "^ 

with those which mark the equally gratifying 
increase of population within the same period, 
nothing could better indicate the great stride the 
city has taken in the past ten years. The 
absorption by the city of the suburban villages 
to some extent, of course, accounts for this 
astounding increase and the creation of four 
new wards. The less sanguine citizen, we know, 
tells us that we are forging ahead too fast, that 
we are growing at the expense of the smaller 
towns of the Province, and that we cannot 
expect, in the near future at any rate, to 
maintain anything like the ratio of this rapid 
expansion. Possibly he is right. On the other 
hand, it is unlikely that the city, having reached 
such a position as it has now attained and 
established itself in all the elements of wealth 
and consequence, will in any degree backslide 
or lose its present metropolitan eminence. 
Nevertheless, in recent years, Toronto has taken into its corporate 



embrace a very large and far out-spread area, which we ma\ 
for a time find it difficult profitably to utilize, the more so as speculation, rather 
than actual need, has rather extravagantly run up its value. But we are no Cassandra, 
and have faith in the future, believing that the enterprise of investors in city property 
will in due time meet with its reward, and that in the real estate men of Toronto 
and their ventures, Wisdom will be justified of her children. When one recalls 
from what the city has grown, no bounds seem in reason possible to set for its 
future. What Governor Simcoe s feelings would be were his shade now to revisit 
the scene of his once embryo capital, it would take a romancist to describe. Even 
Toronto s first mayor would be at a loss to recognize the city, still less its modern 
water-front, into which the youthful idolaters of the Family Compact threw the great 
Radical s fonts of type and printing-press. At every point sharp contrasts present 
themselves, the extreme being that which puts the value of the assessable property 
of the city to-day against the sum (ten shillings !) for which, tradition has it, the 
whole tract on which Toronto is now built was originally purchased from the 
Mississaga Indians. 

Mr. Francis Cayley, son of the late Hon. William Cayley, was horn at Elnislev 
Villa, Toronto, February yth, 1845. He was educated at Upper Canada Cnllep. 
and was for more than fifteen years connected with the Bank of Toronto. Sinn 
1881, when he entered the real estate business, Mr. Cayley has been closely identified 
with the growth and development of Toronto. His intimate knowledge of the value 
of properties, and his high reputation as a man of business have caused his advice 



to be widely sought. Tracing his lineage back to one of the oldest families of England, Mr. Cayley is naturally inclined to 
Conservatism in politics. To active and industrious habits he owes his success in business, and these and other excellent 




MR. G. \V. BANKS. 

qualities have earned for him eminence in his walk of life, as well as the respect and confidence of the community. In religion, 
Mr. Cayley is a member of the Church of England. His brother is the worthy Rector of St. George s. 

Mr. Herbert Hale Williams, real estate and financial broker, was born September 2ist, 1862. While a pupil at Louisa 
Street School, he was awarded a scholarship, by which he was enabled to become a student at the Toronto Collegiate Institute. 
Since opening his present offices, at 54 Church Street, Mr. Williams has established a reputation as an exceptionally expert 
broker, and one who attends to the interests of his clients in the way most profitable to them. His offices are handsomely 
furnished and have a fireproof vault where documents of clients are safely filed away. Mr. Williams is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, the Sons of England, and the Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Hugh Mac.Math was born in the Township of Goderich, County of Huron, July 3oth, 1841. After receiving a 
training in the London Commercial College, he entered the business of accountant, real estate and insurance agent. His present 
office is in St. Alban s Ward, formerly known as Parkdale. Mr. MacMath was Reeve of the Village and Town of Parkdale from 
1884 till 1887, and was trustee of the Collegiate Institute in 1888. He is treasurer of the Home for Incurables, and takes an 
active interest in Sunday School and Central Prison work. Mr. MacMath is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and has 

long been connected with the Masonic fra 

Mr. Isaac Lennox, land agent, was 
born in the County of Simcoe, August lyth, 
1842. Until twenty-nine years of age Mr. 
Lennox was a tiller of the soil. He spent 
five years thereafter in the milling business, 
removing to Toronto, in 1876, to engage in 
the lumber trade. This calling he followed 
several years, till he relinquished it to become 
a land agent. Mr. Lennox was a member of 
Parkdale Council in 1884, Reeve in 1887, 
and on the annexation of the town to Toronto 
in 1888, he became one of the aldermanic 
representatives of the new Ward of St. Albans. 
Mr. Lennox is an active member of Parkdale 
Methodist Church, and as Chairman of the 
Building Committee, took an important part 
in securing the erection of the magnificent 
new edifice at the corner of King Street and 
1 )unn Avenue. 

Mr. Ernest Albert Macdonald, well 
known as the founder of Chester, from his 
"THORN-HURST," RESIDENCE OK MR. G. P. MA<;AX.\. Doui.i.v; AVENUE. close identification with that rising suburb, 



was horn near the Town of Brockville, Out.. November ist, 1859. He received a general education at Toronto, and a military 
training at Kingston. Mr. Mardonald carries on an extensive business as a builder and dealer in real estate. In 1886 he was 
1 by the voters of St. Mark s Ward, to represent them in the City Council. He has since remained an active member of 
that body, being now the aldermamV representative of St. James Ward. Mr. Macdonald contested East Toronto at the last 
Cieneral Dominion Election, as un Independent candidate. Though still a young man, his name is a well-known one in Toronto. 

In politics, Mr. Macdonald is a Liberal-Conservative, and in religion, a Presby 
terian. He is a member of the Masonic, 

Oddfellow and Good Templar Orders. 

Mr. George Wilson Banks, estate. 

insurance and general agent, corner of 

Oueen and Victoria Streets, was born on 

March i-jth, 1851, in Liverpool, England. 

He came to Toronto in 1862, and after 

receiving a good educational grounding in 

this city was associated for eleven years 

with Mr. W. T. Mason in business. Since 

1876, Mr. Banks has followed his present 

occupation with increasing success. The 

Presbyterian body receives his support. 

Mr. J. J. Threlkeld was born in 

Toronto in the year 1862, and has since- 
resided in this city. He attended, as a 

youth, the Public and Model Schools. 

Since entering the real estate business a> 

head of the firm of J. J. Threlkeld & Co., 

he has had a wide experience in handling 
properties. The office of the firm is at 19 Adelaide Street East. Mr. Threlkeld was identified with the early growth of the 
Town of Parkdale, of which he was a Councillor in 1886 and 1887. He is a Liberal in politics, and a Presbyterian in religion. 
Mr. William Bell was born at Woolwich, England, September gth, 1836. Being brought to Canada at a very early age 
he learned the trade of machinist in Montreal. At the age of eighteen he joined the Orange Society in Montreal and has since 
occupied the chairs up to that of County Master, which he fills at present. He was a member of the Public School Board of 



MR. K. \v. 1). BUTLER. 


onto for e,ght years, beginning with 1878. Lrom ,88, to ,884 he was a member of the City Council, resigning to take the 

tor. In , 8J S he was re-elected and is still the representative of St. Stephen s Ward. In politics Mr. Hell 

lonservative until the passage of the Jesuit Estates Bill caused him to sever himself from party politics. He has 

ter ol the E.|ual Rights Association, in the interest of which he made a good run in Toronto for the Local 

>". Mr. liell wasthe first to join the Prince of Wales Regnnent in Montreal and entered for s, 



with the Queen s Own Rifles during the Trent affair. He is a member of the -Masonic fraternity, Sons of England, Royal 
Arcanum. St. George s Society, A..O.U.W., ( trder of Chosen Friends, Select Knights of A.O.U.W.. and the Toronto Board of 
Trade. Mr. Hell is a Methodist and Imperial Federationist. He is senior member of the firm of \\m. Bell & Son, coal and wood 

merchants, and real estate 
and insurance agents. 

Mr. Ernest \Y. I ). But 
ler, was born in Dublin, 
Ireland, June i6th, 1853. 
Being brought to Canada at 
an early age he received his 
education in Toronto. His 
present enterprise, established 
by his father in 1860, and 
carried on by Mr. Butler since 
1880, is that of selling, pur 
chasing and managing proper 
ties, investing money, valuing, 
arbitrating,and doing a life and 
fire insurance business. Mr. 
Butler is President of the 
Canadian Savings. Loan and 
Building Association, and 
Valuator for several loan 
companies. He is Grand 
Secretary for the Sovereign 

Sanctuary of Canada and 
Newfoundland, Royal and 
Oriental Freemasonry, 33 , 
36 . 90 . and is a member of 
the I. O. O. F., the I. O. F., 

Royal Arcanum, Orange Association, Young Men s Liberal-Conservative Association, and Board of Trade. Mr. Butler is a 

Presbyterian and a Conservative, believing in the Equal Rights movement and supporting it. 

Mr. Louis O. P. Genereux, of the firm of Genereux & Lloyd, real estate brokers, was born at Berthier, Ln Haul, July 

ii>t, 1851. He received a good commercial education at St. Vinteur College, Berthier. During his connection with the real 

MK. L. li. V. GF.NKKF.UX. 


I. J. Melx I VRK. 

estate business Mr. Genereux has had charge of the Vaughan estate, the Miles estate, the Wakefield estate, the Wyckwood Terrace 
state, and many others. He is Managing-Director of the City and District Land and Loan Company of Toronto. As a real 
estate broker he is well and favourably known in the city. His business career has been a very successful one. His careful 
attention to the interest of clients and liberal use of advertising mediums enable him almost invariably to effect speedy sales. 



Mr. George Faulkner, real estate broker, was horn in 
F.nniskillen, Ireland, August nth. 1X42, and educated at the 
Royal School. Portoru, Ireland. Mr. Faulkner was for five 
associated with Mr. Frastus Wiman in the news publishing 
business and afterwards continued in the same line on his own 
nit. He was engaged for some time in the boot and shoe 
trade, till in 1873 he entered the real estate business. His 
present office is at 21 Adelaide Street East. Mr. Faulkner has 
been one of the City Assessors and Emigrant Agent in Ontario 
for British Columbia. His fine residence is at the corner of 
King Street and Dowling Avenue, and is somewhat in the 
Moorish style of architecture. 

Mr. Tohn J. Mclntvre, real estate agent and valuator, is 
by birth a Canadian, having been born March ist, 1847, in the 
Tounship of North (lore. County of Carleton, Ontario. The 
public schools in the locality where he was born equipped him 
with the education with which he started on his business 
career. At twelve years of age he went into the lumber business 
at ( Htawa. He came to Toronto and for seven years was fore 
man of the Toronto Bolt and Iron Works. For several years 
past he has devoted his attention to real estate. Mr. Mclntyre 
is a Presbyterian and an active member of the Independent 
( )rder of Foresters. 

Among the enterprising younger real estate agents in 
Toronto, is the firm of Messrs. Murdoch & Wilson, composed 
of Kenneth Murdoch and Thomas Wilson. The former is a 
native of Kingston, although most of his life was spent in 
Toronto, and the latter, " to the manner born. Both gentle 
men had a practical business experience before joining in 
their present enterprise. At the time of their advent as estate 
agents there were not more than twenty agencies of that ilk in 
Toronto, and the young firm soon had a prosperous and 
profitable business. Their offices were originally on Wellington 
Street : nine years ago they located on Victoria Street, where they remain. In addition to the business usually transacted in 
;vn estate agency, they make a specialty of lending money on first-class city and farm property and avoid all speculative ventures, 
preferring to guide their clients in safe investments. 

Mr. Donald Campbell, real estate broker, born near Barrie, July gth, 1847, comes of Scotch parents. His education 
was obtained at the Barrie Grammar School, from which he came to Toronto, and entered the employment of Hughes Bros., 
wholesale dry-goods merchants. Subsequently he served three years in the Bank of Toronto, when he was appointed Manager 
,_,, of the Barrie branch. He afterwards was 

for four years associated with the Inspec 
tor s department of the Bank. Being 

compelled by ill-health to relax attention 

to business he took an extended ocean 

voyage, and on returning spent some years 

in the lumbering business, associated with 

W. R. Burt ,V- Co. In 1887, he entered 

his present business, building an imposing 

block at West Toronto | unction, which 

he sold for $60,000. Mr. Campbell is a 
Presbyterian. Through his efforts St. 

Andrew s Society at Barrie was organi/cd 

in 1871, and he is now an honoured life 

member of the Society. 

Mr. Frederick George Fee, of the 

firm of F. G. Lee & Co., real estate, 

financial and insurance brokers, was born 

at Southampton, Hampshire, England. 
His father was killed while attempting to 
run the blockade during the American 







war of secession. Being left an orphan at an early age, young Lee started business on his own account before he was seventeen 
years old. Coming to Toronto in 1872 he made his first venture as an upholsterer, and carried on a successful business, leaving 

it six years ago to devote his attention to real estate, in which line he is equally 
successful. Mr. Lee is a member of the I.O.O.F., the Sons of England, and the 
Royal Templars of Temperance. He owes his success entirely to British pluck. 

Mr. Rufus Ormond Whitby, of the firm of Graham & Whitby, real estate 
and financial brokers, was born in the County of Leeds, Ontario, in the year 1861. 
He resided for some time at Markdale, where he took an active interest in the 
Young Men s Liberal Club, of which he became President. Coming to Toronto he 
formed his present business relations, which have proved successful. The firm, 
besides transacting business connected with real estate, have fire and life insurance 
agencies, furnish valuations, loan money and manage estates. Mr. VYhitby is a 
worthy member of the Methodist Church. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ Mr. John |. Graham, builder, real 

estate broker and valuator, is a native of 
Canada, having been born in the County 
of York, November the 2nd, 1852. He 
received a good public school education at 
Aurora, Ont, and coming to Toronto in 
1883, started his present business, which 
has already shown all the elements of 
success. Mr. Graham is connected with 
MR. DONALD CAMPBELL. two l )ene fi t societies, the Royal Arcanum 

and the Order of Foresters. He is a 

Methodist and a Steward of Dundas Street 

Church. Both as a mechanic and as a 

merchant, Mr. Graham has had a wide 


Mr. W. H. Xash, real estate and 

insurance agent, was born in the County 

of Lincoln, on the 8th of March, 1847. 

After receiving a good education in the 

public schools, he worked as a mechanic 

till his twenty-fifth year, when he obtained 

a Provincial certificate. For eight years he taught school, a part of the time in the 

Collegiate Institute at St. Catharines. 
Mr. Nash was agent for the Confedera 
tion Life Insurance Company for six 
years, till in 1887 he established his 
present business. He is a working 
member of the Methodist Church, and 
Superintendent of the Sunday School of 
Berean Methodist Church, Toronto West 

In Canada there are, in the English sense, not many great houses and no great 
territorial families. In the New World democracy reigns, and its communities 
are little accustomed to be dominated by the social influences of a landed gentry 
or of a single ruling house. As wealth increases, there will no doubt come into 
the social system lords of many acres and holders of extensive landed estates. In 
time we may also look for large additions to the ranks of men of competence and 
leisure, and see arise the great city mansion and, here and there in the land, the 
fine property of the country-gentleman. In the city s suburbs we have, already, 
not a few handsome residences, and no lack of eligible sites on which to build 
more Some of the old family homesteads are also occasionally coming into the 
market, within tolerably easy reach of the city, and these, with their often picturesque 
sites are desirable acquisitions for moderni/.ing and making into an enjoyable 

country home. " Buttonwood," on the Humbe r, near the village of Weston, is one of these. It has recently been purchased, 

with its farm of eighty acres, by Mr. Charles Lindsey, of Beverley Street, as a summer residence. 

situated, on a high Joint of land/from which beautiful views up and down the Humber are had, w,th a fine stretch of me: 

at the foot of the wooded bluff, which recalls many a lovely bit of Old England. 

MR. K. G. LF.E. 









A TRADING-POST in the French regime, Toronto first came into note, and it is natural 
as well as gratifying to find the city of to-day maintaining with credit to itself and its 
toilers its eminence in commerce. We have already pointed out that at the period of 
the Conquest there was a large business done at Fort Toronto with the Indians, and that 
traders would have been willing, had the post been maintained, to give as much as a 
thousand pounds for the monopoly of the season s trade. Since then we have had done 
with monopolies, but were it desirable to revive them it would hardly be possible to put 
in figures the sum which would buy at a fair valuation the monopoly of a season s trade of 
the modern capital. What to-day are the annual aggregate profits of Toronto s commerce 
we have no means of knowing, and it is even difficult to ascertain with certainty what is the 
aggregate volume of her annual trade. The difficulty arises from the fact that not all of 
the city s imports, and but a tithe of the city s exports, pass through the Toronto Custom 
House. Probably we should not be far astray in our estimate if we quoted the figures 
which represent the sum of the exports and imports of the whole Province, and claimed 
one-tenth of the former and one-half of the latter as Toronto s share of the gross trade. 
Let us quote these figures, twenty years apart, as indicating the growth of commerce 
within the two periods. The exports of Ontario, in 1869, were in round figures, twenty 
millions; in 1889, they were thirty millions: the imports in the former period were 

twenty-four millions ; in the latter, forty-three millions. The duties levied on the imports were, in 1869, two millions ; in 1889, 

eight millions. The annual statement of the Toronto Board of Trade, for the year 1889, furnishes partial confirmation of the 

rough estimate we have made. We quote the figures, though with some mental reservation as to their accuracy, in view of what 

we have said of the difficulty of estimating the gross value of the city s exports, which flow out of the city by so many and 

varied channels. The statistics are : total . 

value of imports (1889), $20,457,376 ; duty 

paid thereon, $4,339,839 ; total value of 

exports (1889), $2,960,689. Another indi 
cation of the extent of Toronto s commerce 

is to be found in the statistics of her Post 

( MtVe. The total number of letters delivered 

by carriers in the city was, for the year 1889, 

over thirteen millions, with a like number 

posted at tlu office. This is exclusive of 

book packages, circulars, post-cards and 

newspapers. In this maxc of business it is 

wonderful how little we hear of correspond 
ence guing astray, and credit is due to the 

office for its finely-organized distributing 

iiKthods, safety and despatch. To pay a 

passing compliment in one direction is, in 

this commercial age. to pay it in all, and to 

acknowledge the universality of the forces 

and energies which move and govern the 

whole machinery and every ramification <.f 

trade. Toronto s share in this trade happily 

increases from year to year. How much 

enterprise and high, honest endeavour lie 
id it. the thoughtful onlooker will not 
fail to note. A city s commerce is not built 
up without making vast draughts on the toiler s brain and muscle. In his labours, both for himself and the community, n 
there always be an ample and a lasting reward. 




Mr. Frederick Wyld, head of the well-established firm of Messrs. \Vyld. Grasett & Darling, wholesale dry-goods merchants, 
is a son of a Leith merchant ; his father, William Wyld, having been a partner in the house of Messrs. James Wyld & Co. 
Mr. Wyld, both as a citizen and a man of 
business, possesses the high worthy charac 
teristics of his nationality. He was born at 
Scotson Park. Oueensferry, Scotland, Decem 
ber 24th, 1832. and was educated at Irvine 
Academy. Mr. Wyld had a thorough business 
training in Edinburgh and Glasgow before 
coming to Canada at the age of twenty-two. 
He located in Hamilton, where he remained 
till 1872, when he removed to Toronto. Here 
his firm have recently erected one of the 
finest warehouses in Toronto. Since 1872, 
he has been prominently identified with the 
commercial interests of this city, and is known 
as one of the chiefs of its trade and com 
merce. Mr. Wyld is a Director of the 
Standard Bank, the London & Ontario 
Investment Co., and the Toronto Land 
Investment Co. He is also President of the 
Fire Insurance Exchange. As a Scotchman, 
he is a member of the St. Andrew s Society, 
though in matters of national well-being and 

sentiment he is essentially a Canadian. He is a member of the Church of England. 
Views of his firm s fine warehouse will be found on this page. 

The view of the extensive warehouse of Messrs. John Macdonald & Co., which we 
give in these pages, is of the Wellington Street front. The buildings extend through to 
Front Street, and contain the most extensive stock of dry-goods in Canada. This most 
reputable firm was established in 1849, by the late Senator John Macdonald, and its 
career has been one of unbroken success. In 1887 Mr. Macdonald admitted into 





partnership his eldest son, John 
Kidston Macdonald, and Paul 
Campbell, both of whom had long 
been identified with the business 
In February, 1890, Mr. Macdonald, 
senior, died, and since then the 
second son of the late Senator has 
become a member of the firm. The 
three members of the house are 
active, energetic and thoroughly- 
qualified business men, and having 
a large established business, with 
ample capital, they are able to buy 
to the best advantage. The house 
is generally believed to do the largest 
turn-over in the Dominion. Their 



travellers canvass the trade from ocean to ocean. Besides the enormous business in dry-goods and woollens done by the firm, 
they make a specialty of carpets, oilcloths and linoleums. They were the first here to introduce the departmental system of doing 

business, and to send to British and European 
markets a buyer twice a year from each depart 
ment. To speak of the commerce of Toronto 
is to call to mind, this, one of its chief depots. 

The old and long established wholesale 
dry-goods house of Messrs. Gordon, Mackay & 
Co., was founded in Hamilton in 1855, by the 
late Mr. John Gordon and Mr. Donald Mackay. 
In 1859, the shipping advantages of Toronto 
attracted the firm to this city. Two years later, 
they built the Lybster Cotton Mills at Merrit- 
ton, an industry which they still own and 
operate. The firm built in 1871 the extensive 
warehouse at the corner of Bay and Wellington 
Streets which they now occupy, a picture of 
which will be found in our pages. The senior 
member of the firm, Mr. John Gordon, who 
was a well-known and much esteemed citizen, 
died in Paris in 1882, whither he had gone three 
years previously in pursuit of health. Two of 
his old and trusted employees were then admitted 
by Mr. Mackay into the business. The firm 
now consists of Donald Gordon, C. C. Robb, 
and J. W. Woods. This house earned a reputa 
tion in its early history for systematic business 
methods, and has steadily maintained its good 
name for the long period of thirty-five years. 

Mr. Donald Mackay, of the firm of 
Messrs. (Jordon, Mackay & Co., wholesale dry- 
goods merchants, was born in Lybster, Scotland, 
in the year 1815. Coming to Canada in the 
early thirties, Mr. Mackay served in the Rebel 
lion of 1837, on the Loyalist side. He resided 
a number of years in Montreal, where he entered 


into mercantile life with his two elder brothers. In 1848 he removed to Hamilton, 
and with his nephew, formed the now extensive wholesale dry-goods house of Gordon, 
Mackay & Co., 48 Front Street West. Mr. Mackay is a Director of the Ontario Bank, 
of which he was formerly Vice-President. He is also a Director of the London & 
Canadian Loan and Agency Company, and is identified with several other business 
enterprises. Mr. Mackay, who is one of the most respected of our chiefs of commerce, 
is a member of Knox Presbyterian Church, and of St. Andrew s Society. 

Among the houses of eminence in the dry-goods business in Canada, that of 
Messrs. Wyld, Grasett & Darling is one that takes first rank. In the magnificent 
premises erected by the firm on the corner of Bay and Wellington Streets, it possesses 
unusual facilities for doing business. It has command of large capital, varied experi 
ence in all departments of the trade, and its partners are men of excellent business 
ability and high personal worth. The success it has met with, and its high standing 
in commercial circles in Toronto, manifest the favor with which it is regarded in all parts of the Dominion. 

Mr. A. A. Allan, senior member of the firm of Messrs. A. A. Allan & Co., wholesale hat and fur merchants, was born 
March i4th, 1842, in the Island of South Ronaldshay, of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. His family came to Canada, in 1842, 
and settled at Port Rowan. At twelve years of age Mr. Allan went to Cobourg, where he resided six years, when he came to 




Toronto, and after long experience as a com 
mercial traveller, founded the present business 
in 1877. Mr. Allan is a Presbyterian, and one 
of the managers of St. James Square Presby 
terian Church. He is a member of the 
Council of the Board of Trade, St. Andrew s 
Society, a 1 Hrector of the Traders Hank, and 
of the National Club. In 1888, Mr. Allan 
was elected President of the Commercial 
Travellers Association. Mr. James 1). Allan, 
who is also a member of the firm, is a brother 
of Mr. A. A. Allan, and was born at Port 
Rowan, August 3131, 1850. He was early as 
sociated with the firm of Messrs. A. A. Allan 
& Co., general merchants of that place, and 
came to Toronto in 1877 to become a mem 
ber of the present establishment. Like his 
brother. Mr. Allan is a Presbyterian. 

Mr. Thomas McLean, chief clerk of 
Her Majesty s Customs, Port of Toronto, was 
horn at Turlo, County Mayo, Ireland, of 
parents of Scotch descent, lanuary 22nd. 




1831. After being educated in the Elphin 
Academy, he was employed as a clerk in the 
Public Works Department of the Imperial 
Government. In 1850, he was transferred to 
the Drainage Commission of the Board of 
Works, and after spending some time in the 
head office in the Mayo District, he resumed 
his former office with a widened sphere. In 
1854, he came to Canada and served in a law 
office in Toronto, till, in 1857, during the 
land boom, he went into the real estate busi 
ness. Three years afterwards, he began 
publishing a weekly newspaper, named the 
Hritish Herald, which succumbed when the 
office was destroyed by lire in 1862. During 
the year following Mr. McLean published a 
monthly magazine, the British American, 
which, however, only lived one year. In 
1870, he was temporarily appointed clerk in 




the Toronto Customs House, which position 
was made permanent the following year. He 
was promoted to the position of chief clerk in 
1X79, and has shown great adaptability to the 
office. His wide knowledge of Customs matters 
and his obliging disposition and urbanity of 
manner have made him very favourably known 
to all who have business at the Custom House. 
Mr. McLean is also Acting Registrar of shipping 
for this port. His residence, " Garnevilla," on 
Sorauren Avenue, is a pretty picturesque home, 
having a fine sylvan setting. 

Mr. Alexander M. Smith, of the firm of 
Messrs. Smith & Keighley, wholesale grocers, 
was born of good old Scottish and Presbyterian 
stock, at Monymusk, Aberdeenshire, in 1818. 
After receiving the education common to his 
worthy countrymen in Scotland, he, like many 
other enthusiastic youths of North Britain, was 
attracted to the service of Mars, and spent four 




years of his early life in the XCHI. High 
landers. Though fond of the service, and 
good as were his prospects, he withdrew 
from it, at the earnest solicitation of his 
family ; and the passing years saw him a 
resident and an adopted son of Canada. 
Here he took to commercial life for a calling, 
and for over forty years has been worthily 
identified with the civic, military, parliamen 
tary, and mercantile interests of the City and 
Province. The firm of Messrs. Smith & 
Keighley has enjoyed a high reputation for 
close upon thirty years, and Mr. Smith, him 
self, has throughout that period led a blameless 
life and possessed the esteem and confidence 
of the community. For some years, in " the 
fifties," he was a member of the City Council. 
and from 1863 down to Confederation he 
represented East Toronto in the Parliament 
of the United Canadas. In 1858 Mr. Smith 
raised the Highland Company of City 
Volunteers, and was in command of it until 
it became an integral part of the Queen s 
Own Rifles, of which corps Mr. Smith was at 
one time Major. He also held for a period 
the Colonelcy of the ist Provisional Regi 
ment, which was called out on active service 
during the excitement incident to the Fenian 
Raids. On the return to their homes of this 
extemporized corps, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Smith was thanked for his public services by 
the Lieutenant-Genera] in command ol tin. 1 
District. Mr. Smith has been President of 
the St. Andrew s Society, and of the Toronto 
Board of Trade. He is at present a member 
of the Council of the latter, and is President 
of the Western Assurance Co., and of the 
Canada Lake Superior Transit Co. ; a mem 
ber of the Board of the Canada Labour and 
Savings Society, and of the Ontario Bank 
Board. He also represents the Board of 



Trade on the Harbour Commission. In 
politics, Mr. Smith is a Liberal ; in religion, 
he is a staunch Presbyterian. 

Mr. Harvey Prentice Dwight, Vice- 
President and General Manager of the Great 
North-\Vestern Telegraph Company of 
Canada, was born at Belleville, Jefferson 
County. Xew York, December 23rd, 1828. 
At the age of fifteen he left home to serve 
an apprenticeship of three years in a country 
store. In 1847, then in his nineteenth 
vear, he learned telegraphy in Oswego, N.Y., 
and was given employment by the Montreal 
Telegraph Company, which opened a line 
in the autumn of that year, between Quebec 
and Toronto. After serving at Montreal 
three years, he was placed in charge of the 
office at Toronto. Soon afterwards he was 
appointed Superintendent for Western 
Canada, and the business developed till he 
had under his charge a network of wires 
reaching all the important points in the 
Province. In 1881, on the consolidation of 
the Canadian companies, he was appointed 
Cieneral Manager of the system extending 
throughout Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick 
and Manitoba, and also occupying portions 
of the States of New York, Vermont, New 
Hampshire, and Maine. Mr. Dwight was 
elected Yice-President of the Company a 
year ago, taking the place of the late Wm. 
Gooderham. He is a Director of the Midland 
Railway Company and the Toronto Incan 
descent Electric Light Company. Until the 
absorption of the Toronto & Nipissing Rail 
way and the Victoria Railway by the Grand 
Trunk, he was a Director in both companies. 
Previous to the transfer of the Horticultural 
Gardens to the City of Toronto, Mr. Dwight, 
who has been always a zealous friend of the 
people in the matter of recreation grounds in 



the city, took an active interest in the 
Society, and was one of the I Hrectors. 
Mr. Dwight is a man of fine business 
habits, sterling honour, high executive 
ability, and in the important trust he 
holds fulfils with great credit to himself 
and with advantage to the public the 
delicate and responsible duties of his 
office. He is a member of the Church 
of England, and has always kept aloof 
from polities. 

The Barber &: Ellis Company, 
the extensive wholesale manufacturing 
stationers, was founded in 1875, by 
James Barber and John F. Ellis. Until 
1883 the business was conducted by 
these two gentlemen, under the firm 
name of Messrs. Barber & Ellis. In 
that year the concern became a joint- 






The fancy goods house of Messrs. Hickson, Duncan & Co., 
a picture of which is given herewith, is an extensive establishment. 
The business was founded in 1878, by W. H. Bleasdell and E. 
Hickson, under the name W. H. Bleasdell & Co. In 1889, Mr. 
Bleasdell retired and Mr. J. Duncan became a member of the firm 
under the present name. During several months every year the firm 
has a buyer in the German, Austrian and French markets, making 
selections to supply the retail fancy goods trade. Lines of goods are 
kept on hand to meet the requirements of druggists, tobacconists, 
booksellers, music dealers, jewellers, etc. The firm also handles 
English cutlery, and the products of several American manufacturers 
extensively. Six travellers receive orders for Messrs. Hickson, Dun 
can (.V- Co., from one end of the Dominion to the other. Both 
members of the firm have a business experience of over thirty years. 
Mr. John Hallam, the active representative in the City Council 
of St. Lawrence Ward, and a most useful and public-spirited citizen, 
was born at Chorley, Lancashire, England, October 131(1, 1833. He 
is essentially a self-made man and the unaided architect of his own 

fortunes. Until he was 
twenty years of age, his 
opportunities of obtaining 
an education were very 
slender, his early life having 
been passed, like that of 
his parents, in a cotton 
factory, where the hours 
were long and the toil 
hard. Even when he 
emerged from his teens, all 
the schooling he had was 
gained at a night school, 
supplemented by his own 
private reading, spurred on 
by a laudable thirst for 
knowledge and a desire to 
advance himself in life. In 
1856, he emigrated to 
Canada and settled in 
AI.DEKMAN JOHN HAI.I.AM. Toronto, where for some 


stock company, with Mr. John R. Barber of 
the Georgetown Paper Company who became 
the principal stockholder, as President; John 
! . Ellis, Managing-Director; J. T. Clark, 
Treasurer; P. T. Perrot and J. \V. Maughan. 
I (irectors. The fine warehouse shown in the 
illustration stands on I!av Street near Front 
Street, and was erected in 1887, for the 
growing necessities of this useful industry. 
It is six storeys in height, and covers an area 
of 7,000 square feet. The Barber <S; Ellis 
Company are well-known as wholesale 
stationers, bookbinders and paper-box 
makers. They have the largest and most 
complete envelope factory in Canada, being 
able to turn out 750,000 envelopes daily. 
The goods of this house find their way to 
every part of the Dominion, and the firm 
deservedly enjoys a high reputation for 
business ability and integrity. The enter 
prise of this house is as well known to the 
trade as is its industry. 




years his career was one of strenuous labour, disciplined by adversity In rSrtrt h I 

hide, wool and leather merchant, and has met with the <rood for , T ^ "*" 

successful career is a notable example of % waits on industry and honest effort. His 

what steady perseverance can accomplish, 
when it is allied with high and beneficent 
aims. With a short break, Mr. Hallam has 
almost uninterruptedly represented a ward of 
the city in the Council which is distinctively 
commercial, for a period of nearly twenty 
years. In this capacity, he has ever been 
zealous for reform, and has intelligently and 
usefully served the city in the important 
trusts committed to him. As a legislator at 
ill. Council Hoard, he has carried many 
measures of importance, been an uncom 
promising foe to tax exemptions, and an 
earnest advocate of public parks and other 
means of recreation for the people. To Mr. 
Hallam, chiefly, the citizens owe the Free 
Public Library, and to its interests he has 
devoted much of his time and administrative 
ability, with substantial gifts from his purse. 

The Hallam Reference Library, in that 

institution, is a mark at once of his RESIDENCE OK MR. HENRY LUCAS, COLLEGE STKKM 

ttfosity and of his devotion to the best interests of the city. Mr. Hallam takes an active interest in all public questions and 
IS an enthusiastic Canadian. In politics, as in religion, he is a Liberal, and, economically, a Free Trader. 

Mr. Hugh N. Baird, gram merchant, was born at Cobourg, September 2 4 th 
1836. He is a son of the late Mr. N. H. Baird, C.E, who was identified with leading 
public improvements in Upper and Lower Canada during the first half of the century. 
The subject of this sketch was educated at a private school in Montreal. He is a 
member of the firm of Messrs. Crane & Baird, Montreal and Toronto, which was 
established twenty-five years ago and does a very large grain export trade. The firm 
s largely interested in several manufacturing and commercial enterprises at Paris, Ont. 
-Mr. Baird was Vice- President of the old Corn Exchange, and is now Vice-President of jft 




the Toronto Board of Trade. He is a 
Director of the Western -Assurance Company, 
Millers and Manufacturers Insurance Com 
pany, the Ontario \- Sank Ste. Marie Railway, 
and the Midland Division of the ( ,. T. R. 
In religious matters, Mr. Baird is connected 
with the Northern Congregational Church. 
Mr. Klias Rogers, one of the best 
known and most worthy of coal dealers in 
Canada, was born near Newmarket, June 
23rd, 1850. The public school education he- 
received was supplemented by two terms, 



attendance at College in New York. His 
first business venture was in the lumber trade 
at twenty years of aye. A lew years later 
he became interested in coal mines at Key 
noldsville, I a., and turned his attention 
entirely to the coal business. In 1876, IK 
opened an office in Toronto to do a whole 
sale and retail business in partnership with 
Mr. F. C. Dininny, a wealthy operator in 
anthracite coal. Subsequently Mr. Rogers 
became sole owner of the Reynoldsville bitu 
minous mine. Although still a young man 
he has built up one of the most extensive 
businesses of the kind in Canada. In iSS;. 
after one year s service in the City Council, 
he was brought prominently before the people 
of Toronto as a candidate for the Mayoralty, 
in response to a requisition signed by live 
thousand voters. His defeat was caused by 
the presence of a third candidate in the 
field. Mr. Rogers has been a member of 
the Council of the Board of Trade for some 
years, and is well known in connection with 
religious and philanthropic institutions. 

If it is an iron age, it is also a coal 
age, and the industries are many and exten 
sive to which the mining of coal has given 
birth. Of bituminous coal, Canada has 
large deposits in Nova Scotia, and of anthra 
cite coal she is understood to have plenty 
in British Columbia. But these Provinces 
are both of them distant from ( Intario and 
her people have to be content in the main with 
the importation from nearer markets of dom 
estic fuel. The Ontario Coal Company was 
formed only two years ago, and is now doing 
one of the largest businesses in the coal 
trade in Ontario. The fuel handled last year 
represented a value of about $1,000,000. 
During the first season s operations of the 
Company 30,000 tons of coal passed through 
their hands, while their shippings last season 
reached 115,000 tons of hard coal, 75,000 
tons of soft coal, and 50,000 cords of wood. 
HEAIJ OFFICE OF MKSSRS. ELI AS ROGERS & Co., KING STREET WEST. The Company deals chiefly in the Fehigli 

Valley coal. Their dock, at the foot of Church Street, is 213 feet 
wide and 506 feet long. There are two steam elevators on the prem 
ises, and automatic appliances capable of unloading 800 tons a day. 
At the close of navigation last year there were 60,000 tons of coal 
on the dock. The Company is officered by Mr. M. F. Brown, Presi 
dent and Treasurer; Mr. 1). R. Dewey, Hamilton, Vice-President, 
and Mr. F. Y. Illackman, Secretary. 

The Conger Coal Company is the outgrowth of a small 
and unpretentious coal and wood business which was estab 
lished by the late Mr. P. 1). Conger, in Toronto, twenty-one 
years ago. By hard work and ceaseless vigilance Mr. Conger 
built up an immense trade, which was still increasing at the 
time of his lamented death, in 1885. The Conger Coal Com 
pany, of which Mr. Ralph C.ibson is the President and Trea 
surer, and Mr. James I- . Clark, Secretary, has since that time- 
carried on the business. The Company handles the best YARD OF E. ROGERS & Co., ESPLANADE, NEAR CHURCH Si 


Pittston and Scranton anthracite coal, shipping direct from the mines to their commodious docks at the foot of Church Strc 
where it is handled with the latest improved machinery. Thev do an extensive ret-iil m 1 1 

isive retail trade, besides supplying many country 


dealers. In addition to the large anthracite coal trade, they distribute soft coal and coke for domestic, steam and blacksmith^ 
purposes, and cordwood, pine and charcoal. Besides the general office at 6 King Street East, the ( ompanv has manv branch 
offices throughout the city. The firm has an excellent business reputation. 






Mr. Alexander Nairn, of the firm of Messrs. A. \ S. Nairn, wharfingers and coal merchants, was born in Clasgow. 
Scotland, in 1832. There he was educated and trained to business life in the office of his father, a large mill-owner and -rain 
merchant. Mr. Nairn came to Canada in 1857, and fora number of years as in business in Rockwood. Count) Wellington, 
as a miller and grain commission merchant, and was largely identified with the industries of the place. In 1874 he removed to 



Toronto, and in the following year entered into partnership with his brother Stephen, under the firm name of A. Ov S. Xairn, 
still carrying on in his own account several large contracts with the railways for the supply of timber and ties, and building ojie 


of the finest docks in the city for the uses of his firm. He was also interested in the lake trade, a stockholder in the Western 
Transportation Coal Co., and in 1879 was on the Directorate of the Toronto, Grey &: Bruce Ry. In 1880, Mr. Xairn 

retired from active business, though he is still 

* ^MiMB a member of the Board of Trade, and the 

owner of flour, saw and woollen mills at 
Hanover, County Bruce ; a Director of the 
London & Ontario Investment Co., of the 
James Bay R. R. Co., of the Incandescent 
Light Co., of the Dominion Safe Deposit and 
Warehousing Co., etc. In politics, Mr. Xairn 
is a Reformer; in religion, a Presbyterian. 
Mr. B. Westwood was born in Red- 
ditch, England, July i5th, 1845, where he 
was educated, and when still a youth 
given a thorough training in the manu 
facture of needles and fishing tackle, for 
which Redditch has long been celebrated. In 
1867 he came to Toronto and assisted in 
managing the branch-house of the firm <>t 
Allcock, Laight & Co. In 1873, Mr. West- 
wood was admitted to an equal share in the 
business as resident partner, and the linn 
became Allcock, Laight cV Westwood. The 
-enior partners have always lived in England, 
where they carry on one of the largest fish 
ing tackle establishments in the world. Mr. 
RESIDENCE OF MR. A. NAIRN, JARVIS STREET. Westwood is also interested in other business 



enterprises and in Toronto real estate. He is President of the Eno Steam Generator Co. (Limited), and a Director of the l.yam 
Manufacturing Co. (Limited). Commencing at eighteen years of age as a local preacher, Mr. Westwood has always taken a deep 

interest in Methodism, and has , 

occupied almost every lay position 
in the church. The Central Metho- 
dist Church, Spadina Avenue 
Church, Trinity Methodist Church, 
and 1 arkdalc Methodist Church 
have all been assisted by Mr. West- 

Mr. George Leslie, Sr., one 
of the oldest and worthiest residents 
of Toronto, was born at Rogart, 
Sutherlandshire, Scotland, in 1804. 
He came with his parents and six 
brothers and sisters to this country 
in 1825. Whenthefamilyreached 
Toronto, there were but five brick 
buildings on King Street. Mr. 
Leslie lived in Streetsville for a 
short time and returned to this city 
in 1837, when he permanently 
located here. He is the owner 
and operator of one of the most 
extensive horticultural nurseries in 
Canada. Mr. Leslie is a life-mem 
ber of the Horticultural Society, 
Toronto, and a magistrate. As a 
member of the City Council in its 
early days, he had a hand in mould 
ing the city as it is to-day. His 


two sons. Mr. George Leslie and Mr. J. Knox Leslie, are prominent business men, 
and the latter is a member of the City Council for 1890. 

Alderman John Knox Leslie was born in the City of Toronto, in 1846, his 
birthplace being in the very heart of what is now the vortex of commerce. His father, 



Mr. George Leslie, was born in Sutherland- 
shire. Scotland, in 1804, and came to Canada 
in 1825 : since then his name as an Ontario 
Nurseryman has long been familiar in all 
parts of the Dominion. The subject of our 
notice was educated primarily at the public 
schools, subsequently at the Collegiate 



Institute, Georgetown, Out., and finally at the Model Grammar School, Toronto. He then entered the Banking and Exchange 
office of Messrs. K. Chaffey \ Co., where he remained for two years, during the great fluctuations of American currency al the 

, t""c of the American rebellion, leaving this 

hanking house to take a position in the Canada 
Permanent Building and Loan Society, of this 
city. Being offered a situation in the Royal 
Canadian Hank, he accepted it, and in this 
institution he remained for three years. H, 
afterwards conducted the business affairs of the 
Leslie Nurseries; and in 1880, accepted the 
office of Clerk for the Township of York, which 
he continued to fill for seven years. During 
this time his business training and knowledge 
of finance made his services of incalculable 
value to this premier township. In 1887, at the 
solicitation of his father, he resigned the town 
ship clerkship to permanently assume the 
management of the commercial and financial 
department of George Leslie & Son s extensive 
nurseries and real estate interests. Alderman 
Leslie has for many years taken a deep interest 
in public affairs, especially in the improvement 
of the eastern portion of the city. He is ist 
Yice-President of the Excelsior Life Insurance 
Co. of Toronto, a Director of the Imperial 
Produce Company, of London, England, and 


Toronto, and a member of the Industrial 
Exhibition Association. He is also a Past 
Master Of Orient Lodge Xo. 339, A. F. & A. M., G. R. C., Past /,. of Orient Chapter No. 79, a member of Geoffrey de Si. 
Aldemar Preceptory of Knights Templar, Past Chief Ranger Court East Toronto, I. O. Foresters, No. 450, P. M. W. Crystal 
Lodge No. 113, A. O. U. \V., a member of the Sons of Canada, and The Gardeners and Florists Club of Toronto. .Mr. |. K. 

Leslie, who is an esteemed and public-spirited townsman, is an ex-member of the Queen s Own Rifles, and at present Captain 

of No. 3 Company, izth Battalion "York Rangers." Mr. Aid. J. K. Leslie served with the " York-Simcoe " Battalion during 

the troubles in the North-West in 1885. 
Equity Chambers (corner 

Adelaide and Victoria Streets) was 

built by Mr. Robert Carswell, the 

well-known law publisher, as a 

centrally-situated block suitable for 

law offices, and thus aptly received 

its name. The building was 

designed with special reference to 

giving abundance of light and good 

ventilation, and was the first busi- 

ness block in the city to introduce , 

the elevator for the convenience of 

its tenants and their clients. On 

its completion it was fully rented, 

and has continued to be well-filled, 
1 of the tenants having occn 

pied their premises continuously 

since tin- erection of the building. 

It is heated by hot water, and its 

elevator is run by hydraulic power. 

The building consists of six Hats, 

including the basement, which is 

used as a printing office, and the 

top floor as artists studios, one 

portion being occupied by law -BAYVIEW," DOWU*G Aw., RESIDENCE OF MR. R. CARSWEI.L. 



Offices. It has a frontage of 40 feet by a depth (with a frontage on Victoria Street) of 90 feet. Its owner is Mr. Robert 
Carswell, senior member of the firm of Messrs. Carswell & Co., law publishers, who occupy the adjacent premises, which 
doubtless, in the near future, will give place to a building more in harmony with the neat appearance of 

Equity Chambers, and its proximity to the General 1 ost Office. Mr. Carswell s g4b enterprise as a law book 

seller and importer is well-known to the legal fraternity, as his firm has business r relations with the 

profession from Halifax, N. S., to Victoria, B.C. The publications of his firm A embrace a number of 

important works in Canadian legal literature (including the able professional serial, ill the Canadian Law 

Times, under the joint editorship of Messrs. E. D. Armour, Q.C., and E. B. Brown, ^ B.A.), besides many 

text-books, works of practice, and reports of the English Courts, issued by the chief m London law publishers. 

Personally, Mr. Carswell is a man worthy of the high esteem in which he is held ? by those who know him. 

He is a man of great integrity of 
character, high personal honour, real 

warmth of heart, and a lover of all ~j 

good. Denominationally, he is a 
member of the Swedenborgian or 
New Jerusalem Church, and a dili 
gent and earnest seeker after truth. 

Mr. John Harvie, Secretary 
of the Upper Canada Bible Society, 
wa> born at Campbeltown, Argyle- 
shire, Scotland, April izth, 1833. 
Coming to Canada at an early age, 
Mr. Harvie entered the service of 
the \orthern Railway, in connec 
tion with which he was identified 
with the early history of railroading 
in Ontario. He issued the first 
ticket, and collected the first fare, 
and accompanied the first passenger 
train that was run in Upper Canada, 
the date being May i6th, 1853. In 
1867, Mr. Harvie assumed the man 
agement of the traffic department of 
"The Northern," which he held till 
ill-health compelled him to retire in 
1881. Since then he has been 
identified with the Upper Canada 
Bible Society, of wliich he is now 
Permanent Secretary. He has served 
the city in an aldermanic capacity 
three years, and unsuccessfully con 
tested Centre Toronto at the last 
General Election, in the Liberal 
interest. Mr. Harvie is a director 
of the Ontario Industrial Loan & 
Investment Company, the Toronto 
General Burying Grounds Trust, the 
Newsboys Lodging, and the Tor 
onto City Mission. He is a trustee 
of the Young Women s Christian Guild and a life-member of St. Andrew s Society, Caledonian Society, and the Y.M.C.A. 

Mr. William Allen Shepard, Manager of The Mail Job Printing Company, was born in Brownville, N.Y., July 6th, 
1830, and was brought to Canada when but six months old. After being trained in the Public and Grammar Schools at 
Brockville, he taught school for some time near Belleville. In 1847, he was apprenticed at the Canada Christian Advocate 
office, Hamilton, to learn printing. He became editor of the Belleville Independent in 1858, and the following year accepted 
a position on the staff of the Intelligencer, of the same place. Subsequently the control of the paper devolved upon him, and 
on the organization of the Intelligencer Printing & Publishing Company, he became Managing-Director. In 1884, Mr. Shepard 
took charge of The Mail Job Department, now The Mail Job Printing Company, and since that time has built up one of the 
finest businesses in Canada. He knows well his art, and besides an intimate and practical knowledge of printing, has excellent 
taste and good judgment. The present volume is a specimen of the work of his Company. Mr. Shepard is a Presbyterian 
and a manager and elder of St. Andrew s Church. He is also President of the Toronto Typothetae, and Vice-President c 
Typothetae of America. 




Mr. l- rank U ooten was horn in \Viltshire, England, in the year 1838. Coming to Canada in 1856, he spent four years 
tilling the soil and hewing out a home in the backwoods. He then turned his attention to educational matters, and for nine 

years followed the profession of school teacher. Coming to Toronto, he was given 
the management of the Church Herald, which he purchased in 1885, and changed 
to the Dominion Churchman. This paper obtained a wide reputation as a staunch 
advocate of the Church of England. The name was changed again during the 
present year, and the periodical is now known as the Canadian Churchman, of 

which the Rev. Professor Clark, of Trinity 
University, is the able and popular editor. 
Mr. Wooten is a Past President and Dis 
trict Deputy Grand Master of the Sons of 
England Benevolent Society. He is a 




member of the Church of England, St. 

George s Society, and the Board of Trade. 

Mr. Josiah Bruce, the well-known U_, ,, 

King Street photographer, who was born 

at Guelph, Ontario, on the i6th of June, 

1840, is a grandso.n of John Taylor, the naval hero, who, while serving under 

Nelson on board the "Alcmene " in 1798, distinguished himself by leaping from 

the yard arm into the Mediterranean Sea and recovered the box containing des- 

I latches for Napoleon, which had been thrown overboard from the Erench gun-boat, 

" Le Ledger," when sorely pressed by the British fleet. Eor this act of bravery he 

was awarded a life pension by the City of London, and was honoured by having his portrait painted for the National Gallery. 

Mr. Taylor came to Canada in 1834, and was followed three years later by his son-in-law, George Bruce, the father of our 

subject. Josiah Bruce was educated at the Paisley Block School, by William Cowan, a famous master in his day. After leaving 

school, Mr. Bruce studied architecture in Guelph 
for about four years. In 1861, he went to Que 
bec, where he practised his profession for a 
twelvemonth, removing thence to Montreal. 
Here, having previously had some experience 
as an amateur in photography, he engaged with 
the then celebrated photographer, Win. Not- 
man, with whom he remained for some years, 
when he removed to Toronto, and took charge, 
as manager, of the business of Messrs. Notman 
& Eraser. At the expiration of seven years he 
severed his connection with this firm and es 
tablished himself in business on his own account, 
at 132 King Street West. There are few houses 
of refinement in Toronto, or for that matter, in 
Ontario, that do not contain one or more photo 
graphs executed in Mr. Bruce s excellent studio. 
Mr. Eldridge Stanton, photographer, is 
a native of Cobourg, where lie was born March 
7th, 1834. He was educated at Victoria Uni 
versity, and having a decided penchant for photo 
graphy, made it afterwards a special study. 
While in Virginia, he was the first to introduce 

MI KVKOI M l< , 1-KANK \\ <><> I I- N , SlIAW ^ [ ]; I I I. 

the photograph on paper, and became celebrated 


for the excellence of his productions. Returning to Canada he remained here till ,864, when he went to Baltimore Md 
opened a studio He parted 1 his share of the business in r8 7 i, and chose Toronto for a pennanent home He 
connected with the firm of Messrs. Stanton & Vicars until ten years ago, since 
which time he has followed his profession without a business partner. Mr. Stanton 
. has twice been elected President of the Photographic Association of Canada. He 
is an Episcopalian, and a member of the Masonic fraternity. For thirty-five years 
Mr. Stanton has successfully practised his Art, and is always to be found at his 
studio, paying personal attention to the 
posing of all sitters. 

Mr. Herbert E. Simpson, 
photographer, successor to the well- 




known firm of Messrs. Notman & Fraser, 
is a native of Ontario, having been born 
at Richmond Hill, in the year 1866. He 
came to Toronto about ten years ago, and 

having acquired a professional education under some of the best Canadian artists, 
he purchased the business of Messrs. Notman & Fraser, probably the largest and 
best-appointed house in Canada. Mr. Simpson s gallery contains nearly 100,000 
MR. J. F. BRYCE. negatives of the most prominent men and best known society women, not only of 

Canada, but of Europe. His professional skill and reputation have fully equalled 

that of the firm of which he is the successor. Himself an artist of merit, Mr. Simpson has kept fully abreast of the times, and 
has added to his establishment all the improvements and advantages in the photographic art suggested by science. He is a 
member of the Church of England and of 
St. George s Society. 

Mr. J. Fraser Bryce, photographer, 
was born in 1852, in Dundas, Ontario, where 
he received a primary and mechanical educa 
tion. Coming to Toronto, Mr. Bryce studied 
photography with Mr. Thomas Hunter, after 
which he spent some time in perfecting him 
self in the Art with C. C. Randell, of Detroit, 
and J. F. Ryder, of Cleveland, both of whom 
are proficient artists with national reputations. 
In 1884, Mr. Bryce located permanently at 
Toronto, purchasing the establishment of his 
first employer. Mr. Hunter. The uniform 
excellence of his work has made Mr. Bryce s 
studio the resort of many of the best people 
of Toronto. 

Mr. Frank \\ . Micklethwaite, photo 
grapher, was born at Ashton-under-Lyne, 
Lancashire, England, March 131)1, 1849. He 
was educated at Hay s Academy, in his native- 
town, and served a year in an architect s 
office. Turning his attention to photography, 
he spent six years in the study of the Art, 
after which he practised till 1875 in Ireland. RESIDZKCI 01 Ms. DONALD CAMPBELL, BROCI 







Coming to ( anada at that time, he was an attache of The Mail newspaper for three years, resigning to open a studio at 40 Jarvis 
Street. Since then he has taken a high rank in the profession, and continues to do first-class work. His specialty is outdoor 
\iews, and many of the pictures of streets, parks and public buildings in this work 
are from pictures by this clever artist. Mr. Micklethwaite is a member of the 
Masonic body and of the Sons of England. 

The late Mr. \Villiam S. Robinson, druggist, was born in Grimsby, Lincoln 
shire, Kngland. March 3rd, 1834. He was there apprenticed to a druggist, and on 
arriving at manhood came to Canada. 
He commenced business at Whitby, 
where he was unfortunately burnt out. 
He then removed to Toronto, and 
managed the drug store of Mr. Robert 



lirampton, which he acquired in 1867, and 
afterwards carried on in his own name, at 
832 Yonge Street. Mr. Robinson was 
one of the founders of the Ontario Col 
lege of Pharmacy, and served in various 

capacities as an officer of that body. He was a Past Master of Ashlar Lodge, A. F. 

& A. M., and an active member of the Swedenborgian Church. He died from a 

sudden stroke of paralysis, on February 25th, 1889, and was much regretted by many 

prominent citizens and druggists of Toronto. 

Mr. lames lioxall, of the Palace Stove Store, King Street Fast, and a worthy 

citi/en, was born in Montreal, of English parentage, on the 8th of February, 1849. He was educated primarily at a private 
school in the city of Quebec, and after his removal to Toronto, in 1856, attended the Model School here. He was then 
apprenticed to his elder brother, Mr. John Boxall, to learn the trade of a tinsmith, and kindred callings. Having faithfully 
served his apprenticeship, he worked under instructions at Montreal until 1869, when he removed to Ottawa. Twelve months 
later he established and took charge of a branch of his brother John s business at Stratford, Out. In 1872, he settled at 
Chelsea, Mass., where he was in business four years; returning at the expiration of that time to Ontario, he located at Port 
Perry, where he was associated in business for 
eight years with Mr. YV. T. Parrish. In 1880, 
Mr. Boxall embarked in business on his own 
account and met with gratifying success. In 
the summer of the year 1890, he decided to 
return to Toronto, and to open his present place 
of business at 183 King Street East. During 
his residence at Port Perry, Mr. Boxall served 
two terms as Deputy- Reeve of that town, having 
been elected on both occasions by large majori 
ties. When leaving to take up his residence in 
Toronto, he was presented with an address by 
the officials of the Methodist Church, and was 
also the recipient of an address from the mem 
bers of the Old England Lodge, No. 9, Sons of 

Mr. John Mallon was born near Middle- 
town, County Armagh, Ireland, September 
2 2nd, 1836. His parents brought him to 
Canada in 1847, and settled in Toronto. After 
receiving a public school education he was 





apprenticed to the butchering business, and in 1861 opened a stall on his own account in St. Lawrence Market. In 186:5 |,j s 
business had so extended that it occupied three stalls, and Mr. Mallon received as a partner his brother-in-law, Mr M [ 

Woods. The firm has since then been known as 
John Mallon & Co. From 1866 till 1876, Mr. 
Mallon was a Separate School Trustee in West York, 
and during the years 1873 and 1874 he was a member 
of the Toronto City Council. Mr. Mallon was 
appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1876. He was 
Treasurer of Brockton from its incorporation in 1880 
till its annexation to Toronto in 1884. Mr. Mallon 
has taken an active interest in the shipping of live 
stock and cured meats to England. In politics he is 
a Liberal, and in religion he is a member of the 
Roman Catholic Communion. 

Mr. Michael Joseph Woods, one of the most 
enterprising shippers of Canadian live stock to the 
cattle markets of Great Britain, and until recently the 
aldermanic representative of St. Mark s Ward in the 
City Council, was born near the town of Ballymahon, 
County Longford, Ireland, in 1847. At an early age 
he came to Canada with his parents, who settled in 
Toronto, and here the subject of our sketch received 
his education. In the sixties, he entered into part 
nership with Mr. John Mallon, in the St. Lawrence Market, and has long been actively interested in exporting live cattle 

and cured meats to the Old Country, where he had established agencies both at Liverpool and at Glasgow. In the spring of 
1890. Mr. Woods was elected President of the Union Stock Yards and Abattoir 

Company, of which he was one of the enterprising originators. From 1881 till 
1884, he was one of the Councillors of the village of Brockton, and when that 

suburb was incorporated with Toronto, he was chosen to represent the new ward 

in the City Council. He continued as Alderman until last winter, when his many 

business enterprises compelled him to retire, and the city lost a zealous and faithful 

representative. Mr. Woods is interested in athletic sports ; is a member of the 

Sunnyside Boating Club, and was an active as well as an honorary member of 

the Ontario Lacrosse Club. In politics, he is a Liberal ; in religion, a Roman 

Catholic. Among Mr. Woods public-spirited undertakings, was the erection of a 

number of pleasant as well as picturesque summer cottages on the Island, an 

illustration of which appears in these pages. 

Mr. Joseph Norwich was born in London, England, February 51)1, 1849, and 

came to Canada with his parents in 1855. He was educated chiefly at night- 
school. His first business venture was as a butcher, in 1870, on Yonge Street. 

Starting with very small capital, he was 

enabled by close attention to business to 

purchase a block of land, part of which he 

sold to advantage and reinvested in West 

Toronto Junction, Parkdale and the city. 

Mr. Norwich was instrumental in organizing 

the Parkdale Presbyterian Church, of which 

he was Chairman of the Board for ten years. 

and was elected elder in 1888. Mr. Norwich 

was a member of the first Council of Park- 
dale, in 1879, and held office till 1882. He 

was Vice-President of the Conservative Asso 
ciation of West York, resigning office when 

it was not permitted independent action but 

still personally holding Conservative views. 

He is a Past Grand of City of Toronto 

Lodge, ( .O.O.I ., a member of Alpha Lodge, 

A. I . \ A. M., the Orange Association and 

St. George s Society. TlIE MALLON BLOCK) DuHDAS STREET. 




Mr. John Joseph Ward, merchant tailor, of 1247 Queen Street West, was horn at London, Ontario, May i8th, 1866. 
He has acquired a thorough knowledge of his business, to which is to be attributed the large degree of success he enjoys. Mr. 
Ward is a believer in organized labour, and has held positions of trust in numerous 
organizations. He has several times been a delegate to the Dominion Trades and 
Labour Congress, and is a prominent Knight of Labour in this city. At the age of 
twenty-two he was elected a member of Parkdale Town Council, and remained one 
till the municipality was annexed to 

Mr. Alex. Millard, undertaker, 347 
Yonge Street, is the descendant of a 


Welsh family, who in the year 1620 emi 
grated with the " Pilgrim Fathers " to the 

United States. Mr. Millard was born at 

Newmarket, Ont., on the 9th March, 1852. He is the second son of Joseph 
Millard, J- P., of that town, who has been in the furniture and undertaking business 
there for many years. He received his education partly at Newmarket and partly 
at the Toronto Business College. At the age of 18 years he took a position in his 
father s warerooms, and in the year 1873 was admitted into partnership. In Decem 
ber, 1880, he retired from the firm of J. Millard & Co., and commenced business 
in Newmarket on his own account. There he remained until January, 1884, when he removed to Toronto, to assume the 
position of assistant to the late John Young, and remained with him until his death in December, 1885. He then purchased 
the business of his late employer, and carries it on still under the name of John Young. Mr. Millard has made a special 
study of the subject of embalming, and is thoroughly posted in all the most approved methods for the care and preservation 



of the dead. At the same time he has not lost sight of the importance of having all work done on thorough sanitary principles. 

and in iSSy was 
resident of the 

Since the organization of the Undertaker s Association of Ontario, Mr. Millard has always taken an active part, an 
elected one of three members of the first Legislative Committee of the Association. In 1890 he was elected Pr 
City Undertaker s Association. 








TIN-; LXTKNT and growing magni 
tude of the industries of Toronto earn 
it honour, and mark with distinctive 
emphasis the transformation which has 
c(ime over the city from the savagery of its early 
wilds. It has been often said, that we of this 
generation live in an age of artificial wants ; but 
this is hardly true of the people of Toronto, if 
our wants are wholly met by the manufactures 
of the native market. In the main, it is utility 
rather than ornament that employs the labour 
of the local artisan and craftsman. Our wants, 
of course, have gone beyond those of the savage, 
and even beyond the wants of the early settler. 
I .ut this is merely to say that we, as a people, 
have advanced with the civilization of the time, 
and have sought to share the comforts and to 
utilixe the machinery with which science and 
invention have endowed our modern age. At 
an earlier period, wood and the products of 
wood used to be sufficient for our needs. If 
we have gone beyond that era of simplicity, it 
does not follow that we have become artificial. 

It means merely that we are economizing the 


materials which are now becoming scarce, and 

making use of those which are more durable and better adapted for our wants. It is marvellous the extent to which the metals 
are now made use of in almost every branch of manufacture ; and Science is daily placing its triumphs at the service of man, 

to enlarge the range of his achievement, as 
well as adding to the hum of industry. Here 
toil and skill are happily put to beneficent 
uses. It is not in the making of rifles, can 
non, iron-clads, or other agents of destruc 
tion, that industry is here employed ; but 
rather in the useful arts and the blessed 
service of peace. Much is also locally being 
manufactured which we used to import. In 
this respect we have become more enter 
prising as well as more self-sufficing. We 
now build our own locomotives, cars and 
steamships ; manufacture all the material for 
our bridges and houses; and even forge iind 
fashion the machinery for turning out ma 
chinery. In this latter regard, it is to be 
feared, the saying is true, that the tool some 
times overshadows the workman. It is 
noticeable that much of our machinery re 
flects American, rather than British, influence. 
Here our craftsmen have shown themselves 
adepts at adaptation. Perhaps, however, 



h r her shield 

!t USt to 


many of the best points of their order" \ "^ C ^ "* the ^ ln ^d working^kss posTes! 

antagonisms between them and the capital >lc> a " d th Ugh ocrasi< ^ "y there are 

that gives them employment, they are on the 

whole peace-loving and just. Here legislation 

and humane sentiment have been actively on 

the side of labour. This the workman no 

doubt sees, and he is fair enough to 

acknowledge that compared with Old World 

experiences, industry in Toronto is pursued 

under good auspices. 

The Poison Iron Works Company 
(Limited), of Toronto and Owen Sound, was 
founded in 1886, by Messrs. William Poison 
Ov Son, for the manufacture of marine engines, 
boilers, steamboats, yachts, launches, and 
steam-ferries, and has since grown to mam 
moth proportions, and achieved some notable 
successes in the development of this now 
well-endowed and enterprising incorporated 
Company. The Company has its engine and 
boiler works, with machinery of the most 
recent device and capable of turning out the 
largest class of work, at Esplanade Street, in s n STEAMSHIP "MANITOBA," BUII.T BY THE POI.SON IRON WORKS COMPANY. 

this city. Here are constructed, besides every variety of vertical, hoisting and marine engines, and boilers of all descriptions the 
Brown Automatic Engine," largely used in the chief cities of Canada, and of which the Montreal Electric Light co. 
alone have ten in use. The Company have also at Owen Sound perhaps the most thoroughly equipped ship-buildin- works on 
Continent, and equal to any of similar capacity on the Clyde. They are also the owners of the Owen Sound Dry Dock 
which is of sufficient capacity to float the largest vessels on our inland seas. At Owen Sound the Company conduct an industry 
the first magnitude in the Dominion, and have turned out from their yards some of the finest steel vessels afloat on Canadian 
waters. Here, from the works of the Poison Co., was launched in May, 1889, for the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., the splendid 
steel steamship Manitoba, which had been constructed for its owners within the remarkably short period of nine months. The 
Manitoba, at the time of her completion, was the largest vessel on fresh water, being 305 feet long, 38 feet beam, and drawing 

13 feet. So satisfied were the officials of the 
C. P. R y Co. with the results of the work on 
The Manitoba, that before she was completed 
they awarded a second contract to the Poison 
Iron Works Co., for the construction of a 
steel car-ferry, 295 feet long and 73 feet beam, 
for the conveyance of cars across the Detroit 
River from Windsor to Detroit. \Vork on 
this steam ferry was begun in June, 1889. and 
she was plying on the Detroit River in the 
following Spring. The engines and boilers 
for this ship were built at the works of the 
Company at Toronto, and are the largest of 
their kind ever built in Canada. The boilers, 
which are 13 feet, 3 inches in diameter, 
weighed 37 tons each, and were the largest 
ever carried by rail on this Continent. A 
third contract has now also been completed, 
in a steel steamship for the Parry Sound 
1. umber Co. The vessel, The Seguin, is 215 
feet long, with 34 feet beam, and is designed 
to carry general freight on the lakes. She is 
propelled by triple expansion engines, and is 
of a class of vessels which, thanks to the 
enterprise of the Poison Company, must 
some day cover the waters of our inland seas. 



for the day for wooden bottoms Loins, over, it is now manifest that steel steamships of large dimensions ran he constructed in 
Canada with everything else that is required for her now extensive and still expanding commerce. The officers of the Poison 

Iron Works Company are as follows : 1 ivsi 
dent, Win. I olson ; Managing-Director, F. B. 
Poison : W. K. Sanford. A. 15., I). (Ira- 
ham, Thomas West, James Worthington, W. 
C. Matthews, J. B. Miller, T. F. Chamberlain. 
I lirectors. The capital stock is $300,000. 

MR. A. K. \VII.I.I.\MS. 


About the year 1840, three bright young mechanics from the Soho Machine 

Works at Belfast, Ireland, established the Soho Machine Works, Toronto. After 

passing through three or four ownerships, the establishment, which is located on the 

Ksplanade, east of the Union Station, came into the hands of the present proprietor, 

Mr. A. R. Williams. The chief work done by this enterprising house is the refitting of machinery in connection with his 

brokerage machine business. The brokerage department was commenced in 1877 by Mr. L. A. Morrison, and was acquired 

by Mr. Williams, in 1881. It now covers 
all the important lines of machinery used in 
the manufacture of wood and iron, together 
with power of different classes and appliances 
used in connection with machinery. Local 
agencies have been established in all the 
important commercial centres, and a large 
staff of travelling salesmen keep the establish 
ment fully supplied with orders. 

The Toronto Safe Works were estab 
lished in 1855, by Messrs. James and John 
Taylor. On the withdrawal of Mr. John 
Taylor the business devolved upon Mr. 
lames Taylor, who carried it on till his 
death in 1875. For a short time the works 
were situated on Princess Street, but the 
rapidly growing business compelled removal 
to the present site, at the corner of Front 
and Frederick Streets. The present pro 
prietors are Messrs. Thomas West and Robert 
McClain, both thoroughly posted in this 
business, and they have done much to make 
the name of J. & J. Taylor famous through 
out Canada for safes, those indispensable 
adjuncts and sureties of commerce. The 
premises occupy a block of land, sevent 
by four hundred feet in size. From one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred men are 
SOHO MACHINK WORKS OF MR. A. R. WILLIAMS. kept constantly employed. Notwithstanding 


that the firm has been distributing safes throughout Canada for the past thirty-five years, they are still taxed to 
capacity, and the business is yearly increasing. The safes they turn out rank among the best made in the world, ;; 
highest repute among bankers and 
the varied sections of the financial 
and commercial community. 

The Ontario Bolt Company, 
established many years ago, took 
pos.-ession of their present extensive 
premises at Swansea, near the Hum- 
ber, in 1884. The buildings com 
prise a large factory, warerooms, 
offices and outbuildings, and are 
equipped with steam hammers and 
the most modern machinery for the 
manufacture of bolts, nuts, carriage 
irons, and forgings of various kinds. 
It would require five hundred men to 
fully work all the machinery at one 
time, and from three hundred to 
three hundred and fifty hands are 
now employed. The products of this 
factory are shipped as far east as 
Halifax, and as far west as Vancou 
ver. The bridge rods and bolts, and 


to their utmost 
and are in the 


track bolts and spikes for most of the 
railroads now beingbuilt in the North- 
West, were made by the Ontario Bolt Company. In the rolling mills adjoining the Bolt Works, about two hundred men are 
employed day and night, making in all from seven hundred to one thousand men and boys who find work in this immense industry. 
With such enterprises as this in our midst, Canada may fairly claim a share in the industries that mark our epoch as an iron age. 
The Dominion Saw and Lead Works, and metal warehouse, owned and operated by Messrs. James Robertson & Co., 
was established twenty-five years ago, by Mr. James Robertson, of Montreal. There are branches in Montreal, Winnipeg, St. 
John, and Baltimore, besides the Toronto factory, which is at 253-271 King Street West. The Company does a large business 
in the manufacture of lead pipe, shot and saws. They are the most extensive grinders of white lead and colours in the 
Dominion, and are extensive importers of heavy metal goods. The firm is an enterprising and successful one and conducts a 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ large and important indus 

try in the country. 

The Ontario Lead 
tX: Barb Wire Company 
occupy large premises on 
Richmond Street East and 
Lombard Street. The 
business has grown since 
1876 to its present pro 
portions. It was originated 
by Mr. A. J. Somerville as 
the Ontario Lead Works. 
At that time the Company 
produced only white lead 
and lead pipe. In 1880, 
Mr. Somerville commenced 
the manufacture of barb 
wire and formed the 
Ontario Steel Barb Wire 
Fence Company. Both 
concerns were merged into 
the present Company in 
1885, with Mr. Somerville 
as President and Manager; 
T. R. Wood, Vice-President; 


James George, Secretary 


nd Treasurer- and T S Havles Superintendent of Works. The business has developed and extended greatly under its present 
management The Company now manufactures lead pipe, lead paints, putty, lead shot, lead traps (I)u Bois patent), habhitt 

metal, steel barb fencing wire, steel 
plain twist fencing, steel fencing staples. 
steel wire nails, and brads a combined 
industry as interesting as it is useful, 
and one of the wonderful products of 
an inventive and mechanical age. 

Mr. (ames Morrison, brass 
founder, commenced his career in 
Toronto, in 1864, with a very limited 
capital. His business spread, however. 
rapidly, and he was compelled to move 
into larger premises from time to time, 
till he finally took possession, in 1872. 
of his present factory on Adelaide 
Street West. In addition to brass 
founding and finishing, Mr. Morrison 
does a large business in engineers, 
steam-fitters, plumbers and gas-fitters 
supplies. Various additions have been 
made to the factory to meet the press 
ing demands upon it. A four-store} 
foundry was erected on Pearl Street, 
and show rooms and storage rooms have 
been added. Mr. Morrison has also 
a coppersmith s department, where 
copper work for distillers, brewers. 


confectioners and plumbers is manufactured. It is shortly intended to remove this department to the new factory in Mimico, 
where new lines will be added. The firm employs 150 hands, and pays annually out in wages over $80,000. 

The J. F. Pease Furnace Company, manufacturers of the famous " Economy " Furnaces, have given birth to one of the 
most important industries in the city, and the operations of the firm extend throughout the Dominion, and their products find 
their way even to Europe. The extensive factory and offices of the Company are on Queen Street East, a view of which will 
be found in these pages. The industry gives employ- . 

ment to a large number of hands, besides a staff of 
mechanical experts and experienced heating engineers. 
In 1885, this Company was awarded, at the Toronto 
Industrial Exhibition, the Silver Medal for their 
Economy Furnaces, the only premium given on that 
occasion, though all the other manufacturers were 
represented. The heaters manufactured by this firm 
are the product of thirty years skill and thought given 
to the vital subject of sanitary heating and ventilation. 
The Company are each year introducing improve 
ments, and have recently perfected an entirely new 
heater, designed for warming all manner of buildings, 
by a combination of hot water and warm air. Three 
distinct classes of heaters are now made by this 
( "ornpany, viz. : the " Economy " Warm Air Furnace, 
the Economy " Combination Steam and Warm Air 
Heater, and the " Economy " Hot Water Combination 
Heater. These are made of various sixes, suitable to 
the warming of all classes of private residences and 
public buildings. The now popular system of " ( <>m- 
binution " heating by steam and warm air, was invented 
by Mr. J. F. Pease, of this Company, and his Furnace 
was the first of that kind anywhere put on the market. 
Of this Company s heaters there are over 30,000 now 
in use in the I nited States : they find their way. also, ONTARIO LKAD AND I .AKII \\IRF. WORKS, RICHMOND STKI.I i E. 


as we have said, into everv part of Canada and into many places in the Old World. In recent years the great advantage of 
furnace heating over that of old heating methods by stoves, has so come home to people that buildings and residences are now 

occupied or left empty as furnace heating 


methods are or are not adopted I >y owners or 

builders. The consequence has been an 

enormous production of steam, hot water, 

and warm air heaters, the chief demand being 

supplied by the manufactures of the Pease 

Company. The business of the Company is 

under the direction of the President and 

Treasurer. Messrs. John T. and Joseph B. 

Sheridan, men of enterprise and ability, who 

have recently extended their manufacturing 

operations by the erection, at Mimico, of a 

large foundry and machine shop, to enable 

the firm to meet the increasing demand for 

their Economy heaters, as well as to enable 

them to take up the manufacture of all 

manner of registers, for domestic use, which 

the firm have hitherto largely imported. 

Mr. H. A. Massey, President and 

General Manager of the Massey Manufactur 
ing Company, was born in the County of 

Haldimand. April 291)1, 1823. Although the 

son of a farmer he early began to exhibit 

sound business instincts. His early training 

was received at Watertown, N.Y. When but 

seventeen years of age his desire to taste the 

sweets of independence led him to work two 

winters in the lumber camps. In his nine 
teenth year he began a course at Victoria 
University and by his own industry acquired an education. When he turned his attention to the manufacturing business, Mr 
Massey found ample scope for his skill and energy. His name to-day is familiar throughout the Dominion, and the agnculu 
machinery made by the Massey Manufacturing Company is extensively used in every grain-growing section of the world. 

Company has turned out 140,000 
machines and implements, and their 
annual output is 16,000. The 
; \ works give employment to from 650 
to 750 men in the twenty depart 
ments, and 150 hands are employed 
in outside branches. Besides these 
there are 800 to 1,000 agents who 
earn the greater part of their living 
from the sale of the Massey 
machines. Mr. Massey has been a 
life-long member of the Methodist 
Church. He is President of the 
Sawyer \- Massey Co., Hamilton, 
builders of threshers and engines. 
and of Massey \ Co., Winnipeg, 
"eiicral dealers in farm implements 


and settlers effects. Associated with 
him in the Massey Manufacturing 
Co. are his two sons, Mr. C. I >. Mas 
sey, Yice-Prcsident, and Mr. W. K. 
11. Massey. Secretary and Treasurer. 
A portrait of Mr. Massey. Sr.. will be 
found in these pages, as well as an 
illustration of his residence on Jams 

Street, known as " Euclid Hall." 




Mr. John . \bell, engine and machine manufacturer, whose mammoth establishment is situated on Queen Street Wot 
near the subway, was born at Charlton Kings, Gloucestershire, England, September 22nd, 1822, and was educated at Chelten 
ham. Coming to Canada a young man, he established the Woodbridge Agricultural 
\ 1845, but had the misfortune to be burnt out, with a loss of $200,000, in 
March, 1874. Such was his energy, however, that two months afterwards the 


establishment was duplicated on the same 
site. In 1886, Mr. Abell moved to his 
present location in Toronto. Among the 
many medals awarded him, one is of 
note, inasmuch as it was presented in 1879 
to Mr. Abell by H. R. H. the Princess 
Louise, at the Senate Chamber, Ottawa. As 
the Scripture saith : " Seest thou a man dili 
gent in business ? he shall stand before 
kings." Mr. Abell has been a Justice of the 
Peace since 1870, and President of the 
Vaughan Road Company since 1875. From 
1863 till 1876, he was President of the 
Vaughan Agricultural Society, and from 1874 
till 1886, President of the West York Agri 
cultural Society. He was the first Reeve of 


Woodbridge at its incorporation in 1883, and held the office till 1886, when he 
removed to Toronto. Mr. Abell built the first steam engine in the Township of 
\ aughan, and in 1880, built the first compound portable engine. He is a member 
of the Church of England. 

Mr. William Christie, of the firm of Messrs. Christie, Brown & Co., the most 
extensive biscuit manufacturers in Canada, commenced business in Toronto in the 
early fifties, on a very small scale. The present firm was formed in 1868, when 

MR. JOHN AiiKi.r.. 


Mr. Christie entered into partnership with Mr. Alexander Brown, under the name of Messrs. Christie, Brown & 
then occupied the premises on Yonge Street, where the baking establishment of Mr. Joseph Tail, M.P.I J ., now is, 
they removed to larger premises on Francis 
Street. The further extension of the busi 
ness was met by the erection of the present 
mammoth factory, at the corner of Duke and 
Frederick Streets, which has from time to 
time been enlarged until it is now three times 
its original sixe. The produce of this factory 
is sold in Canada from the Atlantic to the 


Co. They 
In 1872, 




Pacific, and has reached a high point of excellence. Personally, Mr. Christie is a man 
of high worth, and his firm enjoys the confidence of commercial circles both in and 
out of Toronto. A picture of his residence will be found on page 38. 

Mr. Octavius Newcombe, the extensive piano manufacturer, was born at 
Hankford-Barton, Devonshire, England, on the 191)1 November, 1846. At eight years 
of age he was sent to Shebbear Boarding School. Two years later, the death of his 
father occasioned the return of his two elder brothers, Dr. \Vm. Newcombe and Henry 

laLIlLl O(_t-.Lnl(JIlLU LUC ICLU11I Ui *a i vy ^i^iv,t 

Newcombe from Australia, the winding up of the home estate, and the removal of the family to Toronto. Here he attended 
the Model School and the Toronto Grammar School, taking at the latter first prizes in mathematics and English. 
Dr. James Newcombe, being Professor of Surgery in Victoria College, he attended two winter sessions at that insti 
his personal preference was for a commercial _____ 

rather than for a professional career. The 
intervening summer he joined his brother 
(assistant-surgeon U. S. A.) at Washington, 
accepting the position of corresponding clerk 
to the surgeon in charge of Lincoln Hospital, 
and was in that city during the Maryland 
raid. He subsequently entered the Military 
School, Toronto, getting his certificate at an 
examination where there were fourteen candi 
dates, only four of whom were then successful. 
Soon afterwards he joined the staff of the 
Quebec Bank, and in a couple of years 
received the appointment of accountant at 
Toronto. Later on he was sent in that 
capacity to Ottawa, the most important 
branch of the Bank. After five years bank 
ing experience he accepted a more lucrative 
position with one of the largest lumber mer 
chants on the Ottawa. Mr. Alexander Fraser, 
of Westmeath. While there a partnership 
was offered him, with the financial manage 
ment, of a pianoforte business to be 
established in Toronto, and this was entered 
upon in 1871. The business in course of 
time developed into two separate and 




independent firms. Oetavius Xeweombc being joined by his brother Henry, and devoting their joint energies to the building up 
of the large piano manufacturing business more fully described below. In connection with this business. Mr. Xewcombe 

MR. I. 



has visited all the chief towns and cities of 
the Dominion, the important cities of the 
United States and Great Britain, and the an 
centres of Europe. 

The development of musical art in 
our midst has necessarily stimulated the 
pianoforte industry, so that Toronto has 
become the New York of Canada in the 
number, variety, and excellence of the musi 
cal instruments manufactured here. Among 
these, the Newcombe Grand, Square, and 
Upright Pianos are conspicuous as having 
attained that artistic excellence that has 
secured for them the highest recognition in 
Europe, as well as in the United States and 
Canada. The Newcombe Piano Factory 
was founded in 1871. In 1879, the commo 
dious premises, 107 and 109 Church and 74 
Richmond Streets, were completed ; and in 
1887, the splendid factory, 121 to 129 Bell- 
woods Avenue, overlooking the grounds of 
the Bickford estate and Trinity College, with 
an additional wing two storeys high and 
extending back one hundred and twenty- 
seven feet, was built to accommodate the 
increased demand for the Newcombe Piano 
fortes. This demand has not been limited 
to Canada. In 1884-5, tne Newcombe 
Pianofortes were awarded the First Silver 
Medal and Jurors Report of Commendation 
at the World s Exhibition, New Orleans, 
U.S.A., in competition with the pianofortes 
of Europe and America, being the only 
Canadian Piano that has received such a 
distinction, and which has led to the 
exportation and sale of these pianos in the 
United States. In 1886, these instruments 



\vcre equally successful at London, England, being awarded a medal and diploma. The firm had also the further honour of 

having a Xewcomlie Grand Pianoforte selected by Sir Arthur Sullivan for Her Majesty the Queen. This instrument was 

pronounced by Mr. James Dacer, the composer, as 

the gem of the exhibition," and now occupies its 

new home, the Queen s Audience Chamber, at 

Windsor Castle. The excellence of the instruments 

manufactured by the Newcombe Piano Factory has 

been endorsed by a number of first prizes in 

Canada, in competition with Canadian and United 

States makers, by international awards abroad, and 

confirmed by the recommendation and patronage 

of the profession and the public. This has increased 

the demand for them, and stimulated the firm to 

make their factory a model in the perfection of its 

arrangements and adaptation of modern appliances, 

so that in its equipment and appointments it is 

quite on a par with the most complete factories in 

the United States. With these facilities this firm 

is extending their reputation, and the Newcombe 

Pianos are to be met with in most of the English- 
speaking communities of the world throughout 

the Dominion, Newfoundland, England, the United 

States, Australia, and even in Asia. 

Mr. T. A. Heintzman, founder of the well- 
known piano firm of Messrs. Heintzman & Co., was 

born in Berlin, Prussia, May gth, 1817. At the 

age of fourteen he engaged in the manufacture of 

piano keys and actions, and four years later, in 

1835, he entered the famous Bruno manufactory to 

learn piano-making in all its branches. In 1840, 

he began business in Berlin as a piano manufac 
turer. Coming to America in 1850, he spent two 

years in New York, and eight years in Buffalo, 

locating in Toronto, and founding the present 

enterprise in 1860. He has now assisting him in 

the business his four sons, Hermann, William, 

Charles, and George, all of whom are piano 

experts. The immense factory of the Company, at 

West Toronto Junction, employs 150 hands, and 

turns out some 800 pianos annually. Messrs. Heintzman & Co. s pianos are all of 

the highest class, and have secured for the house an exceedingly good reputation. 
These instruments have met with the approval of the musical world, and besides 
supplying a large part of the Canadian market, have been very successful in England. 
Mr. Heintzman is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and of the Lutheran Church. 
The first company in Canada to manufacture silver-plated ware from the 
crude metal was the Toronto Silver Plate Company. Incorporated in 1882, this 

Company began busi 
ness with a subscribed 
capital of $100,000. The 
founding of a new indus 
try like this in Canada 
was not done without 
overcoming many diffi 
culties. The large 
establishment which the 
Company now owns, at 
570 King Street West, 
testifies to the energy 
and skill that hav< 
FACTORY OF THE ACME SILVER COMPANY. displayed in putting it 


MR. A. 1. PARKER. 



on its feet. Over one hundred of the best mechanics are employed in the various departments, and travellers solicit orders 
for the firm in every part of the Dominion. Its manufactures are in high repute both for quality and taste in designing. For 

the past six years the executive of the Com 
pany has been under the care of .Mr. K. (;. 
Gooderham as manager, while the financial 
department has been administered by Mr. 
John C. Copp. The .Board of Management 
is composed of Mr. W. H. Beattv, Presi 
dent ; Mr. Alfred Gooderham, Vice-President, 
and the following Directors : Messrs. G. 
Gooderham, W. H. Partridge, David U alker, 
\V. T. Kiely, Wm. Thomson, James Webster, 
and Frank Turner. 

Mr. John C. Copp is a native of 
1 )e\ onshire, England. He was brought, 
when quite young, to Toronto in 1842, and 
has since resided in this city. He was one 
of the first enrolled pupils of the Toronto 
Model School, when it was located on the 
site now occupied by the Government House. 
At the age of fifteen, he entered the real 
estate office of Messrs. Strachan & Fitzgerald, 
and three years later became an employee of 
Messrs. Jacques & Hay, latterly R. Hay & 
Co. He continued with this firm for twenty- 
seven years, for nineteen of which he was 


the trusted financial manager. In 1884, Mr. Copp became Secretary-Treasurer of the Toronto Silver Plate Company, which 
position he still occupies. Mr. Copp, who is a business man of high repute and of untiring energy, has been a director of the 
Bible Society for many years. He is a trustee of the Toronto General Burying Grounds Trust, a director of the Y.M.C.A., and 
deputy-chairman of the Jewellers and Silversmiths Section of the Board of Trade. Mr. Copp s residence, 96 Wellesley Street, 
is a handsome building, of red brick on brown Credit Valley stone foundation, ornamented with grey sandstone and terra cotta. 

Mr. A. James Parker, President of the Acme Silver Company, was born October 2 5th, 1845, at Birmingham, England. 
He was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, London, England, and New Cross Naval School, from which he 
graduated in 1859. After seeing active service in the Royal Navy, he was some time in the Civil Service of New South Wales. 
Returning to England in 1864, he was sent by Messrs. B. J. Eyre & Co., of Sheffield, to the United States, as their representa 
tive, and afterwards became connected 
with the firm of Messrs. Rogers & Bro., 
Waterbury, Conn., manufacturers of 
plated-ware. In 1878, he became 
Canadian Manager for the Meriden 
Silver Plate Co., and on their retiring 
from the Canadian market he was for a 
year associated with the Meriden 
Britannia Co., of Hamilton. In 1885, 
he purchased the controlling interest in 
the Acme Silver Co., of which he has 
been President since that date. The 
goods of this Company, besides being 
well-known in Canada, find markets in 
the West Indies, Australia, and New 
X.eaUmd. Mr. Parker is a Freemason, 
an honourary member of the lunior 
United Civil Service Club of England, 
and in religion, is an Episcopalian. 

The Queen City Oil Works, of 
which Messrs. Samuel Rogers & Co. 
are the proprietors, were founded in 
1877 by Mr. Samuel Rogers. The 
firm is now composed of Mr. Rogers 
and his two sons, Joseph and Albert RESIDENCE OF MR. A. JAMES PARKER, SCHILLER AVENUE. 





Rogers. They are the owners of a large establishment, manufacturing plant, and numberless railroad cars ; and the oils they 
ship are widely and favourably known. Fine cylinder and engine oils have been made a specialty of by the firm. Through 

thi ii enti rprisi and nt rg) I oronto ha > 

been made the headquarters for machin 
ery oils in the Dominion, and Canadian 

oils have found a market in England and 

Australia. Mr. Samuel Rogers is a son 

of Elias Rogers who located in the Town 
ship of West Gwillimbury in 1828, and 

grandson of Asa Rogers who came to 

Canada from Vermont in 1800. He was 

a resident of the United States for some 

years, representing the drover & Baker 

Sewing Machine Company in Kentucky 

and parts of Indiana and Illinois, but did 

not become a naturalized citizen, and 

returning to Canada joined his younger 

brother, Elias Rogers, in the coal business 

for a timej retiring in 1877 to found the 

Queen City Oil Works. In this industry 

he has found an engrossing yet profitable 

field of work. 

Mr. John McPherson Taylor, 

Manager of the Toronto Radiator Manufacturing Company (Limited), was born at 
Belfast Ireland on the 2 4 th of May, 1865. Coming to Canada with his parents, who settled in Toronto, he attended the Yoi 
ville Public School until he was twelve years of age, when he entered the office of Mr. James Morrison, brass-founder, and at 
eighteen had attained the position of head salesman and purchasing agent. Upon the organization of the Toronto Radiato 
Manufacturing Companv, Mr. Taylor became Manager of the Company, and in January, 1890, was made Secretary-! 
and now fills all these positions. The Toronto Radiator Manufacturing Company is a joint stock association, composed 
several local manufacturers, and was formed for the purpose of making the Safford Radiators, for hot water and steam heating. 
The house is one of the largest establishments of the kind in the Dominion ; the factory, on Dufferm Street, having a floor 
spice of nearly five acres, and employing over one hundred hands. Mr. Taylor is a young man to be at the head of such an 
important manufacturing industry. That his services have been appreciated by his employers and associates, however, is 
attested by numerous valuable testimonials, accompanied by various illuminated addresses. Among the testimonials which he 
chiefly prizes are a gold watch, presented him by a former employer, Mr. James Morrison, and an illuminated address presents, 
bv steamfkters and dealers in steamfitters supplies in Canada and the United States. 

The business carried on at the extensive premises, 24 Front Street West, of which we give interior and exterior v.ews, 
was started by Mr. George F. Bostwick in 1884. Opening an office in that year on Toronto Street for the sale 
Goldie & McCulloch s safes, Mr. Bostwick ^ ^^ , 

was compelled by the rapid extension of his 
business to remove to a warehouse on Church 
Street, thence to the large building on King 
Street, adjoining The Mail Office, and two 
years ago, to his present premises. The 
business now embraces, besides the famous 
safes of the Gait firm, all kinds of commercial 
furniture ; bank and office fittings ; church, 
hall and opera seating : school furniture, and 
various kinds of heavy iron work. By a 

careful selection Mr. Bostwick has been abl< ^^^^^^ g VZ^^i^ 

to guarantee that every article in his ware 
house is the best of its kind, and certain to 
win approval for everything offered to his 


The Cosgrave Brewing Company is 
owned and managed by Mr. Lawrence Cos- 
grave. The founder, the late Mr. P. Cosgrave, j^^ 
was born in Wexford, Ireland, in 1814. He 

> Canada in 1810, and in 1861 started, 

Mr Eugene O Keefe, the Victoria M,, G.OROE F. BOSTW.CK S OK,,CK FUTURE SHOWROOM, F.ONT ST*T W, 





Brewery. When lie retired from that business, Mr. Cosgrave purchased the West Toronto Brewery. After a useful life, Mr. 
Cosgrave died September 6th, 1881. The business subsequently passed into the hands of his son, the present owner, under 

whose management the reputation his 

father founded has been sustained and 


Mr. |. ! . Maurice Macfarlane, of 

Messrs. Macfarlane, McKinlay & Co., 

manufacturers of window shades, is the 

grandson of the late Hon. James Ferrier, 

member of the Dominion Senate, and for 

many years Chairman of the Canadian 

Hoard of Directors of the Grand Trunk 

Railway, and other public offices. Mr. 

Macfarlane was born in Montreal, on the 

1 8th of Sept., 1849, ar >d was educated at 

the McGill High School. After leaving 

school he entered commercial life in 

Montreal, and later on in Chicago. 

Returning to Montreal, he took a position 

in a prominent wholesale dry-goods house. 

In 1873, Mr. Macfarlane located in Wood 
stock, Ontario, and engaged in business 

on his own account, in which he continued 
five years. When the N. P. was inaugurated he decided to engage in manufacturing, and in 1880, settled in Toronto, and 
entered upon his present undertaking. The firm of Macfarlane, McKinlay & Co. now turn out about 10,000 yards per week of 
painted shade doth, which leave the factory in three several styles either in pairs artistically decorated, finished with fringes or 
laces, or in plain tints. Mr. Macfarlane is a Royal Arch Mason, and a member of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club. Mr. A. 
Reid McKinlay, who is associated with Mr. Macfarlane in business, is a native of Toronto, and was educated at Upper 

Canada College. He was for many years a 
member of the Queen s Own Rifles; is a promi 
nent Mason, and a member of the Royal 
Arcanum. He is a successful man of business, 
and was connected with some of our largest 
wholesale dry-goods houses, and at one time 
interested with his father in the lumber trade. 
Only in recent years has the attempt 
been made in Canada to utilize photograph), 
in what is called a process-picture, for book 
illustration. In 1888, The Canadian Photo- 
Rngraving Bureau was established, at 203 Yonge 
Street, in this city, for that purpose, and began 
to supply the local demand which already 
existed for artistic half-tone engravings. In 
addition to half-tones for books and magazines, 
line engravings are here made for newspaper and 
advertising purposes. A large proportion of the 
illustrations for "Toronto Old and New" were 
made at The Canadian Photo-Engraving Bureau, 
and tell their own story. Mr. I. F. Moore, the 
senior proprietor, is a native of London, Fug 
land, where he was born in 1863. In 1871, he 
came to Canada. In 1879, he removed to the 
United States, and after experimenting in Art 
methods, he returned to Ontario, where he was 
attached to the Grip Printing and Publishing 
(!o., as foreman of the Art department. He 
relinquished that position to inaugurate the 
present enterprise. Mr. J. Alexander, Jr., of 
the firm, is a son of the pastor of the 1 knercourt 
Road Baptist Church, and was born in Montreal, 

i^-^^^^*^^*^***.^^^^^! 1 ^ 1 ^!!^*. 



After five years practical experience he joined Mr. Moore in 1889, and took charge of the business department of 
the Bureau. Both men are energetic, capable, and thoroughly alive to the requirements of this artistic age. 





TORONTO S financial resources, in great measure, account for the city s eminence in trade and commerce. The} are, 
as it were, the life-blood of her industry, and impart health as well as vigour to her frame. It is upon the banks and 
monetary institutions of a town, with the organization of credit which they control, as well as upon the enterprise and 
energy of its commercial and industrial classes, that the edifice of prosperity is built up. Toronto divides with 
Montreal the repute of being at once the seat and the nerve-centre of Canadian finance. In these two cities are the head- 
quarters of our great Banks, with a total assets, available in the main for the transactions of Commerce, of something like two 
hundred millions of dollars. Their combined paid-up capital is not far short of a fourth of this amount. Their financial 
position and management are such as to extort admiration, and give at the same time the amplest security to the investing and 
borrowing public. The interest of both these classes is further protected by the National Government, in the wise and safe 
provisions of the Banking Act, and in the security it exacts before an institution can open its doors for business. The chief 
banking institutions having their headquarters 

in the city are the Commerce, Toronto, I in- ^HPfT 2K!? !B9HHB)QRP9& 

perial, Dominion, Ontario, .Standard, and 
Traders Banks ; while those having branches 
here are the Montreal, British, Merchants , 
Quebec, Union, Molsons and Hamilton 
Banks. To these is about to be added, by 
the enterprise of Mr. G. W. Yarker, one of 
our ablest and best known bankers, the York 
County Bank, an institution which, it may 
safely be predicted, will add materially to 
Toronto s legitimate banking facilities and to 
the renown which existing institutions have 
brought her. Public convenience is further 
served by the Savings Banks, which of recent 
years have become a useful adjunct to many 
of the chartered banks, by the Post Office 
and Government Savings Banks, and by the 
Loan, Savings and Investment Companies 
doing business in the city. The facilities of 
these institutions are great, and public confi 
dence in them is well grounded. Of Loan 
and Investment Companies, there are now 
twenty-five, having their headquarters in Tor 
onto, with a total assets of over sixty-three 

millions. Their paid capital amounts to twenty-three millions, and they place forty millions more, raised on debenture or on 
deposit, at the financial service of the public. There is little need to say much here in commendation of those beneficent 
enterprises, which mark the provident character and the humanity of the age, the Life, Fire and Marine Insurance Companies. 
In their operations, aside from their practical benefit, they remove from the mind of the wage-earner, and all ranks of toil, a 
load of anxiety which would in many instances become an intolerable burden. The following pages present to the reader some 
of these institutions, as well as those connected with finance, whose operations are part of the multiform features of Toronto s 
cosmopolitan trade. 

Of late years, architecture has done great things for financial Toronto. \Vhat it has done for two or three of our banks 
it has done and is doing for several of our great insurance offices. Though not imposing in appearance, the Toronto Branch 
of the Bank of Montreal is, within and without, one of the most artistic buildings in the city. Substantial, as well as attractive, 
are the edifices recently erected for the Standard Bank and the Traders Bank. The branch of the Quebec Bank, if we can 
say no more, has at least the advantage of a good site. Not only is the site good, but imposing is the new home of the 
Canadian Bank of Commerce. The building is, in style, that of the moderni/ed Italian Renaissance, and its whole architectural 







composition is at once dignified and pleasing. It is built of a deep brown sandstone, its massiveness being relieved by 
delicate chisel work and other tasteful ornamentation, as well as by an abundance of window-light. It has a double facade 
and a symmetrical corner tower with a frontage both on King and on Jordan Streets. The interior is spacious and the 
decorations are rich and effective. Suites of rooms open out of the main floor, and an entresol, artistically designed, affords 
further accommodation for the elegantly furnished parlours of the officers of the Bank. Massive and elaborately contrived 
vaults with ample storage facilities are among the necessary appurtenances of the institution, together with a series of lavatories 
and other well-appointed offices. The Bank of Commerce has a history which dates back to the era of Confederation, when 
it was founded, mainly through the instrumentality of the late Senator McMaster, and it has had on its directorate many of the 
most substantial and enterprising of Toronto s chiefs of commerce. It had originally a capital of one million dollars, with six 
branches in the chief cities and towns of the Province. To-day, it has a paid-up capital of six millions, with a rest of 
$800,000, and thirty-eight branches, in addition to five local agencies in different sections of the city. It has also branches in 
Montreal and New York, and agents and correspondents in the chief money marts of the world, upon whom its letters of 
credit and bills of exchange are drawn. The institution has been of the greatest service to the industrial and commercial 
interests of Toronto, and its present management justly merits the confidence of all classes of the community. Its stock is 
quoted at 126, and it usually pays an eight per cent, annual dividend. It has a strong Directorate, and possesses in Mr. B. E. 
Walker, the General Manager, a banker of great ability and extensive experience. The following compose the Board and 
officers of the Bank : George A. Cox, President ; John I. Davidson, Vice-President : James Crathern, W. B. Hamilton, John 
Hoskin, Q.C., LL.D., Robert Kilgour, Matthew Leggatt, and George Taylor, Directors : 15. E. Walker, General Manager ; J. 

H. Plummer, Assistant General Manager ; A. H. Ireland. Inspector ; ( ,. de C. O Grady. Assistant Inspector. 
The Bank of Toronto has for more 

than a generation been one of the most use 
ful, as well as stable and representative, of 

the monetary institutions of the city. Its 

charter dates back to the year 1855 ; but its 

authorized capital, of two millions, was not 

wholly issued or paid up until twenty years 

afterwards. Besides this capital, the Bank 

has by uniformly good management accumu 
lated a rest of seventy-five per cent, of its 

paid-up stock. At its last general meeting, 

the Bank added $100,000 to its total rest of 

$1,500.000, besides paying a half-yearly 

dividend of five per cent, and carrying a 

substantial sum to the credit of its profit and 

loss account. The net profits of the last 

financial year were not far from $300,000; 

and its total assets were in the neighbourhood 

of eleven and one-half millions. Its stock 

is now quoted at 222. Besides its Head 

Offices in Toronto, the Bank has Branches 

at Montreal, London, Ont., Barrie, Brock- 

ville, Cobourg, Collingwood, Gananoque, 

Peterborough, Petrolia, Port Hope, and St. 

Catharines. It has also agencies in New- 
York, and in London, England. The fine premises of the Bank in Toronto (see illustration 

Its management has for a 

tion. Its administration has always been wisely 


long series of years been exceptionally good, and it naturally enjoys a most excellent financial repute 

_ , _ as always been" wisely conservative, though it is an institution which has extended to the expanding 

commerce of the city such facilities as legitimate expansion seemed to need and its large resources could well supply. 
cashier, Mr. Duncan Coulson, the Bank of Toronto has had for many years an officer of acknowledged ability, expene 
sagacity ; and it possesses a Directorate composed of men of sound judgment and large wealth. The Directors for the presenl 
year are Mr George Gooderham, President ; Mr. Wm. H. Beatty, Vice-President : and Messrs. A. T. Fulton, Henry ( 
John Levs, Henrv Cawthra, and W. G. Gooderham. Mr. Hugh Leach is Assistant Cashier, and Mr. J. Henderson, Inspect 

The Imperial Bank of Canada was incorporated by an Act of the Dominion Parliament, in .874, and opened 
for business on the ist of March, r8 75 . ^ first Board of Directors were Messrs. H. S. Rowland (late Vice-Pres 
Canadian Bank of Commerce), Wm. Ramsay, John Smith, Patrick Hughes, Robert Carrie, T. R. Wadsworth, and J 
Mr. D R Wilkie, formerly Manager of the Branch of the Quebec Bank in Toronto, was appointed Cash 
was obtained from Parliament for the amalgamation of the Niagara District Hank with the Imperial, was consumma, 
in the same year. Bv this arrangement the Board was strengthened by the acquisition of Mr. T. 

Senator Benson, the former being the President, and the latter the Vice-President, of the well-known St Catharines insti 
Since then, the Bank has succeeded beyond the expectations of its founders, and, from a comparatively small 



risen to a high position in the estimation of the public. A comparison of figures, taken from a statement of its assets and 
liabilities on 3ist March, 1878, and joth September, 1890, which has been prepared by the Bank, is not uninteresting, and is 
evidence that the institution has not only the confidence of the public, but has yielded a good return to its shareholders. 
Dividends upon the stock have been regularly paid from the first day of the opening of the Bank, and have aggregated 
$1,423.767, ov an average of seven and three-quarters per cent, per annum during a period that has witnessed at least three 
se\ere financial crises. The Head Office is conveniently situated in the large and commodious building, the property of the 
Bank, on the corner of Wellington Street and Leader Lane. City branches of the Bank are open for the convenience of 
its customers in Toronto on the corner of Yonge and Queen Streets, and on the corner of Yonge and Bloor Streets. 
Manitoba branches of the Bank were opened in \Vinnipeg and Brandon in 1882, and the Bank has ever since taken a 
prominent part in the development of that Province and of the North-West generally. Branches were subsequently opened 
in Portage la Prairie and Calgary. The Imperial are the bankers for the Government of the Province of Manitoba and make 
a specialty of all Manitoba and North-West business, having good facilities for transferring moneys deposited with any of 
its offices in Ontario, or with its agents in Great Britain (Lloyd s Bank, Limited, 72 Lombard Street, London, England, and 
branches), from those points to any point in Manitoba, the North-West Provinces and British Columbia. Country branches are 
also open at the following points in Ontario : St. Catharines, W elland, Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, Ingersoll, Woodstock, 
Gait. Fergus, St. Thomas, Essex, Sault Ste. Marie, at all of which a general banking business is transacted. A Savings 
Department is attached to the Head Office and to each branch, and every facility is afforded for the deposit, at interest, of 
large and small sums. The Bank also makes a specialty of Government and municipal debentures ; it has successfully floated 
more than one issue of debentures of the City of Toronto on the London market, and has been a large purchaser of those and 
other high-class securities. Insurance companies and investors usually communicate with this Bank whenever good, solid 
Canadian securities are needed for deposit with the Dominion Governmental Ottawa, or for other purposes. The present Board 

of the Imperial consists of Mr. H. S. How- 
land, President ; Mr. T. R. Merritt, Vice- 
President ; Messrs. William Ramsay, T. R. 
Wadsworth, Robert /affray, Hugh Ryan, and 
T. Sutherland Stayner. The chief officers 
of the Bank are Mr. D. R. Wilkie, the able 
and energetic Cashier of the institution ; Mr. 
B. Jennings, Assistant Cashier ; and Mr. Ed. 
Hay, Inspector. The Bank is agent in 
Canada for the Cheque Bank of London, 
England, and issues cheques upon that Bank 
available in every city and town of any 
account in every part of the world, thus 
affording travellers the same facilities which 
could otherwise be obtained only through a 
letter of credit, but without the annoyances 
as to identification, etc., which might be and 
often are inflicted upon the holders of such 

The Home Savings & Loan Company 
(Limited), of which the Hon. Senator Frank 
Smith is President, and Mr. fames Mason 
(Major of the Royal Grenadiers) is Manager, 
grew out of the Toronto Savings I .ank, which 
was established in 1854, under the authority 
of Acts 4 and 5 Vic. This institution proved a most useful one to the farmers, and to the working classes of the city, at a time 
when savings banks were either unknown or few in number, for it gave an incentive to thrift and led the wage-earner to make 
provident provision for ill-health or old age. The Act under which savings banks were originally established in Canada having 
been repealed, it was considered desirable to continue the business of the Toronto Savings Bank, and to afford and maintain 
opportunities for its beneficent working. The Home Savings & Loan Company (Limited) was therefore incorporated, and in 
1X78 an agreement was entered into between the two institutions, and sanctioned by Act of the Dominion Parliament, whereby 
the business of the Savings Hank was taken over by the new Company. By the same agreement, a sum representing the surplus 
the Savings Hank, amounting to $20,000, was paid by the Company, and this sum, by the terms of the agreement and 
Act, is held as the Toronto Savings Hank Charitable Trust, and controlled by Trustees appointed under the same Act, and 
having no connection with the ( lompany. The yearly earnings of this Trust are divided among some of the charitable institu- 
rhe former President and Vice-President of the Savings Hank Hon. Frank Smith and Mr. Eugene O Keefe 
-are and have been since its organization the President and Vice-President of the Home Savings & Loan Company. The 
other Due, tors of the Company are Messrs. William T. Kick, |ohn Koy, and Edward Stock, with Mr. James J. Foy, Q.C., as 




"" S " llntt " - , . [ * M;l ""- cr is Mr J ames Mason - - * >le and experienced financial administrator. The subscribed c- 
institution, which is essential, a repository for the savin,, of the people, is $,,750,000. The deposit Se C now 

number over 6,000, and they are constantly increasing and adding to the volume of 
the.r savings. The total deposits are now in the neighbourhood of a million and 
three quarters. The investments of the Company are restricted to debentures mort- 
;es, and such other securities as are considered by the Government of a proper 
character for such an institution. 

Mr. James .Mason, Major of the Royal Grenadiers, and the popular manager of 
I ho Home Savings and Loan Company (Limited), was born of .Irish parentage in the 
City of Toronto, August 2 5 th, 1843. After receiving his education at private schools 
and at the Toronto Model School, where he was head boy, he entered the office of 
the late Mr. Walter Mackenzie, Clerk of the County Court, and remained there several 
Mr. Mason intended to study surveying and civil engineering, but owin- to 
the discouraging prospects of the profession in his youth, his attention was turned to 
banking. Entering the employment of the Toronto Savings Bank in 1866, he was 
appointed assistant manager in 1872, and manager in the following year He 
remained in that position till the business was taken over, in 1879, by the Home 
Savings & Loan Company, and has since continued to be manager of the new and 
now flourishing institution. The Home Savings & Loan Company, whose offices 
are at 78 Church St., and of which the Hon. Senator Frank Smith is President, has an 
authorized capital of $2,000,000. It enjoys an excellent reputation as one of the 
most useful, as well as sound, financial institutions in the city. Under Mr. Mason s 
able and prudent management, it has of recent years added largely to the volume of its 
msmess. Mr. Mason finds time to fulfil the active and patriotic duties of a citizen. He was Director for several years of the Toronto 
Mechanics Institute and its last President when the institution was merged into the Free Public Library. In the founding of the 
latter he took a warm interest as a member of the Board of Trustees and served as its chairman. On his retirement he was 
presented with a handsome address. He was also one of the promoters of the Athenaeum Club and its first President V 
taste for military life led Mr. Mason, early in the sixties, to join the Queen s Own Rifles. As a passed cadet of the Military 
School, he was appointed to a commission in the corps, the organization of which was undertaken at the time of the Fenian 
Raid, but was abandoned at its suppression. In 1882, he was appointed to the command of one of the two companies which 
were then added to the Royal Grenadiers. During the North-\Vest Rebellion, he served as Captain of No. 2 Service Company 
f his Regiment, and was present at the action of Fish Creek, on which occasion his Company, at his own request, was the first 
to cross the Saskatchewan to cover the crossing of the remainder of the column, and to support the other half of General Mid- 
lleton s force then engaged with the rebels. Speaking of the feat then accomplished, General Middleton thus reports : " To 
fully appreciate the rapidity with which this was done, in spite of the difficulties which existed, the river must be seen ; wooded 
heights on each side, one hundred feet high 
at bottom, large boulders encrusted in 
thick, sticky mud a fringe of huge blocks of 
ice on each side ; a wretched scow, carrying 
about sixty men at most, pulled with oars 
made with an axe, and a rapid current of 
about three or four miles an hour, were the 
obstacles to be surmounted by dint of deter 
mination and anxiety to join with and aid 
their comrades." On reaching the scene of 
the fight and learning that the attempts to 
capture the position occupied by the rebels 
had failed, Captain Mason volunteered with 
his Company to charge this point, but the 
General declined the offer, saying there were 
" too many valuable lives lost already." At 
the engagement at Batoche, No. 2 Company 
was one of those that gallantly led the attack, 
and here Captain Mason received a gunshot 
wound in his right side while advancing on 
the rebel rifle-pits. The wound proved a 
severe one, and he suffered a long time from 
its effects. Mr. Mason, as an esteemed, 
useful and patriotic citizen, enjoys the respect 
of the community and the confidence of COSGRAVE S BREWERY, QUEEN STREET WEST, CORNER OF NIAGARA STRFET. 




banking and financial men throughout the city. He is now Major of the Royal Grenadiers, and is one of the most popular 
officers in the Regiment. He i> an adherent of the Roman Catholic Church. 

Mr. Humphrey Lloyd Hime, President of the Toronto Stock Exchange, was 
horn at Moy, Co. Armagh, Ireland, September lyth, 1833. At the age of fifteen he 
crossed to Kngland to obtain a business education and learn textile manufacturing. 
Coming to Canada in 1854 he spent some years with surveyors on the Indian Penin 
sula, on the islands of the Georgian Kay and Lake Simcoe, and in the Hudson Bay 
Territories. In 1861 he became one of the founders of the Toronto Stock Exchange, 
of which he was Vice-President in 1865, and President in 1868, and again in 1888. In 
the year 1867 Mr. Hime took an active interest in mining on the north shore of Lake 
Superior. He was aldermanic representative of St. Patrick s Ward in 1873 and was 
appointed Justice of the Peace in 1874. Mr. Hime is now President of the Toronto 
Stock Exchange and of the Copland Brewing Co. He is a Director of the Toronto 
Belt Line Railway and the Belt Land Corporation. For some time he was a Director 
of the Northern Railway Company. He is a member of the Church of England and 
was formerly connected with the Reform Association, but now takes no active part in 
politics. He is head of the firm of Messrs. H. L. Hime & Co., stock brokers, mil 
estate and insurance agents. 

Toronto owes to the Canada Life Assurance Company one of the finest build 
ings of the many which now adorn her streets. It is at once the most striking, and 
among the most costly, of the homes of her commerce. Architecturally, it is a 
departure from the usual designs of office construction, the innovation the well or 
court which breaks the continuity of the face front of the structure -being suggested 

bv the demands in so large a building for light. The handsome edifice we need hardly take up space to describe, as we give in 
the volume a fine full-page illustration of it. Its erection, on our chief thoroughfare, King Street, while it does honour t< 
city, is at the same time a mark of the enterprise 
and wealth of the great Company which stands 
at the head of Canadian insurance. The build 
ing, which has been constructed from the plans 
of Mr. Waite, Buffalo, is seven storeys high : the 
first storey presents a massive granite front, only 
the entrance pillars being polished ; the second 
storey is of red sandstone, and the upper storeys 
of a dark-colored brick. The main entrance is 
through a court, across the front of which is an 
immense polished granite block borne upon 
polished granite pillars, and leading to the grand 
vestibule, to the offices on either side, and to 
the elevator in the tower at the rear of the 
building. The walls of the vestibule are inlaid 
with Mexican onyx, and the great corridor is of 
old Roman Mosaic tile. The spacious offices 
of the Canada Life are in the western wing of 
the main floor, and are elaborately but taste 
fully decorated. The building as a whole con 
tains about a hundred other offices, and already 
the tenants of the Company are hastening to 
take possession of their fine new quarters. A 
Branch of the Bank of Hamilton occupies the 
large offices on the main floor, east of the 
corridor. The career of the Canada Life Assur 
ance Company has been one of unqualified and 
unbroken success. It was originally established 
in 1847, with its head office at Hamilton, and it 
N one of the institutions of which the "Ambitious 
City " has reason to be proud. Hamilton still 
is its headquarters and there its affairs are- 
administered by its eminent President, Mr. A. G. 
Ramsay, aided by a strong Directorate, local and 
provincial. The Chief Secretary is Mr. R. Hills : WARP.HOUSB 01 MK. ( .ROUGE. F. BOSTWICK, I-KONT Si HI i i \V. 



the Genera] Superintendent, Mr. W. T. Ramsay. Its Toronto managers are Messrs. George A. and E. W Cox; and the 
metropolitan office has for its advisors the following Honorary Directors : Lieut-Governor Sir Alexander Campbell, Sir Casimir 
S Gzowski Sir 1) 1 Macpherson, the Hon. Mr. Justice Burton, and Mr. C. W. Bunting. An insurance company, doing busi 
ness in every province of the Dominion, in London, England, and in at least one state of the neighbouring Republic, and having 
fifty millions of assurances in force, with over eleven millions of capital and other assets, and an annual income of two millions, 
is in need of no commendation in these pages. The volume and constant increase of its business, the number of its policy- 
holders, and the amount insured in the Company, are its own panegyric. Not only the Company, but Canada also, may 1, 
Felicitated on the remarkable history of this great home institution. 

^^ Some forty years ago a number of leading citizens ot 1 oronto applied to 

the Parliament of Canada for a charter for an association under the style and title 
of the "Western Assurance Company," and in 1851 the Company was duly 
incorporated with power to transact fire, marine and life insurance It has never 
done a life business, but has confined itself to the other two branches. The busi 
ness has grown from a premium income of ^3,7 2 5 in the first } ear of its existence 
to a premium income of $1,686,932, in 1889. The Company has also cash assets 
of upwards of $1,500,000. The directorate, which has embraced such men as the 
late Hon. John McMurrich, and the late Samuel Haldan, is composed now as 
follows : Mr. A. M. Smith, President ; Mr. George A. Cox, Vice-President ; Hon. 

S. C. Wood, Messrs. Robert Beaty, A. T. 
Fulton, H. N. Baird, George McMurrich. 
W. R. Brock, and J. J. Kenny, Managing- 
Director. The Company s building, an 
illustration of which appears on another 
page, is a handsome structure of Con 
necticut brown stone, situated on the 
north-west corner of Wellington and Scott 
Streets. The Company deserves the suc 
cess that has awaited on it. 




Mr. J. J. Kenny, Managing- 
Director of the Western Assurance 

Company, was bom in London, Eng 
land, in the year 1846. Coming to 

Canada with his parents when quite a 

lad, he was educated in Hamilton, and 

commenced his insurance career, at 

the age of eighteen, as a clerk in the 

agency office of Mr. George A. Young, 

the then representative of the Royal 

for that district. After four years thus spent, he was for a short time in the 

employment of the Canada Life Assurance Company. Two years later he accepted 

a position on the staff of the Western Assurance Company, and for nineteen years 

he has remained in their service. From clerk he rose to be agent at Toronto, 

Inspector, Secretary and Managing-Director. The phenomenal progress of this 

Company, since he took charge in 1880, is due in no small degree to Mr. Kenny s 

skill and energy. 

The Confederation Life Association is one of the most substantial and 

successful of Canadian Insurance Companies. It is a home company, doing 

business exclusively in Canada, and was incorporated by the Dominion Parliament 

in 1871, with a strong body of directors, under the presidency of the late Sir Francis Hincks, K.C.M.G. In 1874, Sir \\ in. 1 
Howland, C.B., succeeded to the presidency, and has since held that position in the Company, aiding it largely with his mature 
experience and sound judgment. The Association has also had the benefit, for nearly twenty years, of the business ability and the 
wise counsels of a number of influential men, chiefly well-known residents of the city. From the first, thanks in the mam to 
the careful and capable administration of Mr. J. K. Macdonald, Managing-Director, the Company has met with unqualified 
success. Its volume of current business has grown from an amount under two millions in 1873 to nearly eighteen millions in 
1889, while its assets within the same period have expanded from $i 13,293 to $2,894,502, or, including the capital of the 
institution, to $3,800,000. During the past year alone, the increase in the volume of insurance in force amounted to nearly a 
million ; while the increase in assets, available in part as policy-holders profits, was not far from $350,000. Results si 
gratifying as these figures show, denote not only, as we have said, successful management, but the public confidence anc 
favour which successful management inspires. Something is also no doubt due to the liberal character of the Company s 



Sir W. P. Rowland K C M G C U 

> ...... * " ".< 

\\ . 1 ). Matthews, and George Mitchell, Directors ; W. C. Macdonald, Actuary, and 
J. K. Macdonald, Managing-Director. 

Mr. S. f. Duncan-Clark, general agent of the Lancashire Insurance Company, 
is a Scotchman by birth, and received his education in Edinburgh and Brussels \s 
a young man he entered the service of Messrs. Gillespie, Moffatt & Co, London, and 
later was in the employ of the London cS: Westminster Bank. In 1864, he connected 
himself with the Lancashire Insurance Company, and for many years has been their 
able general agent, with headquarters at Toronto. Mr. Duncan-Clark, who enjoys a 
high reputation among the chiefs of commerce, has under his charge the business of 
the Company in Ontario, Quebec, Mani 
toba and the North-West Territories. The 
" Lancashire " is one of the most success 
ful of the English Insurance Companies 
in Canada, and it has been fortunate in 
having for so many years at the head of 
its Toronto Branch a gentleman of Mr. 
Duncan-Clark s high character for business 
ability and personal worth. He was 
elected last year President of the Canadian 


MR. Ai.i . \V. SMITH. 


Fire Underwriters Association. In 
religion, Mr. Duncan-Clark is a mem 
ber of the Presbyterian Church of 

Mr. Malcolm Gibbs, born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, May i8th, 1837, 
was educated at Glasgow University. 
i Coming to Canada a young man, his 
interest in his adopted country did not 
make him forget his native land. Mr. 

Gibbs has been identified with all the Scotch societies in Toronto, and was Presi 
dent of St. Andrew s Society, of which he is now the popular Manager. His name 
has been intimately connected with the insurance and real estate business in 
Toronto for many years past. He has taken a deep interest in moral reforms, and 
was formerly President of the Temperance Reformation Society, and District Chief 
of the Independent Order of Good Templars. He is a Past Master of Rehoboam 
Lodge. A. V. cV- A. M., Auditor of Capital Lodge, A.O.U.W., and an Executive Com- 
^f^fjU mitteeman of the Law and Order League. Mr. Gibbs has been Secretary of the 

Caledonian Society. He is an active member of Jarvis Street Baptist Church. 

Mr. Richard Wickens, insurance agent, is an Englishman, and was born 
MR. LYRE THURESSON. i i n ,- r< -i 

August 131)1, 1826. Coming to Canada while quite young, animated by a desire to 

remain under the old flag of the land of his birth, he received in this country an education specially designed to fit him for com 
mercial life. His connection with the Commercial Union Assurance Company, of London, England, for some years past has 
caused a large amount of Canadian insurance to go to that reliable Company. Mr. Wickens takes an active interest in his 
fellow-countrymen who come to Canada, being a member of St. George s Society. His denominational connection is with the 
Methodist Church, of which he is a worthy and devoted member. 

Mr. Alfred U ightman Smith is a native of Toronto. He was born in this city in September, 1847, when what is now the 
Metropolis had scarcely more than emerged from its rural obscurity. After receiving the rudiments of his education he became a 
student at Upper Canada College, and subsequently at the Toronto Grammar School. Mr. Smith is one of the best known of 
Toronto s insurance men. His connection with the Imperial Fire Insurance Company, and the British Empire Life Company, 




has drawn a nival deal of business to those organizations. For some years Mr. Smith has been a member of the Toronto 
Hoard of Underwriters, of which he has been President since 1889. He is a member of the Church of England. 

Mr. Kyre Thuresson. I. I ., was born of United Empire Loyalist stock, at Picton, Prince Edward County. April i ;th, 
1825. His education was imparted by private tuition. During the Sandfield-Macdonald administration, Mr. Thuivsson was 
appointed one of the Justices of the Peace for the South Riding of Wentworth. From 1850 till 1860 he operated extensive 
agricultural implements works at Ant-aster, which he relinquished to enter upon the manufacture of knitted goods. The first 
Canadian factory for the production of card clothing for wool and cotton carding machinery was established by Mr. Thuresson, 
in 1866. After carrying this enterprise on for thirteen years, the worthy gentleman retired from active business. Since locating 
in Toronto he has invested largely and profitably in business and private property. He is a Freemason, and a member of 
Macnab Lodge, Port Colborne. Mr. Thuresson, in politics, is a Liberal, and in religion, an Episcopalian. 

F or the security of Financial Toronto, as 
well as for the maintenance of good order, the 
city is possessed of two organi/.ations, of which 
it may well be proud, the Police Force and the 
Fire Brigade. The Police Force is composed 
of a very fine body of men, three hundred 
strong, well-drilled, well set-up, and sem eeably 
uniformed. Many of the men have served in 
the British Army, or in the Royal Irish Con 
stabulary, and in addition to being amenable to 
discipline have military instincts and possess a 
soldier s sense of duty. Their fine physique and 

" X N&H^StW2P3S"B H0^HHL/ soldierly bearing are the subject of comment 

OT S&Btik with visitors to the city, as well as among towns 

people who see them as a body at drill or, 
occasionally, in some pageant on the street. 
They are excellently commanded by Lt.-Col. 
H. J. Grasett, Chief Constable, an ex-army 
officer, and a singularly good administrator. 

""M fc"" in WZ CoL Grasett is efficiently aided by Deputy-Chief 

MB M P^ IT* lF ? 1| J m&*t-J Stuart, and by four Inspectors, Messrs. Stephen, 

BHw&S n jfBaiL \Vard, Johnston and Breckenreid. Besides the 

JHJ ?. m yjlj * 4* I rdinar > forcc > there is a simi1 Mounted Folice 

l]mr*"A EH*"! ? * Ipj Patrol > and an Aml ula c e and Detective 

-I I rjfe Corps, the latter under Inspector Wm. Stark. 

^ 1 Rtfi alK^.Mj&fi^.kdUte k&aattitiii The government of the City Police is vested in 

three Commissioners, the Mayor for the time 
being, the Stipendiary Magistrate, Lt.-Col. G. T. 
1 lenison, and His Honour, Judge Macdougall, 
of the County Court. 

Toronto s Fire Brigade vies in efficiency, 
and may we not say, in no objectionable sense, 
in the lust of manhood, with the city s other 
protecting arm, the Police Force. The organi 
zation is of exceptional importance to the vast 
and far-reaching interests of the Provincial 
Capital, and to it and its admirable system is the city indebted, daily and hourly, for its immunity from fire. Nothing 
could well be more efficient than the electric alarm system now in force in Toronto and the thoroughly organi/ed staff, 
with its hook, ladder and hose equipment, at the several conveniently-situated fire stations. There are now in operation 
we believe over 300 signal boxes throughout the city, and the rapidity of movement which the system has introduced and 
excites is most assuring to all interests at stake. The number of street hydrants is well-nigh legion, and very exceptional 
are now the circumstances that will permit a fire within the city limits to get a headway and do much damage. The present 
Chief of the Brigade is Mr. Richard Ardagh, with Mr. Thomas Graham as assistant. These act under the authority of the 
Fire and Gas Committee of the City Council, of whom Alderman Hell is now Chairman. The Fire Brigade System has 
attained its present perfection as the result of a constant evolution which has been going steadily on for many years. To look 
back to-day to the old methods in use at fires in the city is to seem to look back on the days of the Ark and the deluge. \Ve 
have made a long stride from the era of the old hand engine and the barrel of water. The citizens would be ingrates if they 
forgot to whom the\ our credit in a large measure, for the modernizing and present equipment of the system now in vogue. 
Two names, at least, claim to be mentioned as instrumental in bringing about the change, these are, the late Mr. James Ash- 
field, who was long Chief of the Fire Brigade, and ex-Alderman James B. Houstead, for many years Chairman of the Fire and 
Gas ( ommittee uf the Council, and one of the most zealous, hard-working and self-sacrificing of our City Fathers. 







SUBURBAN TORONTO, like the city itself, was once of small and modest dimensions. For five miles around, 
writes Mr. Montgomery Martin, in his work on The Brilish Colonies, Toronto, in 1817, had scarcely one improved 
farm adjoining another, the average being ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

one farm-house in every three miles. The 
city had then no brick houses, no tinned roofs, no 
planked sidewalks ; the stumps of trees remained in 
the streets : the site of the present (St. I.awrence) 
market was an unhealthy bog. There were no banks, 
no markets, no sewers i only a few stores, and scarcely 
a schooner frequented its wharves. Now (Mr. Martin 
wrote in 1845), Toronto contains 30,000 intelligent 
citizens ; rows of handsome brick buildings, roofed 
with tin ; numerous places of worship ; splendid shops 
or stores, with plate-glass windows ; gas-lit and ma 
cadamized streets. The city had by this time, we 
learn, risen to the dignity of a town hall, and pos 
seted law courts and a university. Its wharves were 
now loaded with produce and crowded with steam 
boats and schooners. There was a Board of Trade, 
a Mechanics Institute, public baths, and a fixed and 
floating property estimated at five millions sterling. 
Around and about the city in all directions, Mr. Martin 
adds, were villas, farms, and fine orchards and gar 
dens. Nearly fifty years have gone by since this description of Toronto was written, and every urchin in the street knows what 
strides the city has made and is making. Marvellous as has been the progress within the city proper, no less marvellous has 
been the progress in the city s suburbs. Even within the past ten years the change has seemed magical. True to the general law, the 

chief progress has been westward. 
No sooner do Parkdale and Brockton 
blossom out into a new and popu 
lous Toronto, and in time come 
within the city s embrace, than still 
another civic extension appears and 
grows up to maturity like a gourd in 
the night. If the pace is maintained, 
we shall have ere long a continuous 
city, vocal with the sounds of indus 
try, from the water-front to U e^ton. 
A stroll through West Toronto Junc 
tion will astonish the Torontonian 
who rarely quits the beaten paths 
of the city proper. Here he will 
find manufactories and all manner 
of industries that have sought at 
the ] unction room to expand freely, 
with exemption from city taxation. 
The suburb has a stir and life about 
it which mark it as an off-shoot of 
the city, and born of the same enter 
prise and energies that have made 

01- Mu. 



Toronto what it is. 



John T. Gilmour, M.D., M.P.P., first saw the light of day in the County of Durham, Ont., on March 3rd, 1855. He 
was educated at Port Hope High School, and in 1878, at the age of twenty-three, graduated from Trinity Medical College, with 
the degree of M.I). In addition to the extensive medical practice which, in conjunction with Dr. Clendenan, he enjoys at 
West Toronto Junction, Dr. Gilmour has found time to serve the public in many 
ways. He was the pioneer of journalism at the Junction. The York Tribune, of 
which he was the first editor, is now a flourishing daily. In 1886, he was nominated 
by the Liberal party and returned member for North York in the Local Legislature. 
In 1890, he was re-elected, and on the opening of the Legislature seconded the address 
in reply to the Speech from the Throne. 
Dr. Gilmour is connected with all the 
leading Societies, is one of the Public 
School Trustees of West Toronto Junc 
tion, and a member of the Methodist 




Mr. Jacob H. Hoover, of the well- 
known real estate firm of Messrs. Hoover 
& Jackson, West Toronto Junction, was 
bom January 2oth, 1845, m l lc Township 
of York, Ontario. He attended the Wes- 
ton High School and one of the Toronto 

Business Colleges, but in the main is self-educated. Mr. Hoover was on the staff of 
the Journal of Commerce, Toronto, for some time, and for sixteen years was a school 
teacher. The present firm of Messrs. Hoover & Jackson, besides carrying on a large 
real estate business, are the publishers of the Daily and Weekly Tribune, and do an 
extensive coal, wood and lumber trade. Mr. Hoover is President of the Auston 

Manufacturing Company, of Toronto, and a Director of the Hess Manufacturing Company, West Toronto Junction. He is a 
member of the Methodist Church. 

Mr. James T. Jackson, of Messrs. Hoover & Jackson, real estate agents, money loan brokers, and appraisers, West Tor 
onto Junction, is a Canadian by birth. He was born at Vaughan, York County, January 4th, 1862. He attended \Veston High 
School and took a second-class certificate in 
1880. After teaching school for a year and 
a half at Willowdale, Mr. Jackson matricu 
lated at Toronto University, and in 1887, 
graduated in Arts. Since commencing busi 
ness, the firm of Hoover & Jackson have 
been singularly successful. They are the 
publishers of the Daily Tribune, which was 
founded as a weekly in 1888, developed into 
a bi-weekly in 1889, and a daily in 1890. 
Mr. Jackson is a member of the Methodist 
Church, and a Reformer in politics. 

.Mr. Daniel Webster Clendenan, bar 
rister, is a graduate in Arts of Bethany Col 
lege, West Virginia. Formerly he was a 
member of the firm of Beaty, Hamilton & 
Cassels, but for the past seven years he has 
withdrawn from active practice. Mr. Clen 
denan has been closely identified with the 
growth and development of West Toronto 
Junction. He was the first Reeve and first RESIDENCE OF MR. THOMAS GILBERT, WEST TORONTO JUNCTION. 



Mayor of the [unction, and took a leading part in mapping it out. Mr. Clendenan has been Deputy-Reeve of York Township. 
During the recent Provincial campaign Mr. Clendenan carried the Equal Rights banner in West York and made an exceedingly 
good run against the old party nominee. Doubtless we shall yet hear of him in public life. 

Mr. lames A. Ellis, architect, is a native of Ontario, having been born at Meaford, March 2nd, 1856. He received a 
good primary education, and a thoroughly practical as well as a theoretical _ ^^ 

training in architecture, and now carries on the business of registered architect 
and building superintendent at West Toronto Junction. He has prepared and 
carried to their successful completion, plans for important buildings at Port 
Arthur, Sault Ste. Marie, and Meaford, including churches, school-houses, resi 
dences, and business blocks. At West Toronto Junction, three public school 
buildings, the Disciples Church, two factories, and a number of residences were 
built under his supervision. Mr. Ellis is a member of the Ontario Association 
of Architects, and is connected with the Masonic fraternity. 

Mr. Thomas Gilbert was born in Toronto, June I3th, 1843. He received 
his education at the Model School, and afterwards at Rockwood Academy, near 
Guelph. For thirty-five years he carried on a farm at what is now known as 
Prospect Park. The rapid growth of Toronto has made this property very valu 
able for building purposes. Mr. Gilbert retired from farming, and is now living 
at West Toronto [unction. He was six years a trustee of School Section No. 
13, near Davenport. Mr. Gilbert is a Conservative, and a member of the 
U csleyan Methodist Church. 

The residence of Mr. Peter 
Laughton is a handsome brick struc- I 
ture, occupying a commanding site at 
West Toronto Junction, fronting on 

Dundas Street. Mr. Laughton was formerly a market-gardener. He came to Toronto 
some twenty-three ago, and for a long time carried on business at the corner of Dover- 
court Road and College Street. Subsequently he moved to the vicinity of West 

Toronto Junction, and when real estate 
values rose in that locality, Mr. Laughton 
had some thirty-three acres of land. He 
disposed of the bulk of the property and 
retired from active business. 




"Homewood Hall," the residence 
of John McConnell, M.D., 625 Dundas 
Street, is one of the finest houses in 
St. Mark s Ward, where he is a large 
property owner. It stands on an acre 
of ground, surrounded by trees, vines 
and (lowering plants, and from the bel 
vedere commands a view of the city and lake. Dr. McConnell was born in the 
Township of Scarboro, March 4 th, 1846, and when about ten years old removed 
with his parents to Markham. Here, and at the Richmond Hill Grammar School, 
he was educated, and he also matriculated at Toronto University, and obtained 
from the Education Department a first-class certificate as a teacher. For a time 
he taught school and also studied for the medical profession. He became a 

student of the Toronto School of Medicine, and in l8 6 9 he graduated. After receiving his diploma, ^ commenced practice 
at Thornhill, and fifteen years later removed to Brockton, then a suburb but now part of the City O I oronto. 
was Reeve of the village and represented the Ward after incorporation. He is a ( kroner For the ( lounty oi ^ ork, and has 
"sclent of ^-,,t York Reform Association and of the Reform Association of Vaughan. He holds a first-lass Military 
S^ol cen!ficl, and has been Zg connected with the Canadian militia. Dr. McConnel, was for four years attendant-physician 
at the Protestant Orphans Home. 

DR. JOHN McCox.NKi.i.. 



Mr. |. -\[. Mouat-Biggs, town engineer of West Toronto Junction, was born at Rawul Pindi, India, April i uh. 1864. 
He was educated for the British Army, and decided to adopt the profession of Civil Engineer. To that end he took a special 
course at Newton College, South Devon, England. In 1882 he came to Canada, and for two years was employed by the 
Dominion Government surveying in the North-West, and in the Muskoka and 
Parry Sound Districts. Subsequently he was employed for some time on the Wei- 
land Canal. In the spring of 1889, he located at West Toronto Junction, and a 
tew weeks thereafter \\;>s appointed to his present position of town engineer. 

West Toronto Junction owes not a 
little to Mr. John Dunn Spears, of Messrs. 
Spears \- Gilmour, real estate brokers, a 
gentleman who has for many years been 
prominently identified with the rise and 
progress of that enterprising suburban 




town. Mr. Spears was born in \ 844 in 
the Township of Whitby, Ontario County, 
where he was long actively engaged in 
the milling business. In 1884, Mr. Spears 
moved to the Junction, and has since then 
devoted himself to contracting and to real 

estate. He is the only person in West Toronto Junction who has continuously 
occupied a seat at the Council Board since the inauguration, first of the village 
and then of the town. Mr. Spears has been chairman of the Board of Water-works 
at the Junction since their first establishment. He is also a Director of the Hess 

Manufacturing Company, and a member of the I. O. O. F. Mr. Spears is an ardent Reformer, of the old Clear Grit school, 

and, in religion, is a worthy member of the Presbyterian Church, and has taken a hearty interest in building up Presbyterianism 

in this thriving outpost of the Scotch Church. 

Mr. Charles Crosbie Going, barrister, was born at London, Ontario, October 2ist, 1850.. He is the youngest son of Dr. 

Going of that city, a descendant of the 

Goings of Ballyphilip, Ireland. After being 

educated at Hellmuth College, Mr. Going 

studied law in the office of J. H. Eraser, Q.C., *.-/ " 

and was called to the Bar in 1881. He 

practised for some years at Strathroy, until, 

in 1888, he became a resident of West Tor 
onto Junction. Shortly afterwards he was 

appointed Town Solicitor, and has taken a 

leading part in building up this new and 

flourishing outgrowth of Toronto. He is 

senior member of the law firm of Mcrs. 

Going <S; Heaton, Vice.- President of the 

EiberaI-( Conservative Association, Chairman 

of the Building Committee of St. John s 

Church, and delegate to the Synod of Tor 
onto. Mr. Going resides on High Park 


Mr. George Gurd, real estate agent 

and valuator, was born in Stradbally, Queen s 





ceived a business education at Ranelagh College, Athlone, and at the age of fifteen, went to Dublin, where he spent five 

years in one of the largest establishments of that city. The next ten years were spent in his native town, where he carried on 

business and was Clerk of a District Court. 

Coming to this country in 1869, he was in 

the agency and commission business till 

iSSn. when he became a real estate agent. 

Mr. Curd has taken a deep intere>t in West 

Toronto Junction, and was a member of the 

first Council of the town. He resides at 

present at the corner of l.akeview Avenue 

and Cilendon wynne Road. Mr. Gurd is an 

official member of the Methodist Church. 

and for three years has been a delegate to 

Toronto Conference. He is connected with 

the A. (.). U.\V. (Granite Lodge), and Irish 

1 rotestant Benevolent Society, and is a 

Liberal in politics. 

George Washington Clendenan, M.D. 
and C.M., one of the most popular as well 
as prominent physicians and surgeons at 
West Toronto Junction, was born in the 
County of Lincoln. He was educated at 
St. Catharines Collegiate Institute, where he 

received, besides an English education, a 


thorough grounding in the classics. 1 nus 

equipped he passed to the Toronto School of Medicine, where he graduated in 1882, receiving the degrees of M.D. and i 
1 )r. Clendenan at once came out to and settled at the Junction, and in a comparatively short time built up an appreciable 
which is now one of the largest and most lucrative in that suburban town. He holds the office of Coroner, having 

received his commission in March, 1882. He 
is also Medical Health Officer, Chairman of 
the Public School Board, and President of 
the Mechanics Institute, positions which he- 
has held since the incorporation of the Junc 
tion as a town. Dr. Clendenan has always 
taken a deep interest in social and benevolent 
societies, being a prominent member of Stan 
ley Lodge, A. F. & A. M.: a Past Master 
Workman of the A. O. U. W.: a Past Chief 
Ranger of the C.O.F.; and a member of the 
I.O.O.K. Dr. Clendenan is energetic and 
painstaking in the pursuit of his profession. 
One of the most deserving of the 
city s charities, as well as one of the oldest, 
is the Protestant Orphans Home, situate on 
Dovercourt Road, surrounded by ample play 
grounds, the Home itself being a model one. 
and by its comfort and cheerfulness tending 
to soften the asperities and brighten the out 
look of its orphaned inmates. Few of 
Toronto s charitable institutions appeal more 
urgently than does the Orphans Home to 
the sympathy and support of the public. 

The charity was founded so far back as ,849, and long had its home on Sullivan Street/from which it removed some years ago 
to its present more suitable site. In the heyday of her fame Madame Jenny Lmd sang on one occasion in 
benefit of the institution. It has not wanted, neither then nor since, many good and true friends, among whom, pe, 
best and truest has been Mrs. Matthew Vankoughnet, who has for many years w,th lova and unwcaned devot.on ene 
Besides Mrs. Vankoughnet, and we might mention Mrs. J. S. McMurrav and Mrs. R. L. ( owan, it has 

and elulstic band of friends among the ladies of Toronto, as well as a few staunch supporters and 

Since the founding of the Home, fully 1,600 children have been cared ior under us sheltering ro. 

and the number of its present inmates varies from ,50 to 2 oo. The efficient maintenance of this deserving chanty appeal 
the benevolence of every citizen of Toronto. An illustration of the Home will be found on page ,95 of this volume. 


L USNDENAN, \\ t.~ 


directorate an 

workers of the other sex. 



A New Era of Colonial History in America . . 9 

A Ramble round Toronto 49 

A Retrospect of the last Thirty Years 46 

Academy of M usic 53 

Administrative and Public Officers of the 

Province and Capital 55 

Advance in Population and Realty 154 

Advantageous Location of Toronto 15 

Ail venture in Ontario Peninsula, early French 8 
Aims of the early Reformers in the struggle 

\vilh Absolutism 29 

Algonquins or Hurons, Home of 5 

Annexed Western Suburbs 54 

Architecture ivnd Climate 141 

Architectural Beauty of City 48 

Are oar Wants too Artificial 180 

Arsronaut Kowing Club, View from 53 

Arlington Hotel 53, 113 

Art and Music 131 

- Academies 131 

- Training in the Schools 132 

- Yet in its Infancy in Canada 131 

Artists, Ontario Society of 131 

Attitude of Ruling Powers towards Respon 
sible Government 31 

Attractions of Toronto as a Place of Residence 43 

Banks of the City : 

Commerce 53, 193, 194 

Imperial 50, 195, 196 

Montreal 27, 49, 193 

Toronto 47, 195 

Upper Canada 27, 51, llfi, 120, 122, 124 

York County 193 

Various others 50, 193 

Battle of Queenston Heights 23 

Lundy s Lane 24 

Kidgeway 38 

Bay Street, East side 104, 161, 163, 165 

Bay View, Parkdale 172 

Beauty of Toronto s recent Architecture 44 

Beginnings of Political Dissension 26 

of Toronto 5 

" Hensport," corner Church and Shuter 108-9 

lieverley House 27, 53 

Biological Institute 51 

Board of Trade 49, 160 

Brawn and Muscle of the New Settlements. . 12 

Britain Loses the American Colonies 10 

Breboeuf a Martyrdom 8 

linn-k (General) Appears on the Scene 19, 22 

Death of 23 

Burnside Lying-in Hospital 113 

"But ton wood," West on 133, 159 

"Cambie," West Toronto 81 

Canada becomes Self-Sufficing 180 

I airida Land Co 27 

Canada Lite Assurance Co 197 

Canadian Institute 77 

Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 109 

Canal Extension 37 

Castle Frank 18 

Cemeteries of the City 51, 52 

( hamplain s Raid upon the Iroquois 6 

Chief Justices and Chancellors 90 

Cholera Year in Toronto 30 

"Cliorley Park " 42 

t liristian Gurintifin ... 76 

Church Street Wharf Kill, 170 

Churches of the City : 

All Saints (Kpis.) 

Bay St. (Presb.) 

Berkeley St. (Ateth.) 

Beverley *t. (Baptist) 




Bloor St. (Presb.) 23, 85 

(Baptist) 12 

Bond St. (Cong.) 44 

Broadway Tabernacle (Moth ) 82, 119 

Carlton St. (Meth.) 77 

Central (Presb.) 50, 84 

(Meth.) 82 

Chalmers (Presb.) 29, 85 

College St. (Baptist) 30, 82 

Cooke s (Presb.) 70, 83 

Dovercourt (Baptist) 86 

East Presbyterian 87 

Elm St. (Meth.) 83, 88 

Grace Church (Epis.) 95 

Gould St. (Cath. Apost.) 47 

Hazleton Avc. (Cong.) 118 

Holy Trinity (Epis.) 48, 53, 76, 80 

Immanuel (Baptist) 10 

Jarvis St. (Baptist) 77 

(Unitarian) 83 

Knox (Presb.) 47, 52, 09, 71, 7ti 

Metropolitan (Meth.) 10, 50, 62, 70 

New Richmond, MeCaul St. (Meth.) 78 

Northern (Cong.) 27, 70, 78 

Oak St. (Presb.) 69 

Parkdale (Meth.) 84 

Parliament St. (Baptist! 15 

Redeemer, Church of (Epis.) 17 

St. Alban s Cathedral (Epis.) 52 

(Meth.) 76 

St. Andrew s, New (Presb.) 70, 74 

Old (Presb.) 12, 69, 70, 87 

St. George s (Epis.) 47, 53 

St. Helen s (R.C.) G9, 78 

St. James 1 Cathedral (Epis.) 47, 50, 56, 69, 79 

Square (Presb.) 37, 75 

St. John s (Kpis.) 47 

St. Luke s (Epis.) 83 

St. Mark s (Epis.) 81 

St. Michael s Cathedral (R.C.) 47,50,69, 70 

St. Paul s (Epis.) 17,47 

(R.C.) 69 

(Meth.) 35,84 

St. Peter s (Epis.) 47 

St. Stephen s (Epis.) 47, 88 

Sherbourne St. (Meth.) 9,77 

Trinity, The Less (Epis.) 48 

(Meth.) 75 

College Chapel (Epis.) 54 

Walmer Road (Baptist) 70, 84 

Western (Cong.) 120 

Zion, Old (Cong.) 70 

Naw (Cong.) 85 

" Cibola " Steamship n-> 

City, The, and how to see it 49 

The Future, in Simcoe s Day 1C 

Hall, New 42,52 

City s Adornment, The 48 

Homes, The 140 

Hospitals 114 

Charities 114 

Schools and their Cost 116 

Imports and Exports 160 

Citizen does not know his City, The 1 10 

Citizenship no longer a Bond 140 

Clergy Reserves Question, The 26, 31, 35 

Clubs of the City 110, 142 

Colborne, Sir John, Regime of 27, 31 

College of Music, The 131 

Pharmacy 37 

Physicians and Surgeons 104 

Knox (Presb.) 32, 119 

Me M iwter (Baptist) Hall 34, 119 

St. Hilda s .... 119 

College, St. Michael s (R. C.) 52, 73, 120 

Trinity (Epis.) 54, 72, 115, 118 

Upper Canada 27,51, 116, 120, 122, 124 

Wycliffe (Epis.) 51, 119 

College St., Residence on 119 

Collegiate Institute, Jarvis St 51, 123 

Parkdale 124 

Colonial Advocate, The 23 

Commercial Toronto ICO 

Confederation and Civic Expansion 39 

Life Association 197 

Scheme, The 39 

Congress declares War (1812) 22 

Constitutional Act (1791) 14 

Contentment of the Local Toiler 181 

Cornwall, Early Educational Work at 25 

Creation of Upper Canada 14 

" Dale, The," Roscdale 92, 93, 131 

Denominations and their Pastors, The 68 

Dentists and Dentistry 112 

Dominion Day 39 

Don River 16, 20 

" Don Villa" 152 

Dorchester, Lord (Sir Guy Carleton) 13, 15 

Durham, Lord, Report of 35, 55 

Early Church Edifices 47, 69 

Early Legislators and their Enactments 89 

Kaily Physicians 102 

Ecclesiastical Annals 68 

Education and its Professors 115 

Beginnings of 37, 115 

System of Ontario 115 

English Law introduced into U . C 14, 89 

Exhibition Buildings 4fl, 54 

Family Compact, The 26 

Fenian Raids 

Battle of Ridgeway 38 

Monument to Volunteers 3, 21, 51 

Financial Toronto 193 

Fire Brigade 48, 50, 202 

Fish Market (1841) 6 

Founding of the New World. . 

French Canadian Problem, Origin of . . . 13 

Fort Rouille Pillar 5 

Founded (1749) 8 

Destroyed (1757) . . . . 9 

Garrison Crook 18 

Ghent, Treaty of 16. 24 

Gibraltar Point 18 

Gore, Lieut.-Governor, Regime of 19, 22. 25, 27 

Address to Legislature (1809) 

Government House 20, 27, 53, 193 

Grange, The 27, 53, 55, 62 

Hahnemann Villa Ill 

Hanging of Lount and Matthews (1837) 34 

Harbour, The 5, 13, 16, 53 

Healing Art, The, etc 102 

Holland River 17 

Horticultural Gardens 5, 40, 51 

Home District Grammar School . . 20, 26 

Savings & Loan Co 196 

for Incurables 54, 114 

Protestant Orphans 51, I .fi, 27 

- Boys HI 

Girls 114 

Newsboys .............................. 114 

Hospital for sick Children ............... 114 

Homeopathic ....................... 28 

Humber River ........................ 6, 15, 21, 43, 54 

View on ................... ..... 8 

Hurons, Extermination of ..................... 6 




Industrial Toronto 

Iroquois, Raids of, upon Hurons. . . 
Isabella Street, View on 




.larvis Street, Views on 20, 21, 20, 30, 19 

King Street (1831) 22 

Landing Place, Toronto (1841) 7 

La Salle s Expedition 8 

Law Courts, and the Legal Profession, Tlio. . . 89 

Lundy s Lane, Battle of 23 

Mackenzie s Seditious Address (18371 32 

Mail Building, The 53,58 

Maitlancl, Sir Peregrine 25 

Mann, Gother, Map of 21 

Mayor, First, and City Corporation 30 

Medieval Toronto 5 

Men of Gore, The 31 

Montgomery s Tavern, Affray at 33 

Moodie, Col., Death of 34 

Jlonftftri/ Times 67 

Montreal, Burning of Parliament Buildings.. 37 

Moss Park 27 

Mount Pleasant Cemetery 52 

Navy Hall, Niagara 17, 19 

New World, Founding of 5 

Niagara 15, 16, 20 

Normal School 50, 121, 125 

Opera Houses of the City 

Osgoode Hall 



Parliament Buildings 19, 27, 46 

Pioneers Cottage, Exhibition Grounds 8 

Pitt s Bill, (Constitutional Act, 1791) 16 

Police Force 48, 50, 202 

Prince of Wales Visit 38 

Public Men of the Provincial Capital 55 

Queenston Heights, Battle of 23 

Queen s Hotel 49, 60, 152 

Queen s Hangers 16, 17 

Radicals, Early, of York 28, 31 

Railway Era, The 37 

Real Estate, and those who trartic in it 150 

Rebellion, The, of 1837 31 

LossesBill 37 

Gains of 35 


Reciprocity Treaty 37 

Reform resorts to Rebellion 31 

Regimes of Gore, Maitland and Colborne .... 25 

Responsible Government, Efforts at 31, 35 

Revolutionary War 10, 14 

Rossin House 53, 59, 152, 153 

Russell Abbey 2 

Simcoe, Governor 

Hospitalities of 

Erects Castle Frank 

Constructs Yonge Street.. 

Leaves for San Domingo. . . 


Sleepy Hollow 

Strachan, Bishop, Coming of 

St. George Street, East Side 

15, 16 









Telegram, Evening 53 

Toronto in 1803, 1813 ; in 1841 ; in 1854 6, 7, 13, 45 

in Simcoe s Day 16 

in Medieval Times 5 

Belt Railway 54 

Court House 27 

Dundas St. opened 17 

Early Map of 21 

Early Settlement of 19 

Early Defences of 18 

Embryo 10 

Denotes "Place of Meeting" 15,28 

Fort 24,54 

Founded (1793) o 

General Trusts Co 49 

Harbour 5, 13, 16, 53 

Hospital 27, 43, 113 

Incorporated 28 

Island 54, 17!) 

Junction of Front and Wellington St. 14 

Occidental 51 

of To-day, The 42 

Pass of 7 

Palace, The 27 

Public Library 50 

Queen City of West 18 

Raided and Sacked 23 

Rosedale, Views in 11, 14 

St. Lawrence Market 25 

Street 19 


Toronto Street Nomenclature 18 

Topographical and Descriptive 49 

Toronto Street 19 

Volunteers Monument . ! - (. .il 

Yonge St . opened 17 

Torydom and the High Prerogative Era 29 

Upper Canada Established 13, 15 

First Officials of 10 

Legislature 17, 19, 20 

Early Postal Facilities of 21 

Invaded (1812) 22 

Slavery in 22 

College 27, 51, 116, 120. 122, 124 

U. E. Loyalists enter Canada 11, 12 

Sacrifices for the Flag 11, 12 

and the Founding of the Province 9 

University of Toronto 3, 51, 57, BO, 68, 117 

Trinity rl, 72, 115, 118 

Victoria 44 

Union, The, the Railway Era, etc 35 

Victoria Club, The, 140 

Volunteers Monument 3, 24, 51 

\Valker House 58, l.V! 

War of Independence 10, 14 

- 1812 16, 22 

Inequalities of the Struggle 22 

- Closed 24 

Week, The 99 

West Toronto Junction 203 

Wiman Baths 54 

Women s Medical College 18 

Yacht Club, Royal Canadian 54 

York, at the Close of the War 25 

described in 1797 20 

During the War of 1812 22 

Early Growth of 18 

Events which preceded the founding of 13 

First Churches at 21, 27, 68 

Material Advancement of 2li 

Muddy Little 27 

Pioneers Cottage 8 

Royal Town of 20 

Situation of 20 

Social Progress of 22 



Abell, John 186 

Acme Silver Co 189, 190 

Adams, Dr J. G 112,113 

Dr. W. C 113 

Aikens, Dr. W. T 103, 104, 105 

Alexander, Rev. John 80 

J., Jr 192 

Allan, A. A 123, 162, 163, 101 

- &Co 162,163 

- Jas. D 163 

Senator Geo. W 41,114, 118,134 

Ardagh, Richard 202 

Arlidge, J. Churchill 135, 136 

Armour, E. D 101, 173 

Armstrong, Adam 54, 150 

Arnoldi, Frank 99 


Arthur, Sir Geo 

Ashdown, Edwin 139 

Sydney 139 

Ashfleld, The late Jas 202 

Atkinson, William P 101 

Aylesworth, A. B 95 

Ayre, John 153,180 

Badgerow, G. W 95 

Bagot, Sir Chas 37 

Bailer, John R 147 

Bain, Jas., Jr 50 

John 9* 

Baird, Hugh N 167, 200 

Baker, Prof. Alfred 118 

Baldwin, Dr. W. W 21 


Baldwin, Hon. Robert 22,34,81 

- Rev. A. H 81 

Ball, Dr. Jerrold 10!), 1 10 

Bank of Toronto 47, 195 

Banks, G. W 155, 156 

Barber & Ellis Co 105, 100 

James 165 

JohnR 166 

Barclay, The late Rev. Dr 0!) 

Barrett, Dr. (the late) 110 

Barrick, Dr. Eli 107 

Barton, Dr. S. G. T 109, 113 

Bates, Rev. S. S 82 

Beaty, Dr. Jas 41, 110 

Robert 200 

Beatty, W. H 19.-. 





Bell, Win 156, 157 

Bengough, .1. W 130 

Thomas 13(1 

Benson, Senator 195 

Rev. Manly 82 

Bethune.Bp 68 

The late James 91 

Bigelow, X. G 97 

Blake, ( -hancellor 90 

Hon. Edward 02, 93, 118 

Blackmail. F. V 1118 

Blackstock, G. T 93 

Bleasdell. \V. H 166 

Blue, Archibald (Hi 

Body, Rev. Provost 72, 118 

Bostwick, Geo. F 191,198 

Boswell, A. R 41 

Bowser, Rev. A. T 83 

Bouchette, Surveyor-General 15 

Boulton, W. H 41 

D Arcy 22 

Boustead, Jas. B 202 

Bowes, John G 41 

Boyd, Chancellor 90, 134 

Boys, The late Rev. Prof 80 

Boxall, James 177 

Bradley, Mrs. S. R 137 

Brock, Sir Isaac 19, 22, 23 

W. R 200 

Broughall, Rev. A. J 88 

Brown, lion. Geo 38,51 

K. B 173 

M. F 168 

F. D 150 

Brown & Love 150 

Bruce, Josiah 174 

Bryce, J. Fraser 175 

J)r. P. H 108 

Bunting, C. W 33, 200 

Burke, Edmund 148 

Burns, Capt 143 

Dr. J. H 105 

Rev. Dr. R 69 

Burritt, Dr. H. C 108, 109 

Burton, Judge 92,200 

Rev. John 70, 77, 78 

Butler, E. W. D 156,157 

Cameron, The late Chief-Justice Sir -M. C... 90 

Rev. J. M 87 

Campbell, Chief Justice 

Lieut.-Govcrnor 55 

Donald 158, 159, 175 

John 129 

Campbell s Block 203 

Canada Life Assurance Co 53, 198 

Photo-Engraving Bureau 192 

Canadian Bank of Commerce 53. 193, 191, 195 

College of Commerce 130 

Canniff, Dr. W 102, 103 

Carlyle, Dr. Jas 126, 127 

Carpmael, Prof 122 

Carruthers, James 145 

Carswell, Robt 172, 173 

R. & Co 173 

Carter, John 132, 137 

Cart wright, Richard 17, 25 

Caven, Principal . . 72, 119 

Cawthra, John 65 

Cayley, Frank 154 

Rev. J. D 155 

( haiineey. Commodore 23 

Chisholm, Col 31 

Christie, Win 38, HO, 187 

Hi-own & Co 176, 186 

Clark, J. F 168 

Levi J l-. S 

Rev. Prof 72,73 

W. Mortimer 119 

Clarke, Herbert L 138 

Mayor 4 1 , 5s. 59 

Clarkson, James 152, 172 

Clement. W. II. P 99 


Clendenan. Dr. G. W 207 

D. W 204,205 

Colborne, Sir John 27, :il 

Collins, Surveyor General 15 

II. Guest 135 

Commerce, Bank of 63, 193, 194, 19.5 

Confederation Life Association 53, 200 

Conger Coal Co 168, 169, 170 

P. D 168 

Conservatory of Music 132 

Copland Brewing Co 198 

Copp, John C 188, 189, 190 

Cosby, A. Morgan 12B, 134, 142, 143 

Cosgrave Brewing Co 191, 197 

Lawrence 191 

Coulson, Duncan 195 

Cowan, Mrs. R. L 207 

Cox, Geo. A 142, 145, 200 

- E. W 143,115 

Crane & Baird 167 

Crawford, The late Lt.-Gov 58 

Cringan, A. T 137,138 

Crooks, lion. Adam 34 

Davidson, John 1 143, 195 

Davis, Prof. J. F 139 

Dearborn, General 23 

DeCharbonnel, Bishop 120 

Def ries, Samuel H 147, 152 

Denison, Lt.-Col. G. T 202 

G. T., Sr 30 

Dennis, Col. J. S 149 

Depew, G. A 138 

Dewart, Rev. Dr. E. H 76 

Dewey, D. R 168 

Dickson, Principal 120, 122 

W 22 

Casimir 143 

Dinnick, C. R. S 151, 160 

Dininny, F. C 168 

Doan, R. W 128 

Dodd, A. W 121 

Dominion Saw and Lead Works 183 

Douglas, W. J 117 

Draper, Chief- Justice 37, 90 

Drayton, P. H 101 

Drury, Hon. C. A (i(i 

Duggan,E.H 142 

DuMoulin, Rev. Canon 79 

Duncan, J 100 

Duncan-Clark, S. C 200, 201 

Durham, Lord 35, 39, 55 

Dwight, H. P , llio 

Dyas, T. W 118 

Dymond, Mrs. A. M. (Miss E. S. MeUislU . . .13, 137 

Kdgar, J. D 201 

Elgin, Lord 35, 38 

Ellerby, Rev. T. S 70 

Elliott, Wm 201 

House 153, 180 

Ellis, Jas. A 205 

- JohnF 166 

Elmsiey, Chief -Justice 89 

Embree, L. E 124, 125 

Kmory, Dr. W. J. H Ill 

K(|iiily Chambers 173 

Falconhridge, Judge 91 

Faulkner, George 157. 15,^ 

Ferguson. J. H 101 

Fisher, Edward 134 

Fitch, John C 1 13 

- & Davidson 143 

Fitzgibbon, Col 31 

Foy, J. J .W, 97, 191! 

- John 116 

Fraser, Hon. C. F n:: 

Fulton, A. T 195, 200 

Fyfe, The late Rev. Dr 70, 120 

Geikie, Dr. W. B 103, 101, 105 

Genereux, L. O. P 157, 15S 

George, James 183 

German, Rev. J. F 81 


Gibbs, Malcolm 200, 201 

Gibson, Hon. J . M 64, 65 

Ralph 16S 

Gilbert, Thos 204, 205 

Gilmour, Dr. Jno. T 204 

Going, Chas. C 206 

Goldie & McCulloch 191 

Gooderham, Geo 134, 195 

E. G 188 

W . G 195 

Goodspeed, Rev. Dr 85, 88 

Gordon, Mackay & Co 102, 163 

John (the late) 162 

Gore, Lieut.-Governor 19, 21, 26 

Gourlay, Robt 28 

Gowan, Senator 97 

Graham, J. J 157, 159 

Grasett, the late Dean 50 

Licut.-Colonel H. J 202 

(li-iissiek, Mrs 137 

Gray, Solicitor-General 16 

Greene, Columbus II 99 

Greenwood, Percy V 138 

Gregg, Rev. Dr 70 

Gurd.Geo 176,206 

Gzowski, Sir C. S .. . 59.200 

Hagarty, Chief Justice 68, 90 

Hahnemann Villa 111 

Hall, Dr. John 110,112 

- Dr. John B HI 

Hallam. John 42, 166, 167 

Hardy, Hon. A. S... ....63,61 

Harman, S. B 41 

Harris, Alfred 117, 150 

Rev. Jas ti9 

Rev. Elmore 84 

- Miss S. M. M 136 

Harrison, Chief Justice 64, 90, 91, 97 

J. W. F 131.135 

Mrs. (Seranus) 135 

Harvie, John 173, 174 

Hay, Robert, & Co 190 

- Edward 196 

Head, Sir F. B ..27,31,35 

Sir Edmund 

Heighlngton, Joseph 100 

Heintzman, T. A 188, 189 

& Co 1S9 

Henderson, Elmes 134 

J 195 

Hcndry. Andrew 129 

W. J 129 

Hickson, E 166 

Duncan & Co K>l> 

Higgins, Miss Lizzie 137 

Hills, R 198 

Hime, H. L 198 

& Co 198 

Hincks, Sir Francis . . 200 

Hirst, John 153 

J. W 1* 

Hodgins, Thos ..21,64 

Homeopathic Hospital .. 112 

Home Savings and Loan C o .. 196 

Hooper, Edward. 

Hoover, Jacob H 201 

& Jackson 201 

Hoskin, Dr. John 92.93.101,130 

Alfred 97 

Howard, the late J G 51 

Howitt, Dr. W.H HI, 112 

Howland, Sir W. P 143, 200 

H. S 195, 1% 

O. A 98, 99 

W. II 41, ! S. Ill 

Moylc.-,. X. W 91 

Hughes.J.L 1- " 

Hunt, V. P 137 

Hunter, Hon. Peter 19 

l!.-\. Dr. W..T 77 

Imperial Bank of Canada 195, 196 



Ireland. A. II. 

Jackson, J. T. ... 
Jacques & lla.\ 
.JattYuy, Robert, . 
Jameson, Mrs. . 

.lanes, S. U 

Jar\ is, Col 

Wm . 

. . 204 

. . 190 

.. 196 


KU, 114 

Jeffrey, Itcv. T. \V 78 

Jennings, the late Itev. l)r 

B I M 

\V. T 118, UO 

.lolinston. Rev. Dr. H 75 

E. F. H 66 

Jones, Rev. Prof .79, 80, 119 

Augustus 15 

Kellogg, Her. Dr 75 

Kenny, J. J 200 

Kent, Duke of 21 

Kerr, J. K 93, 96, 134 

Ketchum, Jesse 69 

Kiely, W. T , 196 

King, Dr 107,108 

Kingsford, K. K 101 

Kingsmill, Nicol 101 

Kirklaml, Principal 121, 125 

Lakcvinw Hotel 153, 180 

Lanceley, Rev. J. K 78, 79 

Langley, Ben.i 148, 154 

Henry 148 

Langton. H. H 118 

Langtry, Itcv. Dr 

Lash, X. A 101 

Laughton, Peter .. .205, 206 

Leach, Hugh 195 

Lee, W. S - 01 

_ F. G 158, 159 

Lennox, Isaac ...155,156 

E. J .... 148 

Leslie, Geo., Sr 171 

Geo., & Son 172 

- Aid. J. K ...159, 171 172 

Leys, John 195 

Lillie, the late Itev. Dr . .. 70 

Lindsey, Charles 67,133.159 

Lloyd, Rev. Prof 80 

London, Prof. Jas ...122 131 

Lou nt, \V m 92 

Love, H. G 150 

Lucas, Henry . 151, 107, 179 

Clarence 135.131) 

_ lime 135, 131! 

Lynch, Archbishop . 69 

McAllister, Samuel 127, 128 

McHean. John 150 

McCann, Father 

McCarthy, IV Alton 91,92 

Maefarthy, Hamilton ...132, 133 

McCaul, Rev. Dr. John 46, 118 

McClain, Robert 182 

McConnell.Dr -. 05,317 

McDonagli, Dr. G. It 103 

McGaw. Thomas 142, 152 

McGee, Thos. D Arcy .... 40 

McGregor, the late Prof 

Mclntyre, J. J 57, 15.", Walter 92 

McLean, Chief Justice 34, 90 

Thomas 103, 161 

McLellan, Dr. J. A 125,121! 

Ik-Muster, the late Senator. .. . ... 70,120 

McMurray, Mrs. J . S 

McMurrich, the late Hon. John 200 

W. B 41, 111, 131 

George 200 

McTavish, Rev. Daniel si, 85 

Macanlay. Chief Justice 90, 103 

Dr 102, 103 

Macdonald, Sir J. A 38,39. 40. . in. 91 

the, late Senator John 51, 67 


Maedonald, John & Co 161, 162 

A. F 128 

E. A 155,156 

J. K 201,202 

W. C 201 

Mrs. Grant 112 

Macdonncll, Rev. D. J, 74 

Colonel 17,23 

Macdongall, Judge 202 

Macfarlane, J. F. M 192 

McKinley & Co 192 

Macintyre, Dr. T. M 125, 126 

Mackay, Donald 162 

Mackenzie, Wm. Lyon 27, 28. 34 

Hon. Alex 57 

MaeLaren. Itev. Prof 79 

Maclennan, Mr. Justice 131 

MacMath, Hugh . . . 155. l.Ki 

MacMurchy, Principal 51, 123 

Mae Nab, Sir Allan 31 

Macphcrson, Sir D. 1 60.200 

Magann, G. P 149, 150, 155 

Magill, \Vm 127 

Mail Printing Co 53, 58 

Maitland, Sir P 27 

Mallon, John 177, 178 

Maloney, John 152, 171 

Manley, F. F 126 

Manning, Aid 14 

Marling, Rev. F. H 70 

Marsh, A. H 93,94,101 

Marshall, Noel 151 

Martland, John 124 

Mason, Major Jas ... . . 196, 197 

Massey Manufacturing Co 185 

H. A 185, 186, 187 

C. D 185 

W. E 121, 185 

Matthews, W. D 145 

Mellish, Miss E. S. (Mrs. A. M. Dymond). . .136. 137 
Meredith, Wm. R 62,101 

.Mcrritt.T.ll ...195,196 

Metcalfe, Lord 

Micklcthwaitc, F. W 175, 177 

Middleton, General-.-- 197 

Millard, Alex 179 

Miller, W. N 

Milligan, Rev. G. M 

Mockridge, Rev. Dr 

M.mck, Lord 

Moore, I. F 

Morris, Jas. H. (the late) 

Morrison, L. A 141,116,182 

James 184,185 

Mrs. Daniel 46 

Brass Works 185 

Moodie, Col 

Moss the late Chief Justice 90,91 

Charles 91,92.101 

Mouat-Biggs, J. M 

Mountain, Bishop 

Mowat. Hon. O 

Mulock.Wm 65,118 

Murdoch, Kenneth 

& Wilson 158 

Mutch, Rev. John . . 85, 86 


. 70, 87 

. 38, 40 

. 192 



Ogden, Dr. W. W 106, 107, 114 

O Grady, G. de C 195 

O Keefe, Eugene 191, 196 

Ontario Holt Co 1S3 

Coal Co 168, Ifi9 

Lead and Barh Wire Co 183, 184 

( >sgoode, Chief Justice 16, 17, 89 

Osier, B. B 91 

Mr. Justice 91 

O Sullivan, Dr. D. A 131 

Otter, Lt.-Col. W. D 54 

Papineau, L. J 

Parker, Rev. Dr 

A. J 

Parsons, Rev. Dr 

Passmore, F. F 

Patterson, Rev. \\ m.. 


...189, 190 


.... Ill) 

Patton, the late Hon. Jas ...................... 91, 97 

Pearcy, Sanderson ............................ un. 147 

Pearson, Rev. John ............................ 80, 81 

Pease Furnace Co ........................... 184, igg 

Pellatt, Henry ............................... 134 

Phillips, Rev. A. M ........................... 34 

Pike, Brigadier ............................... -\ 

Plummer, J. H ................................ 195 

Poison Iron Works .......................... ]gl 



Potts, Rev. Dr 
Powell, Chief Justice ........ 

Alderman ..................... 

Power, Bishop 

Proctor, General 

Punshon, Rev. Dr ............................. 50, 70 

Pyne, Dr ........................................ 102 

Queen City Oil Works ..................... 190,191 

Queen s Hotel ................................. 60, 152 


Ramsay, A. G 

W. T. . . 



Rand, Prof. T. H 121, 122 

Read, David B 11 

Reeve, Principal W. A 101 

Reid, Rev. Dr. W 73 

Richards, Chief-Justice 90 

Richardson (Richards, Sims) 139 

Riordon, Charles 41 

Mrs. John 48 

Roaf , Rev. John 70 

Robb. C. C 162 

Rogers, Elias 120, 167. 168 

I01ias& Co IBS, 169 

Samuel 191 

Samuel & Co 190 

Robertson, J. E 112 

John Ross 112,114 

James & Co 183, 184 

Rnhinson, Chief-Justice Sir J. B 25, 29, 53, 90 

Christopher 91,1111 

Hon. J. B 2, 41, 121 

Mrs. John B 46 

The late W. S 177 

Rolph, Hon. Dr 29, 33, 35, 103 

Nairn, Alex " 

_ A.&S 1G9, 

Nash, W. H - 

Nelson Brothers 

Nevitt, Dr. R. B 

Newcombe, Octavius 

Piano Co 87, 

Dr. Jas 

Newman, Rev. Prof 

Nordheimer, S 

Norwich. Joseph 

Notman & Fraser 174. 

O Brien, Henry 

O Dea, Connor 





, 97 

Ross, Dr. James 

- Dr. J. F. \V 

Hon.G. W 

Hon. Col. A.M. 





Rossin House 59. l.v_>, 1.13 

Russell, Hon. Peter 15, 17, 2(1 

Abbey 4.111 

Ryerson, Rev. Dr. K. It he late) 133 

Dr. G. S ...3!l, 107.131 

Saiidwcll, Rev. G. II 85 

Scadding, Rev, Dr. II 1,18,26,76,121 

E. A 134 

Selioff, Elgin 10". 101 

Scott, H. J ...98,182 

Seath, John 30 

Shaw, GI-JI. .Kneas - L 81 

Slieai-d, llr. Charles 108 





Shepard, \\"in. A 173, 174 

Sheppard Publishing: ( <> 147 

Sheraton, Rev. Principal Hit 

Sheridan, John T 185 

Joseph B 185 

Shuttleworth, Prof 109 

simcoe, Lt. -Governor 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 

Simpson, Robert 144, 146, 164 

Herbert K 175 

Small, John 17 

Smith, A. M 164, 165. -Jill) 

Alfred \V . (II 

I). W 1C, 20 

Hon. Senator Frank 63, 117, 196 

Prof. Oolchvin 53, 55, 61, 133 

Itev. Ira 86 

.las. K 41 

Dr. M. 112 

and Keighley Kit 

Solio Machine Works 182 

Somerville, A. J 183 

Spears, John I) 206 

Spragge, Chancellor 90 

Dr. K. W 103, 142 

Stafford, Rev. Dr 77 

Stanley, Lord 142 

Stanton, Kldridge 171, 17") 

Stan-, Rev. J. K 82 

Stewart, St iirgron 147, 151 

St. John, J. W 100 

Stovve, Mrs. Dr. Emily H 110 

Strachan, Bishop 24, 25, 29, 50, 68, 69 

Strange, Dr. F. W 10,1. 1 1 1 

smart, Deputy Chief 202 

Rev. J. Okill 21, 68 

Sullivan, Hon. R. B 41, 92 

Sutherland, Rev. Dr. Alex 86 

Rev. Dr. D. G 88 

Sweatman, Bishop 52, 71 


Sweetnam, Dr. L. M 108, 109 

sydeiiham, Lord 3G, 37 

Symonds, Rev. I rof 80 

Taylor, J. & J 182,183 

Jno. McP 1H1 

Tecunisch. Chief 23 

Teefy, Rev. Father 73 

Thomas, Rev. Dr 77 

Thomson, Rev. C. E 81 

I). E 9S 

Thorne, Richard 147, 149 

Horace 100 

Threlkeld, J. J 156 

Thuresson, Eyre 201, 202 

Tilt, The late James 95 

Topp, the late Rev. Dr. Alex 74, 75, 76 

Toronto, Bank of 47,195 

Radian ir Manul ac. Co 191 

Safe Works 182, 183 

Silver Plate Co 189,190 

Stock Exchange 198 

Torrington, F. W 132,133 

Tully, Kivas 54 

Unwin, Charles 149 

Vankoughnet, Chancellor . . 

Mrs. Matthew. 

Victoria Club 

57, 90 

... 207 

110, 142 

Walker, H. K 195 

House 53,153 

David 153 





Warrington, Fred 136 

Wallace, Rev. W. G 

Walsh, Archbishop 

Ward, John J 

Warriner, W. A 


Watson, George H 95, 96 

Wedd, Win lil 

Welton, Rev. Dr. I). M 85 

West, Thomas 1S2 

Wcstrn Assurance Co 164, 165, 19)1, 200 

West-wood, B 170,171 

White, Attorney-General 16, 89 

Whitby, R. O 159 

Wiekens, R 201 

Widmer, Dr. C 102 

Willis, Rev. Principal 72 

Williams. II. H 155 

A. R 182 

Wilkie, D. R 195, 196 

Willmott, Dr. .1. B 112 

Wilson. Sir Daniel BO, 61, 114, 118 

Sir Adam 41 

Thomas 158 

Wiman, Erastns 54, 158 

Winnett, Henry l.V. 

Women s Medical College 18, 110 

Wood, Chief- Justice 64 

T. R 183 

Hon. S. C 200 

Woods, J. W 162 

M. J 178, 192 

Woolen, Frank 174 

Workman, Dr. Jos 103 

Worts, J. G 113 

Wright, John 153 

Wyld, Frederick 161 

Grasett & Dai-ling 47, Kil, 162 

Yarkcr, G. W 

Yeo, Sir James 

Yonge, Sir Frederick. 
Y r ork, Duke of. 



Yorke, the late Lionel 151, 152 

Young, John 179